Vaginal Vault Prolapse is the condition where the upper portion of vagina may lose its normal shape and drop or sag down into the vaginal canal or maybe even outside the vagina. This may occur after a hysterectomy or even simultaneously with uterine prolapse.
The treatment of vaginal vault prolapse varies with the severity and extremity of your symptoms. Your health care provider may suggest medications and physical therapy to treat your condition if you feel that the prolapse is not bothersome. However, you might have to undergo surgery later if your symptoms worsen and the prolapse affects your quality of life and hinders functional ability. You must keep in mind that usually more than one area is affected by weakness in your pelvic floor.
The symptoms of Vaginal Vault Prolapse include- backache, pelvic heaviness, bulging mass into or sometimes outside your vagina that hinders normal activities such as walking and sitting, vaginal bleeding and releasing urine involuntarily.
Most of the women with this condition usually go through menopause around the same time. Since the estrogen levels are severely lowered during menopause, it causes vaginal dryness. Discussing about estrogen therapy with your health care provider is a must if you wish to remedy your vaginal dryness. Not every woman should take estrogen so it is imperative to talk to a medical expert first. Usually women are treated with estrogens before they go into surgery.
2. Physical Therapy
Most health care experts recommend pelvic floor exercises as physical therapy using biofeedback so as to strengthen the specific muscles of your pelvic floor. Biofeedback is the usage of monitoring devices that contain sensors and are placed either in your rectum, vagina or on your skin. Biofeedback is very important because it tells you the strength of each muscle you are squeezing i.e. contractions, and if you are squeezing the right muscles in order to perform the exercise correctly. Long term usage of biofeedback in physical therapy leads to strengthening of your muscles and a reduction in your symptoms.
Corrective surgery may be performed on you by the surgeon either through the abdomen or vagina. If the surgeon is performing the corrective surgery through the vagina, he will use the ligaments which support the uterus to solve the problem.
If you are about to undergo a knee replacement surgery, it is important to know the extent of pain that it involves, and the recovery period that follows. A knee replacement surgery is a major surgery, and a patient needs a lot of time to adjust to the replacement of his knee. The time of recovery depends on the patient and form of surgery that has been undertaken. The steps of recovery after a knee replacement surgery are as follows:
Recovery at home
The recovery process usually continues for two years after undergoing the surgery. During this period, scar tissue heals and your muscles get restored through exercises. It is recommended for you to avoid any kind of extreme sports or movements in which there is a risk of falling, such as mountain biking, or skiing.
Enlarged prostate surgery is a very common type of surgery that many have to undergo nowadays. An enlarged prostate causes many health problems including urinary tract obstructions and urinary tract infections. It may also lead to the passing of blood via urine. Thus, enlarged prostate must be treated as soon as possible as neglect may lead to prostate cancer and its associated health issues. There are various types of prostate surgeries that a doctor performs on his/her patients. However, of late, radical prostatectomy is the most popular of them all.
What is Radical Prostatectomy?
This process can be handled in two ways. Firstly, the prostate can be reached through an incision in the abdomen. This would help the doctor work with precision and carefully avoid all the other nerves and muscles in the area the operation take places. The prostate is examined and any nodule or lymph formed over it is carefully removed.
The advantage of this surgery is that the patient is less likely to suffer from any erectile problems post- surgery. The second option would be to make an incision between the scrotum and the anus. This process is best for those who are obese. The surgery is performed quickly and there is less loss of blood. Furthermore, the healing time is less too.
How To Recover From The Surgery?
Like most other prostate operations, even in radical prostatectomy, you would have to wear a catheter till you recover completely. For a few days post the surgery your urine would be collected through a urine bag attached to the catheter. One might feel a little sore in his/her genitals after the surgery, but that is quite normal to occur. The soreness is caused due to the surgery and the incisions made and would heal in a matter of a few days.
