A biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch is a less common kind of weight-loss procedure. The procedure is conducted in two steps. The first step involves sleeve gastrectomy, where about 80 percent of the stomach gets removed, hence leaving behind a small stomach, in the shape of a tube. Though the valve, which releases food to the small intestine remains intact along with a small portion of the small intestine that normally stays connected to the stomach. The second step ensures that the major part of the intestine gets bypassed through connecting the end portion of the intestine to the duodenum close to the stomach. A Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD) puts a limit on how much one can eat and thus reduces the nutrients from getting absorbed, which includes fats and proteins.
BPD is usually conducted as a single procedure but in some selective situations, the procedure might get performed as two separate operations, sleeve gastrectomy and that is followed by intestinal bypass once the process of losing weight has begun.
Why the surgery is conducted?
A Duodenal Switch with Biliopancreatic Diversion is done in order to assist a person in losing excess weight and thus reduce the risk of developing potential life-threatening health problems related to health, which includes:
Eligible candidates for the surgery
Risks associated with the surgery
This particular surgery, as with any other surgery, carries some potential risks. They are both in the short-term and in the long-term.
Risks associated with BPD/DS are similar to any abdominal surgery and include:
Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.
Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:
A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.
Types of brain surgeries:
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:
A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease.
Your genetic background influences where your body fat is stored. In case your mother or father has fat stored in the abdomen, hips, waist or in the thigh, it is likely for you to develop deposits of fat in the same regions.
Circumstances of genetic fat
1. You may have a proper or a balanced BMI (body mass index) but still tend to develop bulges in areas, which are likely to make you look disproportional.
2. You may become obese by development of excess fat accumulation in the lower abdomen region, referred to as pannus. Extra fat may accumulate in your lower back and hips as well, which cannot be lost in spite of taking weight losing measures.
Liposuction to get rid of extra fat
Liposuction is a cosmetic surgery that allows you to remove genetic fat or any extra fat from the body, in order to change the body's shape. Liposuction does not remove cellulites and tightening of loose skin cannot be done.
Liposuction removes excess fat from the body by suction. Small, narrow tubes with blunt tips known as the cannulae are inserted through incisions in the skin surface. The tubes are moved under the skin to target the suction of fat deposits.
There are several types of liposuction techniques.
1. Tumescent liposuction: In this form of liposuction, a wetting solution such as lidocaine with a local anesthetic is injected into the patient before surgery. This causes the shrinking or constriction of blood vessels due to which it allows liposuction to be performed while the patient is under local anaesthesia. Blood loss and post surgical pains are reduced.
2. Suction assisted liposuction:This mode of liposuction also known as SAL is the most primary form of liposuction. It involves drawing out of fat using a vacuum.
3. Power assisted liposuction: This liposuction technique called PAL in short involves the process of SAL with an extra tool for increasing the motion of the cannula. The process is faster.
4. Ultrasound assisted liposuction: This process (UAL) involves the transmission of energy via a specialized hand piece for loosening and melting of fat. A greater volume of fat can be removed via UAL. VASER is a variation of the UAL method where an ultrasonic cannula with grooves helps in energy disruption to improve removal of fat.
5. Laser assisted liposuction: LAL is a newly developed liposuction technology where a laser works like an ultrasound for disruption and removal of fat cells. This mode is more efficient and involves less trauma.
Liposuction is an effective way to remove unwanted, genetic fat from your body, which may be harming your body image. However, liposuction is associated with severe side effects.
Vaginal Vault Prolapse is the condition where the upper portion of vagina may lose its normal shape and drop or sag down into the vaginal canal or maybe even outside the vagina. This may occur after a hysterectomy or even simultaneously with uterine prolapse.
The treatment of Vaginal Vault Prolapse varies with the severity and extremity of your symptoms. Your healthcare provider may suggest medications and physical therapy to treat your condition, if you feel that the prolapse is not bothersome. However, you might have to undergo surgery later if your symptoms worsen and the prolapse affects your quality of life and hinders functional ability. You must keep in mind that usually more than one area is affected by weakness in your pelvic floor.
The symptoms of Vaginal Vault Prolapse include, backache, pelvic heaviness, bulging mass into or sometimes outside your vagina that hinders normal activities such as walking and sitting, vaginal bleeding and releasing urine involuntarily.
Bariatric surgery is performed on an individual who is morbidly obese and needs to lose weight immediately. It does not remove the fat from the body, but reduces the individual’s urge to consume food. Since food plays a very important role in the entire procedure, patients looking to undergo bariatric surgery need to follow specific diets before and after the surgery.
A good diet is very important after you have had obesity surgery. The amounts and types of foods that you are able to eat will change, and you need to make sure that your new diet contains enough protein, vitamins and minerals to keep your body healthy. Having a poor diet after obesity surgery can have serious consequences. Short term effects may include dehydration, nausea and vomiting, or dumping syndrome.
Diet Before Bariatric Surgery
Even though the exact diet may differ from one person to the next, the general factors of the diet at this stage include-
• Stage 1- Liquid diet
For a few days after the surgery, you will not be given any solid food. Additionally, you will only drink clear liquids during this time, so that your stomach starts to recover from the procedure. As time passes, liquid diet is graduated; clear liquid diet for 2 days, then full liquid from day 3 and then 5th day onwards protein supplements are also included. This diet continues for 10-15 days depending on the type of surgery and individual.
• Stage 2- Pureed diet
After a few days, you will graduate to consuming pureed foods. These foods are liquid, but may have a thicker consistency than the items consumed during stage 1. Many foods, such as vegetables and fruits can be pureed and consumed during this stage. Pureed diet also includes pulses without husk and cerals like dalia/ oats/ khichdi in pureed form, for 15 days.
