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Surgery Health Feed

Gummy Smile Treatments!

Dr. Anju Thomas 85% (11 ratings)
BDS, MDS Prosthodontics
Dentist, Bangalore
Gummy Smile Treatments!

Gummy smile -

 Smiles that shows an excessive amount of gum greater than 3 mm under the upper lip while speaking and smiling is considered as a gummy smile 

An Esthetic Problem or Something More?

1.Abnormal dental eruption 

2.Hyperfunction of upper lip elevator muscle

3.The excessive vertical growth of maxillary bone 

4.Short upper lip

Treatment-

1. Botox injections have been successful, but the result last only for six months   the material is injected into the hyperactive muscle to reduce their activity 

2. Orthognathic surgery- bimaxillary  orthognathic surgery to reposition the maxilla upwards  and remove excess gum, this procedure require hospitalization

3.Orthodontics 

4. Surgical lip repositioning results in Shallow vestibule restricting the muscle pull thereby limiting gingival display during smiling

5.Crown lengthening and Crown placement

1 person found this helpful

Achalasia - What Causes It?

Dr. Mankindd Hospital 88% (272 ratings)
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Achalasia - What Causes It?

Achalasia is a very rare disease. Normally, your esophagus squeezes food down by making the muscular valve in between the stomach and esophagus relax. Achalasia occurs when this muscular valve is unable to relax and thus the esophagus is unable to squeeze the food down. The most common reason why this happens is because the nerves in your esophagus are damaged. The nerves most commonly get damaged because of abnormalities in the way your immune system responds. Till now, there is no cure to achalasia; however surgery or minimally invasive therapy can make the symptoms of achalasia more manageable.

Here are all the causes and symptoms of achalasia:

Symptoms

1.  Difficulty swallowing
The difficulty you face when swallowing food is the most common symptom of achalasia. Both liquid as well as solid food will be hard to swallow.

2.  Regurgitation
If the food is regurgitating in the night, then the lungs may have been inhaling some food. This is very serious and you should see the doctor immediately if this occurs.

3.  Chest pain
You may suddenly experience chest pain from a completely unknown cause. 

4.  Weight loss
You may also suffer from sudden weight loss if you have achalasia. This is due to the reduced amount of food you will be consuming.

5.  Heartburn
Heartburn is when you have a very intense burning pain in your chest just behind your breastbone which is most commonly caused by regurgitation in your esophagus. 

Causes

The exact cause of achalasia is not yet known. However, there are some theories on what causes achalasia. Here they are.

1.  Genes
The most common cause of achalasia is genes. 

2.  Autoimmune disease
An autoimmune disease is when your immune system attacks your body's own cells. Achalasia is a type of autoimmune disease.

3.  Infection
There have also been a lot of claims that infections are the cause of achalasia.

1 person found this helpful

Endocrine Surgery - Must Know Facts About It!

Dr. Om Prakash Prajapati 86% (12 ratings)
MBBS, MS General Surgery, MCh Endocrine Surgery
General Surgeon, Varanasi
Endocrine Surgery - Must Know Facts About It!

All the surgical operations performed on any of the endocrine glands come under the roof of endocrine surgery. Endocrine glands function as hormone secretor and have a major impact on the normal functioning of all the cells of body. Endocrine surgeons expertise in treating and operating either thyroid glands or parathyroid glands or adrenal glands or endocrine pancreas or neuro-endocrine glands. Duties of Endocrine surgeons range from initial diagnosis to examination of endocrine disorders. They further collaborate with pathologists, geneticists, radiologists, anesthetists and contribute in higher researches related to endocrine glands.

A brief about thyroid surgery
It is one of the most common endocrine surgeries. Symptoms that suggest a person shall undertake a thyroid surgery

  1. A lump which can be a malignant tumor in disguise. A fine needle biopsy of the lump is performed to detect the chances of tumor.
  2. goitre which may be indicated by hindrance in breathing, persistent coughand difficulty in wallowing. This may cause load on adjacent organs.
  3. A retrosternal goiter.

Following operations are performed during thyroid surgery

  1. Bilateral subtotal thyroidectomyFor eleminating major part of thyroid except both part of lobes.
  2. Hemithyroidectomy: For eleminating half of thyroid
  3. Total thyroidectomy: For exclusion of entire thyroid
  4. Removal of thyroid nodule: Cutting out a lump from the thyroid

The procedure for thyroid surgery

The patient undertaking thyroid surgery is given either general anesthesia or local anesthesia. The surgery starts with making an incision, in front of the neck. This cut is made at about 2 - 3cm above collarbone. Then the muscles are divided so that the thyroid can be cut out. This entire operation is to be carried out with utmost care and attention so that parathyroid glands and voice box are unharmed.