Interestingly, since the urethra plays an important role in this surgery, the catheter has to be in place for at least two to three weeks but the patient can be discharged after a two to three night stay at the hospital. It is advised that the patient takes ample rest. But this does not mean all rest and no work. In fact, it is seen that patients can walk a little and even go back to a normal diet within a week to ten days of the operation. But regular checkups, till the urethra is healed, are compulsory.
Hence, these are some of the recovery procedures after an enlarged prostate surgery. Such surgeries are quite common and heal quickly.
Cataract can be defined as the clouding of the natural lenses in the eyes. This is caused by the clumping of protein in the eye lens. Cataract is a common eye disorder and the leading cause of loss of vision in people who are past their fortieth birthday. Cataract can occur in one or both eyes. When diagnosed properly, cataract can be treated with surgery to prevent blindness.
Depending on where and how they develop, there are many types of cataract. The most common amongst these are:
1. Subcapsular cataract
These occur at the back of the eye lens. Diabetic patients are very susceptible to this kind of cataract.
2. Nuclear cataract
Yellowish-brown cataract that form in the center of the lens are called nuclear cataract. This is usually seen in cataract caused by ageing.
3. Cortical cataract
Cataract in the lens cortex are known as cortical cataract. These are wedge shaped and whitish in color. Spokes protruding out of these opaque wedges can be seen moving towards the center of the eye.
4. Congenital cataract
Though they are not common, babies can also have cataract. Cataract formed at birth or within the first year of a baby's birth are known as congenital cataract.
5. Secondary cataract
6. Traumatic cataract
If your vision becomes cloudy years after an eye injury, it could be a traumatic cataract. It can take several years for this to happen.
7. Radiation cataract
Though the type of cataract might differ from person to person, the symptoms are usually the same. Some of the common symptoms of cataract are:
1. Blurred vision
2. Reduced night vision
3. Increased sensitivity to light and glare
4. Seeing halos around lights
5. Colors appearing faded
6. Double vision
A reading test is the first step towards diagnosing cataracts. This is followed by tests to measure the eye pressure. Your doctor will also need to dilate the pupil to check the condition of the optic nerves and retina.
Surgery is the safest way to remove a cataract. Surgery is usually recommended when cataract begin inhibiting your daily life such as preventing you from driving, interfering with reading etc.
In most cases, this can be done as an outpatient procedure. The earlier it is diagnosed, the easier it is to treat. Hence, if you notice any of the symptoms mentioned above, get your eyes checked at once. The surgery is a day-care surgery only, so a person can go home the same day.
Once the heart surgery is complete, the initial recovery process from the wounds and incisions can take almost two months. The doctor will give you instructions on how to take care of yourself post-surgery so you recuperate faster and be back in the pink of health.
Road to recovery
Overview - INGUINAL HERNIA
An inguinal hernia occurs when tissue, such as part of the intestine, protrudes through a weak spot in the abdominal muscles. The resulting bulge can be painful, especially when you cough, bend over or lift a heavy object.An inguinal hernia isn't necessarily dangerous, however, it can lead to life-threatening complications. Inguinal hernia repair is a common surgical procedure.
If you aren't able to push the hernia in, the contents of the hernia can be trapped (incarcerated) in the abdominal wall. An incarcerated hernia can become strangulated, which cuts off the blood flow to the tissue that's trapped. A strangulated hernia can be life-threatening if it isn't treated.
Signs and symptoms of a strangulated hernia
Signs and symptoms in children
1. Pressure on surrounding tissues
Most inguinal hernias enlarge over time if not repaired surgically. In men, large hernias can extend into the scrotum, causing pain and swelling.
2. Incarcerated hernia
If the contents of the hernia become trapped in the weak point in the abdominal wall, it can obstruct the bowel, leading to severe pain, nausea, vomiting, and the inability to have a bowel movement or pass gas.
An incarcerated hernia can cut off blood flow to part of your intestine. Strangulation can lead to the death of the affected bowel tissue. A strangulated hernia is life-threatening and requires immediate surgery.
