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Surgery Health Feed

Duodenal Switch With Biliopancreatic Diversion - Know More About This Surgery!

A V Hospital 85% (30 ratings)
Bariatrician, Bangalore
Duodenal Switch With Biliopancreatic Diversion - Know More About This Surgery!

A biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch is a less common kind of weight-loss procedure. The procedure is conducted in two steps. The first step involves sleeve gastrectomy, where about 80 percent of the stomach gets removed, hence leaving behind a small stomach, in the shape of a tube. Though the valve, which releases food to the small intestine remains intact along with a small portion of the small intestine that normally stays connected to the stomach. The second step ensures that the major part of the intestine gets bypassed through connecting the end portion of the intestine to the duodenum close to the stomach. A Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD) puts a limit on how much one can eat and thus reduces the nutrients from getting absorbed, which includes fats and proteins.

BPD is usually conducted as a single procedure but in some selective situations, the procedure might get performed as two separate operations, sleeve gastrectomy and that is followed by intestinal bypass once the process of losing weight has begun.

Why the surgery is conducted?
A Duodenal Switch with Biliopancreatic Diversion is done in order to assist a person in losing excess weight and thus reduce the risk of developing potential life-threatening health problems related to health, which includes:

Eligible candidates for the surgery

  • This surgery is mostly done only when people have tried to lose weight by making improvements in their diet and exercise habits.
  • Still, this surgery is not for every individual who is overweight. People would have to go through an extensive process of screening to determine if they qualify.
  • Patients, who become eligible, have to be willing to make permanent changes so as to lead a healthy lifestyle both before as well as after the surgery.
  • This might include long-term plans where they follow-up by monitoring if they are maintaining their nutrition, lifestyle, behaviour and also their medical conditions.

Risks associated with the surgery
This particular surgery, as with any other surgery, carries some potential risks. They are both in the short-term and in the long-term.

Risks associated with BPD/DS are similar to any abdominal surgery and include:

When Is Brain Surgery Most Required?

Dr. Ravindra Srivastava 87% (29 ratings)
M.Ch, MS, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Greater Noida
When Is Brain Surgery Most Required?

Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.

Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:

  1. Abnormal blood vessels
  2. Aneurysm
  3. Bleeding
  4. Blood clots in the brain
  5. When the protective tissue or dura is damaged
  6. Epilepsy
  7. Due to nerve damage
  8. Parkinson's disease
  9. Any kind of pressure after an injury
  10. Abscesses9290
  11. Skull fractures
  12. In case of stroke and tumors

A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.

Types of brain surgeries:

  1. Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires.
  2. Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain.
  4. Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts.

Risks:
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:

  1. Allergic reactions to anesthesia
  2. Bleeding9290
  3. Blood clot formations
  4. Swelling of the brain
  5. A state of coma
  6. Impairment in speech, coordination and vision.
  7. Problems in memory
  8. Strokes and seizures
  9. Infections in the brain

A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease.

Liposuction Surgery Is The Best Option To Get Rid Of Genetic Fat!

Dermatologist, Pune
Liposuction Surgery Is The Best Option To Get Rid Of Genetic Fat!

Your genetic background influences where your body fat is stored. In case your mother or father has fat stored in the abdomen, hips, waist or in the thigh, it is likely for you to develop deposits of fat in the same regions.

Circumstances of genetic fat

1. You may have a proper or a balanced BMI (body mass index) but still tend to develop bulges in areas, which are likely to make you look disproportional.

2. You may become obese by development of excess fat accumulation in the lower abdomen region, referred to as pannus. Extra fat may accumulate in your lower back and hips as well, which cannot be lost in spite of taking weight losing measures.

Liposuction to get rid of extra fat

Liposuction is a cosmetic surgery that allows you to remove genetic fat or any extra fat from the body, in order to change the body's shape. Liposuction does not remove cellulites and tightening of loose skin cannot be done.

Liposuction removes excess fat from the body by suction. Small, narrow tubes with blunt tips known as the cannulae are inserted through incisions in the skin surface. The tubes are moved under the skin to target the suction of fat deposits.

There are several types of liposuction techniques.

1. Tumescent liposuction: In this form of liposuction, a wetting solution such as lidocaine with a local anesthetic is injected into the patient before surgery. This causes the shrinking or constriction of blood vessels due to which it allows liposuction to be performed while the patient is under local anaesthesia. Blood loss and post surgical pains are reduced.