Complexities involved in thyroid surgery

  1. While undergoing a thyroid surgery, chances of experiencing chest infection, infection due to anesthetics,heart problems, blood clotting, cut infections still persist.
  2. If bleeding continues post the surgery, it may result in swollen throat. Normal breathing may also be hampered. If during the operation, the voice box is damaged, it may result in hoarseness of the voice.
  3. Damage to the parathyroid glands may cause decrement in level of calcium in blood.
  4. If the scar tissue grows abnormally, it may result in surgical scar.

Remedies for the above complications

  1. Effects due to the damage to the voice box can be diminished by utilizing speech therapy. An additional surgery of the vocal cords can also be an option.
  2. One can overcome the drop in the level of calcium by taking calcium and vitamin D tablets.
  3. Surgical scars can be treated with the aid of steroid injections or silicone gel tape.

Fistula-In-Ano - Ayurvedic Management & Surgery (Ksharsutra) For It!

Dr. Sukrant Sharma 97% (137 ratings)
Ms - Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Jammu
Fistula-In-Ano - Ayurvedic Management & Surgery (Ksharsutra) For It!

Fistula-in-Ano is a type of an abnormal hollow cavity that is lined with granulation tissue. It connects a primary opening inside the anal canal to the second opening in the perianal skin. Ayurveda has perfect surgical techniques which can help you root out this problem without leaving any chances of recurrence.

Kshar Sutra is basically an ayurvedic parasurgical treatment that involves management of Anorectal disorders for treating Fistula-in-Ano. The technique is minimally invasive in nature. Following are some of the tips related to the Ayurvedic Management & Kshar Sutra in Fistula-in-Ano:

Safe and Extremely Cost-Effective: This type of surgery uses a thread, also known as Kshar Sutra, especially prepared by herbal chemical cauterization. Cauterization is the medical practice of getting part of the body burnt, for either removing or closing off a particular part to cure diseases like Fistula-in-Ano. Hence, people can safely go for this treatment procedure because there is absolutely no risk element involved. Moreover, as the use of thread is involved in treating the problem, so basically, the minimum expense is involved. So, patients need not pay much.

Customized Treatment: Usually, three kinds of Kshar Sutra get used, depending upon the number of coatings and the quality of materials implemented. Coatings are created with ayurvedic herbs and treatment for each and every patient takes place in a customized manner depending upon their individual requirements.

Can Get Rid of Other Disorders: While undergoing the Kshar Sutra treatment for Fistula-in-Ano, patients are even routinely investigated with a special type of reference for any other associated disorder like Hypertension, Tuberculosis, Diabetes Mellitus etc.

So, Kshar Sutra not only helps people to get relief from the problem of Fistula-in-Ano but also assists in getting rid of other associated problems.

  • Maintenance of Diet as Part of Ayurvedic Management: Those patients, who suffer from the painful disease of Fistula-in- Ano, Ayurveda instructs them to maintain a healthy diet in the form of fruits and vegetables. On the contrary, they must avoid the excess amount of spicy foods, along with items that cause constipation and even make sure to not have too much of garlic, chillies and potato.
  • Keep Yourself Hydrated: Drinking plenty of water is extremely essential as this helps to clear off the channels and also allow people to flush off stools and toxins from the body.
1 person found this helpful

After Surgery Pain - How To Treat It?

Dr. R.S. Rengan 82% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, DNB - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Chennai
After Surgery Pain - How To Treat It?

The word 'surgery' is often dreaded by most patients. Be it an invasive oral surgery or a keyhole gallbladder surgery, it does not evoke a ready "yes" in most patients. There are too many patients who are ready to be on long-term medications if they could avoid the surgery and its complications. While there could be swelling, bruising, tingling, and many other symptoms, the one feared by most is the postoperative pain. What happens after the effect of the anesthetic wears off can leave many patients in a very anxious and fearful state. The trick is to prepare oneself - not just for the surgery but for the after effects.


Before the surgery, a detailed discussion with the doctor on the following is very important:


-  Complete list of medications including supplements so that the medications used during and after surgery to avoid any potential drug interactions


-  Type and severity of the pain - This will help you anticipate and be prepared for the pain after the surgery.