• Stage 3- Soft foods
Around 2 months after the surgery, you will move on to the next stage, where you are allowed to eat most soft food items, such as soft-boiled eggs, minced or ground meat, white fish and fruits like apple, papaya.
• Stage 4- Normal diet
After around 2 and half months, solid food will be re-introduced in your diet. Food will need to be consumed in smaller portions, so that your stomach can easily digest it. However, certain items, such as breads and all fried foods must still be avoided.
Around 4 months after the surgery, patients can start eating normally, but the portion sizes must be controlled.
If your diet lacks nutrients or is poorly balanced in the long term, you may risk the following health conditions:
3 General guidance for eating and drinking post-op
Why do people vomit after eating?
The main reasons why people vomit are:
If you find this is happening often, first try changing your eating behaviour and food choices. Frequent, long term vomiting can mean you are getting insufficient nutrients and cause damage to your oesophagus (food pipe) and teeth.
Any surgery that requires an incision will involve sutures or staples as the last step of the procedure. This helps close the incision and keep out infections. Taking care of your stitches can help limit scarring and discomfort and speed up the healing process. Here are a few things to keep in mind.
Obesity is unarguably one of the most regularly discussed topics around the world. A major section of the world's population is suffering from a variety of obesity related problems. There are a number of natural methods to check obesity; however, several medical surgeries are gaining popularity among the masses with instant results to reduce weight.
Here is a list of the most common types of weight loss surgeries:
1. Gastric sleeve surgery: This surgery is performed where removal of a large part of the stomach takes place. A long pouch is created, which connects the small intestine with the oesophagus. The pouch gets stapled and after that the other parts of the stomach are reduced. In some cases, an additional step is taken for reinforcement of the staple line.
Gastric sleeve reduces the size of the stomach and a patient will feel full after eating lesser amount of food. Because a portion of the stomach is reduced, lesser amount of hunger causing hormones are produced. The patient will therefore feel less hungry.
2. Gastric bypass surgery: This is another effective weight loss surgery, which reduces the patient's stomach size, resulting in reduced appetite. The intestines are rearranged, which makes the body absorb fewer minerals. While performing this surgery, the stomach is cut and stapled to create a pouch.
The remaining stomach is attached to the small intestine's top portion, and the small intestine is cut and attached to the pouch as well. After this, the end portion of the small intestine is connected with the non-pouch part of the stomach and is attached to the roux limb bottom. This makes the stomach's digestive juices to meet the food present in the intestines.
3. Duodenal switch: This surgery reduces the stomach size in patients, which leads to decreased appetite or craving for food. Fewer hormones, which cause hunger, are secreted and the rearrangement of the intestine causes the body to absorb minimal minerals or calories.
A part of the stomach is removed and a pouch is created. The small intestine's top portion is cut off, but the duodenum is kept attached to the stomach. The small intestines are cut, and the part attached to the large intestine called colon is connected with the duodenum. Finally, the loose end of the small intestine gets attached to the small intestine to enable digestive juices to mix with food.
4. Lap band surgery: By this surgery, a band is wrapped around the upper middle section of the stomach which squeezes the stomach. Thus a smaller section of the stomach is created above the band which fills up very quickly while having food. The patient feels full by eating less. A laparoscopic adjustable gastric band is used.
There are many different weight loss surgeries. Most of them aim at reducing the capacity of the stomach, so that the person eats less food.
If you’ve ever played Blind Man’s Buff you know how helpless it can feel to be unable to see. While some people are born blind, others lose sight as a result of health issues, accidents etc. Imagine how a person would feel to be able to see something for the first time or to regain their sight?
Every human being with sight can choose to donate their eyes after their death and gift another person vision. When it comes to eye donation, there is no restriction on the person’s age or overall health. Even a person who has had surgery on their eyes can choose to donate them as long as the cornea is unaffected. It is not only noble but the thought of being able to give some a chance to see the world with your eyes can give you immense joy.
However, just a thought is not enough, there are few other facts to be kept in mind before going for eye donation:
Though over 30,000 corneas are donated and transplanted each year, there is still a long waiting list at eye banks. Thus, it time you take a pledge to make someone else's life beautiful. Do not think twice about donating your eyes and encourage people around you to do so as well.
Laparoscopic surgery is also known as minimal invasive surgery. The smaller length and depth of the incision leads to faster recovery than usual. It causes smaller, lighter scars once the surgery wound heals completely.
In the procedure, small tubes, surgical instruments and video cameras are used for operations through small incisions or cuts in your body. The procedure has become very popular in recent times.
However, there are some myths around it which you shouldn't believe:
Myth: If you've undergone multiple abdominal surgeries in the past, you can't opt for a laparoscopy.
The truth is that you can go for a laparoscopy even if you've gone through multiple surgeries previously, irrespective of the location or size of the previous incisions. This is done through the use of a special instrument, called a microlaparscope that enables safe entry into the abdomen of the patient.
Myth: If you're overweight or underweight, you can't undergo a laparoscopy
No matter if you're obese or too thin, you can still undergo a laparoscopy as the tools used for this surgical procedure are available in different lengths and sizes, and can be adjusted as per the body type of the patient before the incision is made.
Myth: The images taken through a laparoscope are of poor quality This is not true. In fact, the visuals obtained through a laparoscope are clearer and much more accurate when compared to those obtained via an open surgery. The visuals of a video laparoscopy provide a detailed magnification of even those parts of the area that are inaccessible by the human eye.
Besides, you should also be aware of the complications to deal with the procedure better post surgery: