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Surgery Health Feed

Breast Lumps - How Surgery Can Help?

Dr. Sandeep Agarwal 91% (25 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Pune
Breast Lumps - How Surgery Can Help?

Feeling a lump on your breasts can be a terrifying moment. 'Cancer' is the first thing that comes to mind but in reality, most lumps in the breast are not caused by cancer. Apart from cancer, breast lumps can be caused by non-cancerous growths, injuries and infections. The only way to correctly diagnose the cause of a lump in the beasts is through a biopsy.

Hence, this is the first step towards treating a breast lump. From here on, treatment will depend on the cause identified.

  1. Mastitis or Breast InfectionMastitis is a painful infection of the breast tissue often faced by women who are breastfeeding. It can be treated with heat treatment and antibiotics. Massaging the breast while taking a warm shower or applying a warm compress. This will open up the milk ducts and should be followed by nursing the baby or using a breast pump to relieve the swelling and pain.
  2. Abscess: Antibiotics are the first line of treatment against an abscess but this is effective only if given in the initial stage of the infection. In later stages, an abscess will need to be surgically drained.
  3. Fibroadenomas: This is a non-cancerous tumour often found in young women. It is often difficult to distinguish between a Fibroadenoma and a cancerous tumour and hence these are usually surgically removed.
  4. Fibrocystic Changes: In some cases, the breast itself is composed of knotted, rope like tissue. This is known as having fibrocystic breasts. If a new lump presents itself on fibrocystic breasts, a mammogram and an ultrasound are performed to evaluate the lump. In most cases fibrocystic changes do not require any medication or surgery.
  5. Breasts Cysts: Cysts can be defined as fluid filled lumps. In some cases, these cysts become apparent at the time of ovulation and disappear after the period. In other cases, it may need to be drained with a thin needle. Cysts often recur and need to be re-drained.
  6. Fat Necrosis and Lipoma: Fat necrosis is a lump caused by an injury to the fatty tissue in the breast. Lipoma is a fatty growth within the fatty tissue. In both these cases, no treatment is required but if it causes any problems, it can be removed.
  7. Breast Cancer: If the biopsy reveals the presence of a cancerous tumour, you must immediately consult an oncologist. Treatment options for breast cancer include chemotherapy, radiation, surgery and hormone treatment.
1 person found this helpful

When Is Knee Replacement Required?

Dr. Lokesh Sharoff 91% (1368 ratings)
MBBS, D.ORTHO, DNB (Ortho), Fellowship Joint Replacement, MNAMS
Orthopedist, Mumbai
When Is Knee Replacement Required?

Knee replacement surgery- which is also known as knee arthroplasty, helps to relieve the pain in the knee thereby restoring the knee function. During this procedure, a surgeon cuts the damaged cartilage and bone from the kneecap, thighbone, and shinbone and replaces the same with an artificial joint comprising of high-grade plastics, alloys, and polymers. A patient/surgeon has the liberty to choose the type of knee joint he/she prefers based on factors such as weight, age, overall health etc. 

Signs that might indicate a knee replacement surgery -

  1. The pain in the knee keeps coming back all the time. 
  2. The knee aches after a brisk walk or during an ongoing exercise session. 
  3. The mobility of a person has gradually decreased over time as compared to last few years. 
  4. A supporting cane or medication isn’t delivering the desired support or pain relief. 
  5. The knee tends to stiffen when a person sits for a long time. Example- witting through a movie or sitting in the car for too long proves to be a major hurdle. 
  6. The pain proves to be a major problem that intervenes with sleep. 
  7. The knee motion significantly decreases once a person tries to bend the knee. 
  8. Climbing stairs turns out to be a major hurdle. 
  9. Getting out of bathtubs becomes a major challenge. 
  10. The knee becomes and stays stiff or at least half an hour after getting up from bed in the morning. If the stiffness lasts for more than 60 minutes, it is a sign of inflammatory disease. 

How is a knee replacement surgery performed? 

  1. Knee replacement surgery requires overnight stay in the hospital. 
  2. It involves a general or spinal anesthesia
  3. Once the skin over the surgical site is cleansed with an antiseptic, the doctor makes an incision and takes out the damaged surface of the knee joint. 
  4. The knee joint is then resurfaced with a prosthesis made up of plastic and metal. 