-  Pain tolerance/threshold - Letting your doctor know your tolerance levels can help them prescribe an appropriate pain killer

 

After the surgery, the following are some ways to cope with the pain:
-  Pain killers - Don't wait for the anesthesia effect to completely wear out. Take the pain killer much before the pain starts so that the onset of pain is delayed or nullified.  For severe cases, opioids may be used to manage immediate postoperative pain.  However, in most cases, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories like ibuprofen are used. They may also be used up to a few days after surgery to ease the pain and inflammation, depending on the type of surgery.


-  Topical creams/lotions - In cases involving skin incisions, these help reduce the pain in the skin along the incision.


-  Compression stockings - In addition to reducing blood clot, they also reduce pain in the legs.

 

-  Physiotherapy - If there is a joint involved, doing physiotherapy after surgery is extremely beneficial. In addition to reducing pain, they also help improve mobility.


-  Sleep - Sufficient sleep (more than you normally would) promotes healing and helps your ability to cope with the pain.


-  Heating pads and ice packs - If these are your regular remedies for pain, feel free to use them even in postsurgical pains.


-  Reduce Stress - This will help you cope better with the pain and heal faster.


A given patient and a given surgery are a unique combination. No two patients will react the same way to a particular surgery. Postsurgical pain can be managed very effectively with a little planning.

Non-Surgical Jaw Slimming Procedure!

Dr. Punit Dubey 91% (117 ratings)
MDS - Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Ghaziabad
Non-Surgical Jaw Slimming Procedure!

Non-surgical jaw slimming is one of the best available treatment for getting a V- shape jaw. One of the main reason of bulge below ear is due to excessive masseter muscle (helps in chewing) which can be due to genetics, diet, tobacco/pan chewing, teeth positions etc. Injection is giving into the muscle to reduce its activities which cause in the reduction in size. It is also an excellent treatment for relieving jaw pain and tooth grinding which affects TM Joint. The procedure takes a few minutes with zero downtime.

All About Inguinal Hernia!

Dr. Swarup Kumar Ghosh 89% (82 ratings)
MD - Bio-Chemistry, MF Homeo (London), DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery), BHMS
Homeopath, Kolkata

Overview
An inguinal hernia occurs when tissue, such as part of the intestine, protrudes through a weak spot in the abdominal muscles. The resulting bulge can be painful, especially when you cough, bend over or lift a heavy object. An inguinal hernia isn’t necessarily dangerous. It doesn’t improve on its own, however, and can lead to life-threatening complications. Your doctor is likely to recommend surgery to fix an inguinal hernia that’s painful or enlarging. Inguinal hernia repair is a common surgical procedure.

Symptoms-
Inguinal hernia signs and symptoms include:

  • A bulge in the area on either side of your pubic bone, which becomes more obvious when you’re upright, especially if you cough or strain
  • A burning or aching sensation at the bulge
  • Pain or discomfort in your groin, especially when bending over, coughing or lifting
  • A heavy or dragging sensation in your groin
  • Weakness or pressure in your groin
  • Occasionally, pain and swelling around the testicles when the protruding intestine descends into the scrotum


Incarcerated hernia
If you aren’t able to push a hernia in, the contents of a hernia can be trapped (incarcerated) in the abdominal wall. An incarcerated hernia can become strangulated, which cuts off the blood flow to the tissue that’s trapped. A strangulated hernia can be life-threatening if it isn’t treated.

Signs and symptoms of a strangulated hernia include:

  • Nausea, vomiting or both
  • Fever
  • Sudden pain that quickly intensifies
  • A hernia bulge that turns red, purple or dark
  • Inability to move your bowels or pass gas

Signs and symptoms in children-
Inguinal hernias in newborns and children result from a weakness in the abdominal wall that’s present at birth. Sometimes the hernia will be visible only when an infant is crying, coughing or straining during a bowel movement. He or she might be irritable and have less appetite than usual.
In an older child, a hernia is likely to be more apparent when the child coughs, strains during a bowel movement or stands for a long period.

Causes-
Some inguinal hernias have no apparent cause. Others might occur as a result of:

  • Increased pressure within the abdomen
  • A pre-existing weak spot in the abdominal wall
  • A combination of increased pressure within the abdomen and a pre-existing weak spot in the abdominal wall
  • Straining during bowel movements or urination
  • Strenuous activity
  • Pregnancy
  • Chronic coughing or sneezing


Risk factors-
Factors that contribute to developing an inguinal hernia include:

  • Being male. Men are eight times more likely to develop an inguinal hernia than are women.
  • Being older. Muscles weaken as you age.
  • Being white.
  • Family history. You have a close relative, such as a parent or sibling, who has the condition.
  • A chronic cough, such as smoking.
  • Chronic constipation. Constipation causes straining during bowel movements.
  • Pregnancy. Being pregnant can weaken the abdominal muscles and cause increased pressure inside your abdomen.
  • Premature birth and low birth weight.
  • Previous inguinal hernia or hernia repair. Even if your previous hernia occurred in childhood, you’re at higher risk of developing another inguinal hernia.

