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Know More About Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery Through Brain!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Neuro Surgery, FESBS
Neurosurgeon, Mumbai
Know More About Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery Through Brain!

The human skull is composed of several plates and pieces of bones. The roof of the skull is the top of your head. The base of the skull is, however, a complex area. It consists of 5 bones. These bones are also linked to your eye socket, the cavity of the nose, the sinuses and the bones of the inner ear. Surgery through the skull base can be quite complicated as quite a few nerves, blood vessels and opening of the spinal cord pass through this region.

When does Endoscopic Skull Based Surgery become necessary?
An endoscopic skull based surgery is performed to remove tumours of the brain. The tumour might be benign or malignant - this procedure is effective against both. This surgery can also be performed to cure any abnormality on the underside of the brain, the upper vertebrae of the spinal cord or the base of the skull.

Other conditions that may necessitate an endoscopic skull base surgery are -
Cysts in the brain
Swelling caused by infections
• Pituitary tumours
• Chordomas
Trigeminal neuralgia
• Cerebrospinal fluid fistulas
• Cerebral aneurysm

What to expect during this Surgery?
Since the base of the skull is a complicated region, surgery requires a delicate approach. That is why endoscopy is used. It is a minimally invasive procedure.
Right before the surgery, you will be put under general anaesthesia. Your skull has two natural openings- the nose and the mouth. Usually, the surgeon inserts the minute surgical instruments through the nose or the mouth. Sometimes, a tiny hole is drilled right above the eyebrows. A tiny camera mounted on a lighted tube will be led into your brain through the cavity that will send a live feed from the inside. This will direct the surgeons who will gently remove the growth or fix the abnormalities.
A team of doctors with different specializations such as ENT, radiology, neurosurgery come together to perform this surgery.

Complementary Procedures -
Depending on the kind of tumour being removed or the stage it was detected in, you might have to undergo any of the following in addition to endoscopic surgery-
• Radiation
• Particle Therapy
• Proton Beam Therapy

Post Surgery Care -
After the surgery, you will have to stay in the clinic or hospital for a number of days where your progress will be constantly monitored. You will require therapy and undergo MRI scans.
Endoscopic skull base surgery is very effective in dealing with tumours and abnormalities of the brain or the upper spinal cord. Keep your family and friends around you during the recovery phase as their love and support will help you get back to your normal lifestyle in no time.

1941 people found this helpful

ACL Reconstruction - Know Procedure Of It!

Dr.Sunil Kumar Dash 91% (77ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - Orthopedics, Fellowship, Depuy Joint Replacement
Orthopedic Doctor, Bhubaneswar
ACL Reconstruction - Know Procedure Of It!

The anterior cruciate ligament (acl) is a rope like connective tissue that gives support and stability to the knee, along with other related tissues. If you do not repair it, you can still perform many functions, and carry on with your life with little difficulty. However, surgery to correct the ligament tear is recommended if you do not want the injury to impede your sporting activities and want a 100% normal knee.

The acl reconstruction surgery can be performed in two ways, the arthroscopic method with incisions in the front and the new one which is more cosmetic and has lesser complications. Both of which you will find detailed below.

The latter is a wiser and more popular decision, and you will require a suitable surgeon well versed in the newer technique to perform the operation.

How is the surgery done?

Acl reconstruction surgery involves the following steps-

  1. The surgeon, after examination, makes sure whether you actually need to be operated on if you have approached in the early stages, a repair may be possible. This avoids the need for reconstructing a new ligament altogether.
  2. For an acl reconstruction the tissue, which will be inserted afresh in your body is extracted and prepared, either from your own body or from a donor’s body.
  3. A camera is affixed onto the surgical instrument, which makes your knee interiors visible to the surgeon during the operation.
  4. Anaesthesia is administered to you, and new tissue is inserted in place by passing it through a tunnel in your bone in a pioneering new technique, the tissue is derived from the back of your knee instead of the fron. This leaves minimal scars in your physical appearance on the front of your knee. This procedure is also not very invasive.