A cemented prosthesis is most commonly used during these days. The prosthesis contains 3 components: 

  1. Tibial component 
  2. Femoral component 
  3. Patellar component 

What are the advantages of knee replacement surgery? 

  1. The biggest advantage of this surgery is the freedom from constant and throbbing pain. 
  2. The fact that surgery can increase the mobility also proves to be a blessing for the general condition of the patient.
  3. Knee replacement also helps a patient to get rid of supporting device such as a cane, wheelchair, pain medications etc. 
  4. The feeling of stiffness also goes away after the surgery.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

All About Laser Prostate Surgery!

Dr. Shailendra Kumar Goel 87% (20 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, M. Ch. (Urology), DNB (General Surgery), MBA
Urologist, Noida
All About Laser Prostate Surgery!

One of the most common problems faced by ageing men is benign prostatic hypertrophy. Prostate is the gland at the base of the urethra near the bladder and when it enlarges it can lead to symptoms, mostly related to urination. 

  1. Frequent urge to pass urine 
  2. Prolonged urination 
  3. Frequent nocturnal visits to the toilet 
  4. Intermittent urination 
  5. Difficulty to start urinating 
  6. Inability to completely empty the bladder 
  7. Urinary tract infections 
  8. Blood in urine 

There are medications available to manage this, but offer only temporary and partial relief. Many men therefore prefer the surgery to manage these bothersome symptoms. However, like any surgery, the risks and benefits need to be considered along with other conditions like age, overall health status, other comorbid conditions, etc. Surgical removal of the enlarged prostate gland is a more definitive approach to manage these symptoms. 

In addition to providing a quick cure, it also is used in the following cases: 

  1. Patients who do not respond to medications 
  2. Refractory urinary retention 
  3. Presence of blood in the urine 
  4. Associated bladder stones or Hernia 
  5. Frequent infections of the urinary tract 
  6. Associated damage to the kidneys 

Procedure of Surgery 
During the procedure, a tube fitted with camera is passed through the tip of the penis into the urethra towards the bladder neck. Once it is in the desired position, laser is passed through it to deliver energy that acts on the prostate to resect or evaporate it. 

There are two methods by which laser acts on the enlarged prostate and making way for free flow of the urine. 

  1. Ablation: Excess prostate tissue is vaporized by the laser by using photosensitive vaporization of the prostate. This is also known as Greenlight laser therapy or KTP laser vaporization. Alternately, Diode or Thulium LASER can be used as the source of laser energy to ablate the prostate tissue. 
  2. Enucleation: Entire adenomatous prostate tissue is cut and teased out into the bladder by using Holmium laser. Morcellator is used to grind this enucleated prostate into smaller pieces to enable easy retrieval. 

More men now opt for laser prostate removal as it has the following advantages: 

  1. Reduced risk of bleeding: This becomes essentially important in patients who are on blood thinners. 
  2. Minimal hospitalization: This can be done with minimal one or two days stay at the hospital 
  3. Immediate symptom relief: As compared to medications, the relief is felt almost immediately after the surgery 
  4. Minimal catheter: With laser surgery, a catheter may be required for less than 24-48 hours unlike in open surgical cases. 

As noted above, as with any surgery, once enlarged prostate symptoms set in, have a detailed discussion with your doctor to identify if you are a suitable candidate for laser surgery.

1 person found this helpful

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury - Know Everything About It!

Dr. Deepak Thakur 89% (99 ratings)
M.CH. (Ortho), MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury - Know Everything About It!

In general, anterior cruciate ligament injuries, or ACL injuries, are understood to be tears in any of the several knee ligaments joining the upper leg bone and the lower leg bone. This can vary from minor injuries, such as small ligament tears, to more serious cases, like complete tears or when the ligament and one of the bones gets displaced from the other. These injuries usually occur during sports activities, like soccer, basketball, football, gymnastics, tennis, volleyball, etc. An untreated ACL injury can lead to a condition called an ACL deficiency. This can cause a lot of problems with regard to knee movements as the bones may rub against each other, causing a lot of pain. In some cases, the cartilage covering the ends of the bones may get damaged, eventually tearing and trapping the cushion pads supporting the knee joints.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of anterior cruciate ligament may include:

  1. You are unable to move properly.
  2. You experience immense pain while walking up and down stairs.
  3. You are unable to engage much in physical activities.
  4. Your knee begins to swell gradually.
  5. You can sense a loud popping sensation when moving your knee.
  6. You experience feelings of instability.