Complications-
Complications of an inguinal hernia include:

  • Pressure on surrounding tissues-  Most inguinal hernias enlarges over time if not repaired surgically. In men, large hernias can extend into the scrotum, causing pain and swelling.
  • Incarcerated hernia- If the contents of a hernia become trapped in the weak point in the abdominal wall, it can obstruct the bowel, leading to severe pain, nausea, vomiting, and the inability to have a bowel movement or pass gas.
  • Strangulation- An incarcerated hernia can cut off blood flow to part of your intestine. Strangulation can lead to the death of the affected bowel tissue. A strangulated hernia is life-threatening and requires immediate surgery.

Treatment-

  • Open hernia repair- In this procedure, which might be done with local anesthesia and sedation or general anesthesia, the surgeon makes an incision in your groin and pushes the protruding tissue back into your abdomen. The surgeon then sews the weakened area, often reinforcing it with a synthetic mesh (hernioplasty). The opening is then closed with stitches, staples or surgical glue. After the surgery, you’ll be encouraged to move about as soon as possible, but it might be several weeks before you’re able to resume normal activities.

 

  • Laparoscopy- In this minimally invasive procedure, which requires general anesthesia, the surgeon operates through several small incisions in your abdomen. Gas is used to inflate your abdomen to make the internal organs easier to see. A small tube equipped with a tiny camera (laparoscope) is inserted into one incision. Guided by the camera, the surgeon inserts tiny instruments through other incisions to repair a hernia using synthetic mesh. People who have laparoscopic repair might have less discomfort and scarring after surgery and a quicker return to normal activities. However, some studies indicate that hernia recurrence is more likely with laparoscopic repair than with open surgery.

Acute Coronary Syndrome - How To Diagnose It?

Dr. Avadhesh Khare 88% (49 ratings)
MBBS, DM - Cardiology, MD - Medicine
Cardiologist, Bhopal
Acute Coronary Syndrome - How To Diagnose It?

The word acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of symptoms that are caused by blockage of the blood flow to the heart muscles.  The most common result of this is myocardial infarction or heart attack as it is popularly called. Reduced blood flow leads to death of some portion of the heart muscle wall. While the word heart attack sounds almost fatal, it need not be the case. Knowing how to identify an attack and being aware of some simple measures can help save lives. 

Symptoms

The tell-tale signs of a heart attack are as follows:

  1. Chest pain and discomfort usually described as a tightness or burning in the chest region
  2. Pain along the left side of the shoulder and neck, going up into the jaw, down to the arm
  3. Nausea and vomiting 
  4. Profuse sweating 
  5. Difficulty breathing 
  6. Dizzy or fuzzy feeling 
  7. Tired, extreme fatigue
  8. Anxious, apprehensive feeling 

However, be also aware that there are a lot of people who experience a silent heart attack. Women, obese, elderly, and diabetic patients can have silent attacks, and depending on severity, either they go on with life as usual or can have a fatal attack.

Diagnosis

Once you are doubtful of a heart attack, the next step is to reach the closest medical facility for a diagnosis.  In addition to a detailed examination and history, the following tests will be performed.

  1. Electrocardiogram (ECG): A 12-lead ECG will measure electrical activity of the heart and identify irregular electrical activity which is indicative of a myocardial infarction.
  2. Blood tests:  Presence of certain enzymes in the blood, CK-MB and troponin, are indicative of a heart attack.  A complete electrolyte profile also will be done, and increase or decrease of some electrolytes is helpful in diagnosing a heart attack.
  3. In addition to these two, chest radiography, cardiac angiography, echocardiogram, stress test, and computed coronary tomography may also be required to confirm the diagnosis.

Management

Once diagnosed, the first step would be to relieve the symptoms, negate the effects of reduced blood flow, and restore cardiac function. 

  1. Dissolve the clot - Using thrombolytics like clopedigrol 
  2. Nitroglycerin - To dilate the blood vessels and improve blood flow, especially to the heart muscles
  3. Anticoagulant therapy - Blood thinners are usually used to avoid blood clot formation; aspirin and heparin are the most commonly used agents.
  4. Blood pressure maintaining drugs like beta blockers and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are also used
  5. Statins are used to reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood and stabilize plaque deposits.

In very severe cases, angioplasty and stenting or coronary bypass surgery may be required.