2. Suction assisted liposuction:This mode of liposuction also known as SAL is the most primary form of liposuction. It involves drawing out of fat using a vacuum.

3. Power assisted liposuction: This liposuction technique called PAL in short involves the process of SAL with an extra tool for increasing the motion of the cannula. The process is faster.

4. Ultrasound assisted liposuction: This process (UAL) involves the transmission of energy via a specialized hand piece for loosening and melting of fat. A greater volume of fat can be removed via UAL. VASER is a variation of the UAL method where an ultrasonic cannula with grooves helps in energy disruption to improve removal of fat.

5. Laser assisted liposuction: LAL is a newly developed liposuction technology where a laser works like an ultrasound for disruption and removal of fat cells. This mode is more efficient and involves less trauma.

Liposuction is an effective way to remove unwanted, genetic fat from your body, which may be harming your body image. However, liposuction is associated with severe side effects.

How To Treat Vaginal Vault Prolapse?

Dr. Tejaswi Kamble Kamble 94% (10 ratings)
MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
How To Treat Vaginal Vault Prolapse?

Vaginal Vault Prolapse is the condition where the upper portion of vagina may lose its normal shape and drop or sag down into the vaginal canal or maybe even outside the vagina. This may occur after a hysterectomy or even simultaneously with uterine prolapse.

The treatment of Vaginal Vault Prolapse varies with the severity and extremity of your symptoms. Your healthcare provider may suggest medications and physical therapy to treat your condition, if you feel that the prolapse is not bothersome. However, you might have to undergo surgery later if your symptoms worsen and the prolapse affects your quality of life and hinders functional ability.  You must keep in mind that usually more than one area is affected by weakness in your pelvic floor. 

The symptoms of Vaginal Vault Prolapse include, backache, pelvic heaviness, bulging mass into or sometimes outside your vagina that hinders normal activities such as walking and sitting, vaginal bleeding and releasing urine involuntarily. 

Treatments:

  1. Medication: Most of the women with this condition usually go through menopause around the same time. Since the estrogen levels are severely lowered during menopause, it causes vaginal dryness. Discussing about estrogen therapy with your healthcare provider is a must if you wish to remedy your vaginal dryness. Not every woman should take estrogen so it is imperative to talk to a medical expert first. Usually women are treated with estrogens before they go into surgery.
  2. Physical therapy: Most healthcare experts recommend pelvic floor exercises as physical therapy using biofeedback so as to strengthen the specific muscles of your pelvic floor. Biofeedback is the usage of monitoring devices that contain sensors and are placed either in your rectum, vagina or on your skin. Biofeedback is very important because it tells you the strength of each muscle you are squeezing i.e. contractions, and if you are squeezing the right muscles in order to perform the exercise correctly. Long term usage of biofeedback in physical therapy leads to strengthening of your muscles and a reduction in your symptoms. 
  3. Surgery: Corrective surgery may be performed on you by the surgeon either through the abdomen or vagina. If the surgeon is performing the corrective surgery through the vagina, he will use the ligaments, which support the uterus to solve the problem.

Diet Tips To Follow Before And After A Bariatric Surgery!

Dt. Akanksha Dalal 85% (10 ratings)
Masters In Food & Human Nutrition, Bsc - Homescience
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Delhi
Diet Tips To Follow Before And After A Bariatric Surgery!

Bariatric surgery is performed on an individual who is morbidly obese and needs to lose weight immediately. It does not remove the fat from the body, but reduces the individual’s urge to consume food. Since food plays a very important role in the entire procedure, patients looking to undergo bariatric surgery need to follow specific diets before and after the surgery.

A good diet is very important after you have had obesity surgery. The amounts and types of foods that you are able to eat will change, and you need to make sure that your new diet contains enough protein, vitamins and minerals to keep your body healthy. Having a poor diet after obesity surgery can have serious consequences. Short term effects may include dehydration, nausea and vomiting, or dumping syndrome. 

Diet Before Bariatric Surgery
Even though the exact diet may differ from one person to the next, the general factors of the diet at this stage include-

  1. Protein rich and low carbohydrate foods are recommended. This reduces fat in the body and promotes the regenerative power of the cells.
  2. Diet aimed at losing weight. This reduces the fat surrounding the liver, making the surgery easier. Furthermore, patients become acclimatized to the new way of eating that they would have to follow post the surgery.
  3. As the date of the surgery approaches, patients may need to be on a liquid only diet, as it is easier to digest. Your diet may be supplemented with vitamins, proteins, so that your body receives the necessary nutrients even when on a liquid only diet.