Causes
Anterior cruciate ligament injuries generally occur during sports. Here are some common possible instances that might happen during a game:

  1. Sudden arrest in motion
  2. An unsteady landing from a jump
  3. Direct blows to the knee from tackles
  4. Sudden shifts in direction

Treatment
Treatment of ACL injuries normally involves the following:

  1. Immediate medical attention along with intense first aid care
  2. Sincere adherence to the R.I.C.E model of self care -
    • Rest: Proper rest for a couple of weeks or months depending upon the severity of the injury
    • Ice: Using ice packs to help cool the nerves
    • Compression: Ice treatment further helps in compression
    • Elevation: When lying down in bed, it is strongly recommended that you keep your affected leg at a slightly higher position, through the use of pillows or cushions
  3. Success rehabilitative therapy for several weeks
  4. Anterior cruciate ligament surgery or reconstruction
2 people found this helpful

Hip Replacement - Understanding The Procedure In Detail!

Dr. Rakesh Kumar 88% (83 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
Hip Replacement - Understanding The Procedure In Detail!

Mobility for a person is very important, and when you look through, the hip is a very important component to this. It connects the upper and lower parts of the body and helps in movement. It is a ball and socket joint, where the hip bone provides a socket, into which the upper part of the thighbone (femur) sits into, allowing for free movement.

Like any other human organ, the hip also is prone to damage. Be it natural ageing, infection, injury, or diseases, hip movement can be affected, leading to limited movement and increased pain and stiffness. For these people, being able to get back a hip which will allow them to be back on their feet is a boon for sure. It helps in relieving pain and improving mobility, almost giving people a second lease of life.

Reasons for hip replacement:

  1. With natural ageing, the hip joint can lose its ability to move, due to normal wear and tear of the hip and thigh bones
  2. Diseases of the hips (infectious or autoimmune) can also lead to hip replacement
  3. Injury or trauma is another major cause that requires hip replacement
  4. Joint problems, leading to repeated dislocations
  5. Tumours of the relevant bones

Understanding the procedure in detail

  1. The affected bones (whether diseases or worn out) are replaced with a prosthesis which is compatible with the normal body tissue.
  2. While some materials fuse to the natural bone, others do not and are simply placed as a separate unit
  3. This is a surgery which requires hospitalisation and stays for up to 5 days depending on patient’s overall health condition
  4. The entire procedure may take a couple of hours and is usually done under general anaesthesia
  5. An incision is made through the side of the hip
  6. Both the hip and the thigh joints are prepared, diseased tissue removed, re-shaped, etc. to make way for the prosthesis
  7. The prosthesis is introduced through the same incision and positioned into place
  8. As noted earlier, there are two types. The ones which fuse to the bone have pores in them into which normal bone eventually grows.
  9. The other variety is the cemented version, and a glue is used to keep it in place
  10. Most doctors now use a combination, that is cement a porous prosthesis, into which bone will grow, and the incisions are closed
  11. The patient stays in the hospital for 1 to 4 days depending on overall health
  12. Once discharged, infection and pain control are continued
  13. Exercise and physiotherapy play a major role in restoring normal function
  14. Weight management is also very important
1 person found this helpful

Face Lift Surgery - The Associated Complications!

Dr. Sachin Yeole 86% (24 ratings)
MD - Dermatology , Fellowship in Hair Transplant
Dermatologist, Nashik
Face Lift Surgery - The Associated Complications!

It is no longer possible to tell a person's age by simply looking at the face. With the advances in cosmetic surgery, today it is very easy to effectively hide your age. A facelift or rhytidectomy is a cosmetic surgical procedure to reduce wrinkles and improve the overall appearance of your face. A facelift is considered a relatively safe procedure.