Surgeons are increasingly favouring acl reconstruction nowadays. The reasons for that are-

  • It helps patients who cannot do without their acls, like those engaged in competitive sports like football or mountain climbing.
  • It can help repair the chronic weakness of the knee and help people who have locomotive difficulties.
  • One can repair several ligaments including your acl if they are damaged at once, following an accident or fall.
  • To minimise tissue damage from surgery, the minimally invasive arthroscopic method is the way to go acl surgery including repairs are gaining in popularity, and those mentioned above are some of the reasons. The doctor will recommend this in case you have an injury like a vehicle crash, sports accident, or related trauma to the knee and surrounding regions.

Make sure you know your requirements and seek out a physician accordingly!

6082 people found this helpful

Skin Graft - Know Forms Of It!

Dr.Deepak Kothari 88% (1346ratings)
M Ch. Plastic Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Durg
Skin Graft - Know Forms Of It!

Skin graft is a form of a surgical procedure, which involves removal of the skin of a particular region of the body and transplanting it to a different body portion or to a separate individual. Grafting is usually recommended by the doctor if the patient has suffered from extreme burns or the protective layering of the skin of that particular region has been damaged because of extreme illness, bed sores sustained infection on the skin or repeated injuries. Grafting is also recommended as a procedure for nose and breast reconstruction surgeries. It is usually done with the help of local anaesthesia, making the procedure a less painful one.

There are two types of skin grafting procedures:
1. Split-level thickness grafts: The grafting in this procedure deals with the elimination of the epidermis and just a part of the dermis from the site of the healthy skin. These grafts are used to cover generally a large portion of the body. This form of grafting does not develop significantly with the other portions of the skin, so doctors recommend more split-level thickness grafts as the person ages. The grafts happen to be delicate, glossy and faded in comparison to the rest of the skin.

2. Full-thickness grafts: In this procedure, the grafting involves the subsequent removal of the blood vessels and the muscles along with the two skin layers from the donor site. This form of grafting is particularly useful in reconstructing small damages on the exposed portions of the body such as the face. This type adjusts well with the other portions of the skin and subsequently tends to merge with the rest of the skin.

The procedure will begin with the implementation of intravenous therapy (IV) on your wrist or hand on the day of the surgery. This therapy helps the doctor to provide you with the necessary medicines and fluids at any point of the surgery. Just a few minutes before the operation, the doctor will inject general anaesthesia through IV. After removal of the skin, preferably from the unexposed portions of the body, such as thigh and buttocks in the case of a split-level thickness graft and the abdomen and the chest in case of a full-thickness graft, the healthy skin is transplanted at the damaged spot and is fixed by subsequent stitching and dressing. The donor site will also be covered by appropriate dressing to prevent any further infection. After the completion of the surgery, it is recommended to take a few days’ rest before getting on with your daily life routine.

992 people found this helpful

How to Tighten Sagging Skin Without Surgery?

Dr.Nitin Jain 88% (284ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in Venerology & Dermatology (DVD), DDV, MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy
Dermatologist, Pune
How to Tighten Sagging Skin Without Surgery?

As we age, the fat volume on our face slowly starts decreasing. This results in the skin hanging loose and sagging down. Wrinkles also appear on the surface of the skin. This phenomenon is purely natural and happens to every human being with age. Maintaining freshness and everlasting youth is quite a tough task. Loosened skin does not look good and cuts down your appeal. However, there are some natural ways of skin tightening, which may make your skin maintain its tightness for a longer time period. Nowadays, surgeries for skin tightening are popular, but sticking to natural means is always best for your body. 

Here are some common ways of skin tightening:

Facial Masks: Facial masks are effective in removing extra oil from the skin. Accumulated dirt on your skin pores is also cleansed by using facial masks. They are pocket friendly and as an outcome, you look fresh and glowing.