Diet following the surgery
After the bariatric surgery has been performed, your diet will be divided into four stages. The stages include-

• Stage 1- Liquid diet
For a few days after the surgery, you will not be given any solid food. Additionally, you will only drink clear liquids during this time, so that your stomach starts to recover from the procedure. As time passes, liquid diet is graduated; clear liquid diet for 2 days, then full liquid from day 3 and then 5th day onwards protein supplements are also included. This diet continues for 10-15 days depending on the type of surgery and individual. 

• Stage 2- Pureed diet
After a few days, you will graduate to consuming pureed foods. These foods are liquid, but may have a thicker consistency than the items consumed during stage 1. Many foods, such as vegetables and fruits can be pureed and consumed during this stage. Pureed diet also includes pulses without husk and cerals like dalia/ oats/ khichdi in pureed form, for 15 days.

• Stage 3- Soft foods
Around 2 months after the surgery, you will move on to the next stage, where you are allowed to eat most soft food items, such as soft-boiled eggs, minced or ground meat, white fish and fruits like apple, papaya.

• Stage 4- Normal diet
After around 2 and half months, solid food will be re-introduced in your diet. Food will need to be consumed in smaller portions, so that your stomach can easily digest it. However, certain items, such as breads and all fried foods must still be avoided.

Around 4 months after the surgery, patients can start eating normally, but the portion sizes must be controlled.

If your diet lacks nutrients or is poorly balanced in the long term, you may risk the following health conditions: 

  1. Anaemia caused by iron, folate or vitamin B12 deficiency 
  2. Osteoporosis and osteomalacia caused by calcium and/or vitamin D deficiencies 
  3. Wernicke encephalopathy a rare but serious neurological condition resulting from thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency 
  4. Certain cancers become more likely with some deficiencies 
  5. Deterioration of vision caused by vitamin A deficiency 
  6. Poor immune function caused by various deficiencies 
  7. Protein deficiency symptoms include fatigue, muscle wastage, and alopecia (short term, transient hair loss is normal) 6 

3 General guidance for eating and drinking post-op 

  1. Take time to eat your meals (this means 20 – 30 minutes). 
  2. Rushing your meals may cause food to stick in your ‘chest’ and may cause you to vomit. 
  3. You may also need to avoid foods that commonly cause blockages leading to pain and possibly vomiting. These include dry chewy meats, soft white bread, stringy or very fibrous vegetables, sweetcorn, nuts, dried fruit, pips and seeds. 

Why do people vomit after eating? 
The main reasons why people vomit are: 

  1. Eating too quickly 
  2. Not chewing food well enough 
  3. Eating too much 
  4. Drinking with, or too close to meals 
  5. Eating foods that are difficult to digest You should not need to vomit. 

If you find this is happening often, first try changing your eating behaviour and food choices. Frequent, long term vomiting can mean you are getting insufficient nutrients and cause damage to your oesophagus (food pipe) and teeth.

6 Ways To Take Care Of Stitches Post Surgery!

Dr. Sirisha R 87% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
6 Ways To Take Care Of Stitches Post Surgery!

Any surgery that requires an incision will involve sutures or staples as the last step of the procedure. This helps close the incision and keep out infections. Taking care of your stitches can help limit scarring and discomfort and speed up the healing process. Here are a few things to keep in mind.

  1. Keep it clean and dry: For the first few days, use a washed wet cloth to clean the incision site. After a few days, you may start washing the area with soap and water unless advised else wise by your doctor. Ensure that you dry the skin thoroughly after washing it. Avoid baths that involve soaking the area in water. Also, avoid swimming. Do not use any powders, lotions, creams, deodorants etc on the wound site.
  2. Look out for signs of infections: Avoid activities that may involve exposing your wound to dirty water, chemicals, dust etc. This increases your risk of infections. Also look out for signs f infections such as redness, swelling, pus or bleeding, fever or increased pain from the wound. In case you notice such signs, consult your doctor at the earliest.
  3. Do not scratch: As it heals, your skin is likely to turn itchy. However, refrain from scratching so as to reduce chances of infections. Do not try and pull away from the scab but let it fall off on its own. This will also help limit scarring.
  4. Limit contact: Avoid wearing tight clothes or anything that sticks to the skin while your wound is healing. Instead have plenty of loose, comfortable clothes easily accessible. Also, do not take part in close contact sports such as football etc until the stitches have healed completely.
  5. Change your dressing regularly: A dressing should be changed as soon as it gets wet or soaked with blood or other body fluids. Wear clean medical gloves while changing a dressing. When putting on a new dressing do not touch the inside of the dressing or apply any creams on the stitches unless advised so by your doctor. In the case of removable stitches, the doctor will usually remove the stitches after a few days. DO not attempt to pull the stitches out on your own.
  6. Avoid exposing the wound to sunlight: New skin that forms as the incision heals is very sensitive to sunlight and gets sunburnt very easily. Limiting your exposure to sunlight can help reduce the effects of scarring.