However, like any other surgery, it is associated with few risks.

  1. Pain: While a facelift surgery itself is usually performed under anesthesia, recovering from it might be a little painful. Your skin may also feel numb for a few days. Taking the pain medications prescribed by your doctor can help relieve the pain. However, if the pain is severe or if it suddenly increases, you must consult your doctor immediately.
  2. Swelling: Don't worry if your face looks swollen after the surgery. This is simply your body's natural reaction to the surgery. You will notice this swelling reduce in a few days. Though most of the swelling will subside in the first few days after the surgery, it can take a few weeks before the swelling completely subsides.
  3. Bruising: Like swelling, bruising is a natural reaction to surgery. In most cases, people see pronounced bruising especially around the eyes in the first few days after the surgery. Most of this bruising will fade away in a few weeks, but it may be a few months before your skin is clear again.
  4. Scarring: As your face heals after a facelift surgery, scarring can be seen wherever the incisions were made. Most cosmetic surgeons will make these incisions along the hairline or the natural creases of the face. This ensures that the scars are not prominently visible. In most cases, scarring fades with time till it is barely noticeable.
  5. Bleeding and hematoma: A certain amount of bleeding is normal after a facelift surgery. However, excessive bleeding or uncontrolled bleeding can lead to the formation of hematomas. A hematoma can be defined as a blood clot that occurs under the skin and outside a blood vessel. This can leave the area swollen and a minor surgery may be required to flush out the clot.
  6. Loss of sensation: Sometimes, nerve endings may get damaged during a face lift surgery. This can result in temporary loss of sensation in the area and difficulty in controlling the facial muscles. There may also be numbness or a tingling sensation around the incisions.

Brain Surgery In Children - Common Do's & Don'ts!

Dr. Bsv Raju 88% (10 ratings)
M.Ch - Neuro Surgery, DNB (Orthopedics)
Neurosurgeon, Hyderabad
Brain Surgery In Children - Common Do's & Don'ts!
During brain surgery, the child might be woken up in the middle of the procedure. True or False? Take this quiz to know now.
Start Quiz

Hemorrhoids Surgery - 7 Tips To Help You Recover!

Dr. Srikrishna Das 86% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship in Laparoscopic and Robotic Onco-Surgery, Fellowship in bariatric surgery, F.I.A.G.E.S
General Surgeon, Delhi
Hemorrhoids Surgery - 7 Tips To Help You Recover!

Hemmorroids can be really uncomfortable and keep you in pain all through the day. One of the best and fastest way to get relief from this condition is to get them removed for good which can be easily done with the help of the surgery. The recovery period after a hemorrhoid surgery typically varies from one to two weeks depending on a host of aspects such as severity of hemorrhoids, the number of hemorrhoids as well as the type of treatment. During this span, a certain level of pain and discomfort is expected, but with some useful care tips, you can get some relief within a few days after the surgery.

  1. Making lifestyle changes: After the surgical intervention, the patient must be on bed rest for a week or so. This is because, during this time, the surgical wounds can reopen at any time if caution is not exercised. If you have excessive body weight, it is recommended that you should lose weight after this surgery. This must be done healthily so that the stress is reduced in the rectum area while an individual squat or sits down. This could lead to the recurrence of hemorrhoids in the long run. After the first few weeks, the patient must take a 10-minute brisk walk regularly.
  2. Take painkillers: In case the pain from hemorrhoids worsens after the surgery, you may consider taking painkillers. Many patients tend to use these medications to recover from hemorrhoids surgery, and you should take only prescription drugs only.
  3. Keep up with a healthy dietYou should make it a habit of eating a high-fiber diet and taking adequate amounts of fluid every day. This will not just accelerate the recovery process but prevent the recurrence of hemorrhoids. For best results, this should be practiced a few weeks before and after the surgery.
  4. Try different home remedies: In addition to the common methods of easing pain and discomfort after hemorrhoids surgery, you may also try different types of home remedies. Make sure that the wound is always clean and you can also use gels and creams for minimizing irritation.
  5. Alleviate itchiness: During the hemorrhoid surgery recovery, you are likely to experience itchiness which is a characteristic of a recovery period. This is a common symptom of external hemorrhoids, and to reduce it, you can take a sitz bath. Your doctor may also prescribe a topical medication depending on the location and severity of the problem.
  6. Educate yourself about the surgery and post-operative care: This is presumably the most important aspect of caring for hemorrhoids surgery. You should learn about the common complications of this surgery and how you can overcome them.
  7. Know when you can call a doctor: During the recovery process, it is critical to follow the instructions as given by the doctor. You should maintain the follow-up treatment with your doctor so that you can report him of any health problems and discomfort to take required steps.