Facial Massages: Good quality moisturizers and special lotions are good for skin tightening. These have to be massaged onto your face in a circular pattern. Due to rubbing of the lotion on your skin, it reaches the inside and provides nourishment. You should preferably apply these creams or moisturizers before going to bed as new skin cells replace existing ones during the night time. The skin is very delicate and proper care must be taken.

Exercise: Exercising on a regular basis is a healthy habit, and it also helps in skin tightening. Women in their pregnancy stages, experience sagging or loosening of the skin. Inversion exercises help in increasing blood flow to a great extent and are recommended for tightening of facial skin. Performing a headstand rejuvenates skin cells. This is because, while doing a headstand the blood flows in the direction of your head.

A balanced diet and plenty of water intake: If you want to maintain tight skin tissue, a proper balanced diet is quite essential. Your diet should comprise of every vital nutrient. Ensure that you are including a sufficient amount of proteins, minerals and vitamins in your diet. Fresh fruits and vegetables account for natural skin tightening. Fibers must also be consumed. Intake of plenty of water is very important for healthy skin. You should drink more than 4 liters of water a day. In case of hot and humid days, the amount should be increased even more.

If you maintain the stated points in your life, you will be able to naturally maintain your skin tightness and keep away from surgery.

8238 people found this helpful

Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery - What Should You Know?

Dr.Jyoti Prakash 88% (39ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedic Doctor, Kolkata
Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery - What Should You Know?

The spinal cord is such a crucial part of the body, and an injury to it can really change people’s lives for the worse. After all, controlling our movements, our sense of feeling and directing the limbs, among other things, makes it so very important. It does happen sometimes that injury to it requires surgery. Isn’t the prospect of the surgery going wrong quite a scary one?

For decades, whenever surgery to the spine was required, the surgeon needed to cut open the skin covering the spine as well as some extra skin, perhaps to see what needed to be done and then go ahead and carry out what was actually required. What this basically meant is that surgery resulted in more damage to the muscles and skin. This led to people taking longer to recover.

Most of the injuries that surgeons who specialise in surgeries of the spine comes across are decompressions and fusion of the spine. While the old style open surgery was popular, it is good to know minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) is a possibility since it is spreading across the medical world and makes so much sense.

So, what can a person look forward to while having an MISS, as compared to the conventional kind? When it comes to MISS, the incisions which have to be made in most of the cases are very small. Generally, they should not be longer than a few inches. The reason why they need to be made is so that the equipment can be inserted into the body and so can a camera so that the surgeon can see what he or she is doing with sufficient amount of accuracy. Moreover, since the incision is small, the blood loss is less and the scar on the patient’s body is also small.

Well, the best part is that it will take far less time for the patient to get up and running again. The return to activities, which were part and parcel of one’s daily routine, will take a lot less time. This also means that the medical costs which one would need to bear would be lower as a person would be able to move back home from the hospital a lot sooner than would normally be the case.

Considering this, there is not much to “MISS” about the era of open surgery!

1411 people found this helpful

Facial Cosmetic Surgery - 10 Top Tips To Make It A Safer Process!

Dr.S Radhakrishnan Nair 91% (71ratings)
MBBS, MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy
Cosmetic Physician, Trivandrum
Facial Cosmetic Surgery - 10 Top Tips To Make It A Safer Process!

Thanks to cosmetic surgery, today, it is possible to alter your facial features any way you want. For some it's a way to reverse signs of aging while for others it may be to restructure a part of their face that they are not comfortable with. Whatever be your reason, here are ten tips to ensure safer facial cosmetic surgery.