Know About Common Types of Weight Loss Surgeries!

Dr. Vishal Soni 92% (20 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MBBS, Hepatobiliary & GI Surgery Fellow, Diploma In Minimal Access Surgery, Fellowship In Minimal Access Surgery, ATLS Certification
Surgical Gastroenterologist, Ahmedabad
Know About Common Types of Weight Loss Surgeries!

Obesity is unarguably one of the most regularly discussed topics around the world. A major section of the world's population is suffering from a variety of obesity related problems. There are a number of natural methods to check obesity; however, several medical surgeries are gaining popularity among the masses with instant results to reduce weight.

Here is a list of the most common types of weight loss surgeries:

1. Gastric sleeve surgery: This surgery is performed where removal of a large part of the stomach takes place. A long pouch is created, which connects the small intestine with the oesophagus. The pouch gets stapled and after that the other parts of the stomach are reduced. In some cases, an additional step is taken for reinforcement of the staple line.

Gastric sleeve reduces the size of the stomach and a patient will feel full after eating lesser amount of food. Because a portion of the stomach is reduced, lesser amount of hunger causing hormones are produced. The patient will therefore feel less hungry.

2. Gastric bypass surgery: This is another effective weight loss surgery, which reduces the patient's stomach size, resulting in reduced appetite. The intestines are rearranged, which makes the body absorb fewer minerals. While performing this surgery, the stomach is cut and stapled to create a pouch. 

The remaining stomach is attached to the small intestine's top portion, and the small intestine is cut and attached to the pouch as well. After this, the end portion of the small intestine is connected with the non-pouch part of the stomach and is attached to the roux limb bottom. This makes the stomach's digestive juices to meet the food present in the intestines.

3. Duodenal switch: This surgery reduces the stomach size in patients, which leads to decreased appetite or craving for food. Fewer hormones, which cause hunger, are secreted and the rearrangement of the intestine causes the body to absorb minimal minerals or calories.

A part of the stomach is removed and a pouch is created. The small intestine's top portion is cut off, but the duodenum is kept attached to the stomach. The small intestines are cut, and the part attached to the large intestine called colon is connected with the duodenum. Finally, the loose end of the small intestine gets attached to the small intestine to enable digestive juices to mix with food.

4. Lap band surgery: By this surgery, a band is wrapped around the upper middle section of the stomach which squeezes the stomach. Thus a smaller section of the stomach is created above the band which fills up very quickly while having food. The patient feels full by eating less. A laparoscopic adjustable gastric band is used.

There are many different weight loss surgeries. Most of them aim at reducing the capacity of the stomach, so that the person eats less food.

I am 20 year old male I had an lumbar microdiscectomy on 20th June 2018 and even after my surgery I do still have the symptoms on going as before as I have a neurogenic bowel and neurogenic bladder incontinence and erectile dysfunction after my surgery till now. What should I do now?

Dr. N S S Gauri 94% (20624 ratings)
Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery (B.U.M.S)
Ayurveda, Kanpur
I am 20 year old male I had an lumbar microdiscectomy on 20th June 2018 and even after my surgery I do still have the...
Vrihad Vangeshwar Ras 125 Mg Twice a Day Kamdev Avleh 10 Gm Twice a Day Ashtamoorti avleh 10 gm twice a day Relief In 5-6 Days and for Complete Cure Take it for 60 Days Only Avoid Oily and Spicy Food Contact with reports.
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5 Facts You Need To Know About Eye Donation

Dr. Neeraj Sanduja 84% (10 ratings)
MS - Ophthalmology, MBBS, FRCS
Ophthalmologist, Gurgaon
5 Facts You Need To Know About Eye Donation

If you’ve ever played Blind Man’s Buff you know how helpless it can feel to be unable to see. While some people are born blind, others lose sight as a result of health issues, accidents etc. Imagine how a person would feel to be able to see something for the first time or to regain their sight?

