The human skull is composed of several plates and pieces of bones. The roof of the skull is the top of your head. The base of the skull is, however, a complex area. It consists of 5 bones. These bones are also linked to your eye socket, the cavity of the nose, the sinuses and the bones of the inner ear. Surgery through the skull base can be quite complicated as quite a few nerves, blood vessels and opening of the spinal cord pass through this region.
When does Endoscopic Skull Based Surgery become necessary?
An endoscopic skull based surgery is performed to remove tumours of the brain. The tumour might be benign or malignant - this procedure is effective against both. This surgery can also be performed to cure any abnormality on the underside of the brain, the upper vertebrae of the spinal cord or the base of the skull.
Other conditions that may necessitate an endoscopic skull base surgery are -
• Cysts in the brain
• Swelling caused by infections
• Pituitary tumours
• Trigeminal neuralgia
• Cerebrospinal fluid fistulas
• Cerebral aneurysm
What to expect during this Surgery?
Since the base of the skull is a complicated region, surgery requires a delicate approach. That is why endoscopy is used. It is a minimally invasive procedure.
Right before the surgery, you will be put under general anaesthesia. Your skull has two natural openings- the nose and the mouth. Usually, the surgeon inserts the minute surgical instruments through the nose or the mouth. Sometimes, a tiny hole is drilled right above the eyebrows. A tiny camera mounted on a lighted tube will be led into your brain through the cavity that will send a live feed from the inside. This will direct the surgeons who will gently remove the growth or fix the abnormalities.
A team of doctors with different specializations such as ENT, radiology, neurosurgery come together to perform this surgery.
Complementary Procedures -
Depending on the kind of tumour being removed or the stage it was detected in, you might have to undergo any of the following in addition to endoscopic surgery-
• Particle Therapy
• Proton Beam Therapy
Post Surgery Care -
After the surgery, you will have to stay in the clinic or hospital for a number of days where your progress will be constantly monitored. You will require therapy and undergo MRI scans.
Endoscopic skull base surgery is very effective in dealing with tumours and abnormalities of the brain or the upper spinal cord. Keep your family and friends around you during the recovery phase as their love and support will help you get back to your normal lifestyle in no time.
The anterior cruciate ligament (acl) is a rope like connective tissue that gives support and stability to the knee, along with other related tissues. If you do not repair it, you can still perform many functions, and carry on with your life with little difficulty. However, surgery to correct the ligament tear is recommended if you do not want the injury to impede your sporting activities and want a 100% normal knee.
The acl reconstruction surgery can be performed in two ways, the arthroscopic method with incisions in the front and the new one which is more cosmetic and has lesser complications. Both of which you will find detailed below.
The latter is a wiser and more popular decision, and you will require a suitable surgeon well versed in the newer technique to perform the operation.
How is the surgery done?
Acl reconstruction surgery involves the following steps-
Surgeons are increasingly favouring acl reconstruction nowadays. The reasons for that are-
Make sure you know your requirements and seek out a physician accordingly!
Skin graft is a form of a surgical procedure, which involves removal of the skin of a particular region of the body and transplanting it to a different body portion or to a separate individual. Grafting is usually recommended by the doctor if the patient has suffered from extreme burns or the protective layering of the skin of that particular region has been damaged because of extreme illness, bed sores sustained infection on the skin or repeated injuries. Grafting is also recommended as a procedure for nose and breast reconstruction surgeries. It is usually done with the help of local anaesthesia, making the procedure a less painful one.
There are two types of skin grafting procedures:
1. Split-level thickness grafts: The grafting in this procedure deals with the elimination of the epidermis and just a part of the dermis from the site of the healthy skin. These grafts are used to cover generally a large portion of the body. This form of grafting does not develop significantly with the other portions of the skin, so doctors recommend more split-level thickness grafts as the person ages. The grafts happen to be delicate, glossy and faded in comparison to the rest of the skin.
2. Full-thickness grafts: In this procedure, the grafting involves the subsequent removal of the blood vessels and the muscles along with the two skin layers from the donor site. This form of grafting is particularly useful in reconstructing small damages on the exposed portions of the body such as the face. This type adjusts well with the other portions of the skin and subsequently tends to merge with the rest of the skin.
The procedure will begin with the implementation of intravenous therapy (IV) on your wrist or hand on the day of the surgery. This therapy helps the doctor to provide you with the necessary medicines and fluids at any point of the surgery. Just a few minutes before the operation, the doctor will inject general anaesthesia through IV. After removal of the skin, preferably from the unexposed portions of the body, such as thigh and buttocks in the case of a split-level thickness graft and the abdomen and the chest in case of a full-thickness graft, the healthy skin is transplanted at the damaged spot and is fixed by subsequent stitching and dressing. The donor site will also be covered by appropriate dressing to prevent any further infection. After the completion of the surgery, it is recommended to take a few days’ rest before getting on with your daily life routine.
As we age, the fat volume on our face slowly starts decreasing. This results in the skin hanging loose and sagging down. Wrinkles also appear on the surface of the skin. This phenomenon is purely natural and happens to every human being with age. Maintaining freshness and everlasting youth is quite a tough task. Loosened skin does not look good and cuts down your appeal. However, there are some natural ways of skin tightening, which may make your skin maintain its tightness for a longer time period. Nowadays, surgeries for skin tightening are popular, but sticking to natural means is always best for your body.
Here are some common ways of skin tightening:
Facial Masks: Facial masks are effective in removing extra oil from the skin. Accumulated dirt on your skin pores is also cleansed by using facial masks. They are pocket friendly and as an outcome, you look fresh and glowing.
Facial Massages: Good quality moisturizers and special lotions are good for skin tightening. These have to be massaged onto your face in a circular pattern. Due to rubbing of the lotion on your skin, it reaches the inside and provides nourishment. You should preferably apply these creams or moisturizers before going to bed as new skin cells replace existing ones during the night time. The skin is very delicate and proper care must be taken.
Exercise: Exercising on a regular basis is a healthy habit, and it also helps in skin tightening. Women in their pregnancy stages, experience sagging or loosening of the skin. Inversion exercises help in increasing blood flow to a great extent and are recommended for tightening of facial skin. Performing a headstand rejuvenates skin cells. This is because, while doing a headstand the blood flows in the direction of your head.
A balanced diet and plenty of water intake: If you want to maintain tight skin tissue, a proper balanced diet is quite essential. Your diet should comprise of every vital nutrient. Ensure that you are including a sufficient amount of proteins, minerals and vitamins in your diet. Fresh fruits and vegetables account for natural skin tightening. Fibers must also be consumed. Intake of plenty of water is very important for healthy skin. You should drink more than 4 liters of water a day. In case of hot and humid days, the amount should be increased even more.
If you maintain the stated points in your life, you will be able to naturally maintain your skin tightness and keep away from surgery.