  1. Have the right motivation: Cosmetic surgery will change the way you look, not your lifestyle. Do not undergo such a surgery if you think it will give you a new lifestyle.
  2. Have realistic expectations: Going under a plastic surgeon's knife can alter your facial feature, but only up to a limit. You may want your nose to look like that of your favourite actress, but the end result of the surgery will depend on the bone and cartilage structure of your nose. Having unrealistic expectations can take away from the satisfaction of plastic surgery. 
  3. Find a surgeon who shares your aesthetic sense: If you and your surgeon do not share the same ideas on what looks good, you may end up with a result you are not satisfied with. Before deciding on a doctor, take a look at photographs of their earlier clients.
  4. Be wary of promotions that offer to pay for your surgery: Cosmetic surgery is expensive, but do not try and save money by choosing to work with inexperienced doctors. 
  5. Meet the entire surgical team: Along with the doctor it is also important to meet the other members of the surgical team. Also, take a look at the facilities offered and the type of surgical atmosphere available.
  6. Have a clear written plan for the surgery and possible follow up procedures: Cosmetic surgeries often require multiple procedures. Ask your doctor for a clear plan with all the costs involved. 
  7. Ensure that you have an aftercare plan: On the off chance that something does not go according to plan, ensure that you know what is to be done and insist on an aftercare treatment from your doctor.
  8. Have a strong support system in place: It will take a few months for the effects of your surgery to be visible. Until then, your face may appear swollen and bruised. Get support from your friends and family as this may keep you indoors for awhile. 
  9. Be aware of the risks: Like any other surgery, this one too has risks associated with it. Ensure that you are aware of these risks so that you can make an informed decision. 
  10. Don't rush your decision: Lastly, take your time deciding on the exact procedure you want. Remember that the effects of cosmetic surgery are permanent.
1235 people found this helpful

Laparoscopic Treatment For Different Types Of Hernia Repair!

Dr.Amitava Chakraborty 89% (13ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Surgeon, Kolkata
Laparoscopic Treatment For Different Types Of  Hernia Repair!

Laparoscopy surgery is a very vital component of the hernia repair. Studies have shown that many patients have a better outcome when they opt for laparoscopic surgery. Candidates eligible for this mode of surgery include those with bilateral inguinal hernias, ventral hernias, and recurrent hernia. People associated with athletics and other outdoor sports prefer to go for a laparoscopic hernia surgery as it ensures a speedy recovery and minimal tissue invasion (due to small incisions).

Laparoscopic hernia repair- inguinal 
Laparoscopic surgery requires an incision of 1-2 cm at the belly (at the lower end). Two small punctures are done near the umbilicus. The punctures are done to make room for the cameras so that the surgeon is able to view the abdomen clearly. The smaller incisions allow the operating instrument to enter into the stomach.

The Procedure:
A balloon is placed in between the abdomen and the overlying muscle so that the peritoneum can be separated. When space is successfully made, the camera comes into the action to view the condition of a hernia. A hernia is pulled from its hole into the abdomen. Once the hole is detected, the defect of a hernia is fixed.

Laparoscopic hernia repair- incisional/ventral: Laparoscopic hernia repair is suitable for all types of a hernia such as an umbilical hernia, ventral hernia, recurrent umbilical hernia, epigastric hernia, etc. Just like an inguinal hernia, A camera is placed into the abdomen through the muscles. Two small incisions are made for the operating instruments to get through. This is followed by the cutting of the tissue that is placed between a hernia and the intestine. The hole thus gets exposed. Through one of the laparoscopic ports, the hernia mesh gets rolled and is placed into the abdomen. A hernia is then pulled up and the mesh gets secured with 4 sutures. A special device is used to fix healthy muscle.

Tension-free repair: “Tension-free” repair is often used to symbolize hernia surgery. A hernia is often triggered by the weakened muscles. Few surgeons endeavors to sew the muscle around the area of a hernia. Since the muscles surrounding the hernia are weak in the first place, they pull apart causing a recurrence of a hernia. To avoid this, most surgeons use a mesh to strengthen the cells around the hernia region. This procedure ensures that the muscles aren’t sewn but the mesh placed over the hole can prevent the muscle to push through the walls of the abdomen.

The use of mesh: There are some reservations about using the mesh in hernia surgery. However, this is the safest and most appropriate way to perform a hernia laparoscopic surgery. The use of a mesh also negates the risk of open incisions and recurrence of a hernia.

1742 people found this helpful

Cornea Transplant - What Should You Know?