With care and caution, you may recover easily from hemorrhoid surgery and return to normal life soon.

Ways Surgery Can Help With Severe Epilepsy!

Dr. Savitr Sastri 87% (73 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MBBS, MCh - Neuro Surgery
Neurosurgeon, Hyderabad
Ways Surgery Can Help With Severe Epilepsy!

The word epilepsy brings to mind visions of people frothing at the mouth and rolling on the ground. However, epilepsy affects each patient in a different way. This can make it hard to recognize at times. In the more serious cases of epilepsy, an epileptic attack can make a patient injure himself or develop other life threatening conditions. In rare cases, epilepsy can even cause death. Thus it becomes imperative to understand how to deal with epilepsy.

Treatment options for epilepsy can be categorized as medication, surgical procedures and dietary changes.

Medication
Medication for epilepsy is prescribed on the basis of the symptoms presented and the type of epilepsy the patient is suffering from. In most cases, seizures can be controlled with a single type of medication, but in others, the doctor may need to prescribe a combination of medicines to control epilepsy. These forms of medication do have side effects and hence any reactions to the medication must be immediately brought to the doctor's notice. The dosage for epilepsy medication may need to be varied with time. An epileptic patient should never discontinue medication on their own.

Surgery
Depending on the type of seizures and the area of the brain affected, a doctor may advise surgery in cases of severe epilepsy. Surgery can help reduce the number of seizures experienced or completely stop them. Surgery to treat epilepsy is of many types. Some of the common procedures are:

1. Surgery to remove tumor of any such conditions that may be triggering the epileptic attacks
2. Surgery to remove a small section of the brain from where a seizure originates. This may also be referred to as a lobectomy.
3. Multiple subpial transaction or a surgery that involves making a series of cuts in the brain to prevent the seizures from spreading to other parts of the brain.
4. Surgery to sever the neural connections between the right and left hemispheres of the brain.
5. Surgery to remove half the brain's cortex or outer layer

Dietary changes
A diet rich in fats and low in carbohydrates can help reduce seizures. This is known as a ketogenic diet and aims at making the body break down fats instead of carbohydrates. It can cause a buildup of uric acid in the body and thus should be practiced only under the guidance of a dietician. In cases where epileptic attacks are triggered by malnutrition and birth defects, taking vitamin supplements can help lower the frequency of seizures.

epilepsy Surgery

I have undergone bariatric surgery more than 18 months back and there is lot of hair fall. Could anyone suggest what care needs to be taken.

Dr. Nazima 85% (1361 ratings)
MD PHYSICIAN
General Physician, Delhi
I have undergone bariatric surgery more than 18 months back and there is lot of hair fall. Could anyone suggest what ...
Hair loss after bariatric surgery is very common. The hair loss associated with bariatric surgery is called telogen effluvium and has to do with the normal hair growth cycle. It usually starts abruptly and very seldom lasts longer than 6 months. 1) Relax and don’t worry. It is natural hair loss of 5-15% of your hair due to the stress of surgery and weight loss. It rarely lasts more than 6 months. It grows back. 2) Take a bariatric specific multi-vitamin with adequate B vitamins, folate, zinc and biotin. Don’t forget your B12 and calcium citrate with vitamin D supplements. 3) Avoid excessive vitamin A and high dose zinc supplements they are both potentially harmful. Add iron if you are iron deficient 4) get yourself evaluated for any underlying pathology like thyroid dysfunction or nutritional deficiency. You can use minoxidil therapy as this drug stimulate hair growth. Consult your treating doctor for the same.
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