Every human being with sight can choose to donate their eyes after their death and gift another person vision. When it comes to eye donation, there is no restriction on the person’s age or overall health. Even a person who has had surgery on their eyes can choose to donate them as long as the cornea is unaffected. It is not only noble but the thought of being able to give some a chance to see the world with your eyes can give you immense joy.

However, just a thought is not enough, there are few other facts to be kept in mind before going for eye donation:

  1. Eyes need to be donated within 6 hours of a person’s death: For your eyes to be viable for a donation they must be harvested within 6 hours of death. Thus, if you choose to be a donor, it is important for you to inform your family and friends of this decision. Eye donation can also be authorized by the deceased’s next of kin.
  2. Donation does not cost money: There are no costs involved in donating your eyes. Profiting by buying and selling human organs and tissues is a criminal at and can be punishable by law.
  3. The whole eye is not transplanted: The most common cause of blindness is a damaged or diseased cornea. Thus, only this area is transplanted to enable a person to see. The cornea is a thin, transparent flap located in front of the colored part of the eye. Thus, donating eyes does not disfigure the deceased person in any way.
  4. Even people who wear spectacles can donate their eyes: Short sightedness or far sightedness are conditions caused by irregularities with the lens inside the eye and do not affect the cornea. Thus these conditions do not interfere with their ability to donate their eyes after death. Even people who have been operated upon for cataracts, retinal detachments or glaucoma may choose to donate their eyes. It is even possible for a person who has received a corneal transplant to donate their eyes as long as the cornea is healthy and clear.
  5. Corneal Transplants have a high success rate: There is no blood supply to the cornea and hence there is a very low risk of the body rejecting a donor cornea. In many cases, this rejection can be treated and suppressed with medication.

Though over 30,000 corneas are donated and transplanted each year, there is still a long waiting list at eye banks. Thus, it time you take a pledge to make someone else's life beautiful. Do not think twice about donating your eyes and encourage people around you to do so as well.

Laparoscopic Surgery: Know About Its Myths and Complications

Dr. Ajay Gupta 90% (222 ratings)
FIAGES, FMAS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Pune
Laparoscopic Surgery: Know About Its Myths and Complications

Laparoscopic surgery is also known as minimal invasive surgery. The smaller length and depth of the incision leads to faster recovery than usual. It causes smaller, lighter scars once the surgery wound heals completely.

In the procedure, small tubes, surgical instruments and video cameras are used for operations through small incisions or cuts in your body. The procedure has become very popular in recent times.

However, there are some myths around it which you shouldn't believe:

Myth: If you've undergone multiple abdominal surgeries in the past, you can't opt for a laparoscopy.

The truth is that you can go for a laparoscopy even if you've gone through multiple surgeries previously, irrespective of the location or size of the previous incisions. This is done through the use of a special instrument, called a microlaparscope that enables safe entry into the abdomen of the patient.

Myth: If you're overweight or underweight, you can't undergo a laparoscopy

No matter if you're obese or too thin, you can still undergo a laparoscopy as the tools used for this surgical procedure are available in different lengths and sizes, and can be adjusted as per the body type of the patient before the incision is made.

Myth: The images taken through a laparoscope are of poor quality This is not true. In fact, the visuals obtained through a laparoscope are clearer and much more accurate when compared to those obtained via an open surgery. The visuals of a video laparoscopy provide a detailed magnification of even those parts of the area that are inaccessible by the human eye.

Besides, you should also be aware of the complications to deal with the procedure better post surgery:

  1. Bruising: After surgery, depending on the type and duration of the procedure, the patient is always advised to follow certain restrictions regarding mobility and restriction of normal day-to-day functioning. These rules must be followed in order to prevent the possibility of bruising after a Laparoscopic surgery.
  2. Hematoma formation: A hematoma is an accumulation of blood outside the blood vessel. This is not normal at all and requires urgent inspection and treatment. This is a relatively common complication that happens after a Laparoscopic surgical procedure. Precautions are taken by surgeons to avoid this but it may still occur. It needs to be diagnosed early, and then the bleeding vessel needs to be embolized selectively in order to reduce any further complication of this type.
  3. Injury inflicted: Any injury that may be inflicted on the blood vessels present in the walls of the abdomen or on the sidewall in the pelvic region, as well as injuries in the bowel area and the urinary tract must be avoided. Proper protocol must be followed by the doctor to avoid such complications as much as possible.
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