Dr.Anurag Bansal 85% (14ratings)
DNB Ophtalmology, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Ludhiana
Cornea Transplant - What Should You Know?

The cornea is the front layer of eyes that helps in focusing light to see objects clearly. In a cornea transplant surgery, the damaged cornea tissue is replaced by healthy donor tissue. In medical terms, it is known as keratoplasty for a corneal graft. The cornea needs to be clear, smooth, and healthy for a good vision.  An unhealthy cornea leads to blurry vision.

Before transplanting cornea, doctors also try to treat the problem with other methods. However, if the condition is not getting better, Corneal Transplantation is advised.


A damaged Cornea leads to blurry and changed vision. The damage can affect the daily life of the sufferer. A cornea surgery may need for the following reasons:

  1. Change of shape of cornea (keratoconus)

  2. Swollen or cloudy cornea

  3. Bacterial, viral, or fungal infection in cornea

  4. Other refractive surgeries

  5. Eye injury

  6. Hereditary conditions (dystrophies)

  7. Thinning of cornea


The cornea can heal itself from minor infections and injuries during which itching, redness, pain, blurred vision, and sensitivity towards light are some common symptoms. But, if it continues for a long time, one should see an eye specialist to determine the severity of the condition and undergo some lab tests. The patients sometimes are prescribed with medications before the surgery depending on the severity of their corneal damage. 


Following are the Corneal Transplantation options depending upon the severity of the condition:

  1. Full Thickness Corneal Transplant: It is also known as Penetrating Keratoplasty (PK). This transplant is needed when both the inner and outer layers of the cornea are damaged. In this type of transplant, all the layers of the cornea are replaced by healthy tissues. The recovering period of this surgery can take more than a year, which is the longest as compared to the other types of corneal surgeries. It has a higher risk as the immune system of the patient can attack the donor’s cornea.

  2. Partial-Thickness Corneal Transplant: It is also known as Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK). In this type of surgery, only the outer and middle layers of the cornea are replaced by the new ones. It is done to treat the bulging of the cornea (keratoconus). The procedure and recovery from this surgery takes less time than the full thickness corneal transplant.

  3. Endothelial Keratoplasty: This transplant is used for post-cataract surgery complications. It is needed when the innermost layer (endothelium) of the cornea is damaged. With this surgery, the innermost layer of the cornea is replaced with the new and healthy one. In this surgery, most part of the cornea is left untouched lowering the chances of corneal rejection past surgery. The healing process of this type of surgery is quicker than the other two.

Post-surgery Prevention:

Some of the preventive measures one should follow after the surgery are:

  1. Avoid using electronics like mobile, television, laptop, etc.

  2. Avoid rubbing of eyes.

  3. Avoid exposure to sun or very bright light.

  4. Avoid exposure to dust.

  5. Do not use any eye-drops without doctor’s suggestion.

Take Away:

Corneal transplant is indeed a subject of concern and it is an important surgical transplant. The damaged cornea can lead to blindness or very close to blindness condition if not taken seriously. But with today’s technology, one can easily go through the surgery and taking certain precautions leads to a normal healthy life. However, consulting an experienced and skilled cornea consultant for the transplant-related queries is always advisable.

1900 people found this helpful

Pancreatectomy - Know Procedure Of It!

Dr.Atul Mishra 87% (27ratings)
MBBS, MS General Surgery, FRCS
General Surgeon, Ludhiana
Pancreatectomy - Know Procedure Of It!

Pancreas are a small, but a pretty important part of a person’s digestive system. So when it needs to be removed, the reason has got to be quite serious, to say the least, doesn’t it? The procedure is known formally as pancreatectomy and it is most often required for people who are suffering from cancer of the pancreas. Ideally, these people would only need the cancerous tumours removed, but things are not always this simple. As a matter of fact, only a little more than a tenth of the people who have pancreatic cancer can have the tumour alone removed. As a result, most need to go for a pancreatectomy, which involves removing the entire pancreas. Whether the pancreas can be kept is usually related to how soon the cancer was detected, with people who have done so in time being a majority of the 10% of people with pancreatic cancer who have not needed pancreatectomies.