Educating people on how to identify a heart attack and manage it is very useful and can help save lives.
 

4 people found this helpful

Incision Post Surgery - How To Take Care Of It?

Dr. Ajay Kumar Gupta 89% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS
General Surgeon, Faridabad
Incision Post Surgery - How To Take Care Of It?

Having a surgery, big or small, will subject your body to a certain degree of pain. Post operative care, hence, is of paramount importance. You'll have a surgical wound where the surgeon makes the incision. To ensure it heals quickly and reduce your chances of an infection, it is important you care for your wound area and keep a regular check for unusual signs and symptoms. 

Let us take a step back to understand the normal process on how a wound heals. At first, there will be inflammation during the first week when blood flow to your wound increases. This is a crucial care period as your wound is still fresh. The second phase is proliferation where new blood vessels and tissue begin to grow around the area. The third and final phase is maturation where new cells develop to strengthen the wound and soften the scar. Depending on the location and size of your wound, your surgeon may have used stitches (medically called sutures), metal clips or staples and adhesive dressings, tapes or glue. Stitches, clips and staples are usually removed between three and 14 days after your treatment.

Here is how you can care for your surgical incision

1.Change your dressing regularly: Most patients are called to the hospital at regular intervals during the first week for a two or three dressing changes. The nurse or doctor ensures a sterile environment during the process. If you find your dressing falling off late night and can't go to the hospital, you can wash your hands thoroughly and open a new sterile dressing package and apply on your wound. At all times, touch only the edges of your old / new dressing.

2.General care for your incision site: Keep the incision site as clean and dry as possible. Keep it covered with plastic during a shower if it is on your hands or legs or take a sponge bath until you get a green signal from your doctor. Protect the incision from sunlight.  Some incisions may get itchy as they heal. This is quite common but it is important not to scratch your incision during this period.

3.Eating and drinking properly to heal quickly:  Vitamin C and protein are important to aid wound healing. Eat a healthy, balanced diet with plenty of variety including lean meat, fish, eggs, dairy, and fruit and vegetables. Make sure that you drink enough water because if you're dehydrated, your wound may take longer to heal.

4.Look for signs of infection: The common signs of an infection are redness, swelling, unusual drainage, warmth around the incision site
increased pain or tenderness at the incision, incision opens up or a fever of more than 100.4 degrees F.

1191 people found this helpful

Open Heart Surgery - Things You Should Expect From It!

Dr. Ramesh Kawar 91% (181 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Cardiology, DM
Cardiologist, Mumbai
Open Heart Surgery - Things You Should Expect From It!

One of the crucial types of surgery is the heart surgery, which is commonly known as the bypass. It is a type of surgery in which the chest is cut, and surgery is done on valves, muscles, and heart arteries. As per the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, it is one of the most common types of surgeries, which is performed on adults. During this surgery, the prime focus is to remove the blockage from the heart so that fresh blood can easily flow into the heart. No doubt that this process is critical, but it is easily true that after the surgery you have to take extra care of yourself.

Talking of which, here are certain things that you can expect after the surgery.

  1. Moved To ICU: The moment, the surgery is done, you will be moved to the Intensive Care Unit where the person’s health conditions will be monitored, vital signs will be checked, and medical professional will frequently visit to make sure that the patient is just doing fine. Once the surgery is over, you may not wake up quickly, but you will continue to breathe through the breathing tube. About food, of course, you will not be allowed to take solid food, but there is an intravenous (IV) needle will be put in a blood vessel in your chest and arm from which you will be given fluids. 
  2. Recovery At Home: Once you are given the discharge, your focus should be to get recovered quickly. Recovery at home entirely depends on the heart problem for which the surgery was done. Of course, the doctor will give you necessary instructions with regards to healing incision, dealing with after effect is and understanding the signs of complications. Follow up the medicines and attend the appointments as advised to keep track of your health condition. You may face some after effects such as appetite loss, constipation and sleeping problem. If there is any complication, make sure you speak with a doctor about the same immediately.
  3. Ongoing Care Is Important Too: Once the surgery is over, as said, you will have to go for frequent checkup with your doctor. During these visits, your doctor will tell you to get blood, stress test and electrocardiogram done, which will assess the working condition of the heart. You might also be given few blood-thinning medicine and bring certain changes in lifestyle and medicine.

There are certain phases of recovery which will take time eventually. The first phase is the lengthy one that can last for around 6-8 weeks. Once you get a discharge from the hospital, you will be given instructions that you must follow with good care. This will pace up the healing process and make the process better.

1087 people found this helpful
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