If a person does not have cancer, the reason he or she may need a pancreatectomy due to an accident which has injured the area significantly badly. In this case, a procedure which is known as a partial pancreatectomy is carried out on the patient. The good news is that the success rate of this sort of operation is generally quite high and the long-term effects on the body are nil. This is the case in spite of a lot of the normal tissue of the pancreas being removed, pretty amazing, isn’t it?

While it may be called a pancreatectomy, it does not always mean that the pancreas is the only thing that is removed. In fact, in a lot of pancreatectomies, the surgeons also remove other parts of the digestive system which are usually the common bile duct, the spleen and the gallbladder.

There is, of course, the case of chronic pancreatitis, which occurs when the organ just swells up repeatedly. The repeated swelling leads to permanent damage to it, which affects the rest of the body, too. In most cases, the cause of this happens to be a sustained addiction to alcohol. When this is the case, it is really hard to perform a pancreatectomy and the utility of the pancreas is greatly reduced. Not a good situation to be in, under any circumstances, at all!

A pancreatectomy is a process which nobody would voluntarily wish to undergo, but there are advantages to knowing what it is, in any case!

2307 people found this helpful

LASIK - Know Misconceptions About It!

Dr.Anurag Bansal 85% (14ratings)
DNB Ophtalmology, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Ludhiana
LASIK - Know Misconceptions About It!

One of the most cutting edge eye procedures which have been very successful in practice and has been loved by millions of patients is LASIK. LASIK is a form of eye surgery performed with the help of a precise laser and is very effective in correcting nearsightedness, farsightedness as well as astigmatism (imperfections with the shape of the cornea). With any such procedure, there are bound to be myths which arise out of misconceptions. Some of those myths as well as the advantages of LASIK have been enumerated below.

Myth # 1 – Lasik can only be performed up to a certain age
Many people think that LASIK cannot be performed on people of advanced age. This is a misconception as LASIK has been performed on people above 90 as well. There are some considerations however, such as the health of the person and the condition of the eyes. If there are no medical objections, then LASIK can be performed regardless of the age of the person. Doctors also tend to wait until young adulthood (around 18-20 years of age) before performing LASIK. However, LASIK procedures have been performed on young children with severe vision problems as well.

Myth # 2 – The technology behind LASIK is too new and thus not yet perfected
This is yet another commonly propagated myth about LASIK. The technology for this procedure has been around for quite some time and has ben performed with increasing regularity since the 1980s. There have been multiple long term studies done on people who underwent LASIK surgery and almost all of them have had favourable results both in the short term as well as the long term. It is a properly established field and means of treatment within ophthalmology and is subject to the same stringent standards testing as other treatments within the field of medicine.

Myth # 3 – LASIK can cause many complications such as dry eyes and night glares
Any surgical procedure has a certain chance of complications occurring. However, LASIK tends to have very low occurrences of complications. What many people tend to confuse complications with is the normal healing procedure. Dry eyes and night glares usually occur after the first few weeks of the procedure and is part of the healing process of the body. It usually tends to go away with the first few months itself.

Myth # 4 – Contact lenses are better than LASIK
While contact lenses do serve a purpose in correcting vision, they can often contribute to eye infections as well as irritations and headaches. Also, contact lenses need to be changed every few weeks or so. LASIK surgery eliminates all of these hassles and you can have perfectly clear vision without having to worry about all the problems that contact lenses bring with them.

Myth # 5 – The LASIK procedure is painful
No other myth is farther from the truth. In this procedure, the surgeon creates a thin flap-like structure out of the tissue within the cornea with the help of a laser. This layer is then used to reshape the cornea and thus correct vision problems. Antiseptic and numbing eye drops are used when performing this surgery which results in minimal discomfort that only stays during the initial stages.

1713 people found this helpful

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