A physical exam is usually all that's needed to diagnose an inguinal hernia. Your doctor will check for a bulge in the groin area.
.If the diagnosis isn't readily apparent, your doctor might order an imaging test, such as an abdominal ultrasound, CT scan or MRI.
If your hernia is small and isn't bothering you, your doctor might recommend watchful waiting.
Enlarging or painful hernias usually require surgery to relieve discomfort and prevent serious complications.
There are two general types of hernia operations — open hernia repair and laparoscopic repair. Open hernia repair - In this procedure, which might be done with spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia, the surgeon makes an incision in your groin and pushes the protruding tissue back into your abdomen. The surgeon then sews the weakened area, often reinforcing it with a synthetic mesh (hernioplasty). The opening is then closed with stitches, staples or surgical glue.After the surgery, you'll be encouraged to move about as soon as possible, but it might be several weeks before you're able to resume normal activities.
COMPARISON OF OPEN AND LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY
In this minimally invasive procedure, which requires general anesthesia, the surgeon operates through several small incisions in your abdomen. Gas is used to inflate your abdomen to make the internal organs easier to see.A tiny camera (laparoscope) is inserted into one incision. Guided by the camera, the surgeon inserts tiny instruments through other incisions to repair the hernia using synthetic mesh.People who have laparoscopic repair might have less discomfort and scarring after surgery and a quicker return to normal activities.
It also might be a good choice for people with hernias on both sides of the body (bilateral).
LIFT (LIGATION OF INTERNAL FISTULA TRACT ) MININAL INVASIVE PROCEDURE FOR FISTULA IN ANO
What is Fistula in Ano?
A fistula-in-ano is an abnormal tract with an external opening in the perianal area that is communicating with the rectum or anal canal by an identifiable internal opening. Most fistulas are thought to arise as a result of cryptoglandular infection with resultantperirectal abscess.
LIFT (ligation of internal fistula tract) technique is yet another approach in treating a fistula-in-ano.
LIFT procedure is based on secure closure of the internal opening and removal of infected cryptoglandular tissue through the intersphincteric approach. The LIFT technique is often performed for complex or deep fistulas. The procedure allows surgeon to access the fistula between the sphincter muscles and avoid cutting them.
Laparoscopic surgery is also called minimally invasive surgery. It leads to a lesser amount of pain after the surgery, and therefore requires less medication also. It reduces the possibility of hemorrhage, thereby the lowering the possibility of requiring blood transfusion. The smaller length and depth of the incision also means that the patient recovers from the surgery faster than usual. There is also a lesser chance of contracting infections because a larger number of organs remain unexposed and therefore uncontaminated. Laparoscopic surgeries also cause smaller, lighter scars once the surgery wound heals completely.
However, as with any surgery, complications may occur during the course of laparoscopic surgery.
1. Wound infection: Even though laparoscopic surgery is minimally invasive and the possibility of contracting infections is considerably less, the wound is capable of getting infected. Hence it is essential to maintain the cleanliness and hygiene recommendations provided by the concerned medical staff. It is also assumed that the surgeons would prevent this possibility by maintaining strict protocols regarding this issue on their part.
2. Bruising: After surgery, depending on the type and duration of the procedure, the patient is always advised to follow certain restrictions regarding mobility and restriction of normal day to day functioning. These rules must be followed in order to prevent the possibility of bruising after a laparoscopic surgery.
3. Hematoma formation: A hematoma is an accumulation of blood outside the blood vessel. This is not normal at all and requires urgent inspection and treatment. This is a relatively common complication that happens after a laparoscopic surgical procedure. Precautions are taken by surgeons to avoid this but it may still occur. It needs to be diagnosed early, and then the bleeding vessel needs to be emobilized selectively in order to reduce any further complication of this type.
4. Anesthesia-related complications: To prevent anesthesia related complications during laparoscopic surgery, it is essential that procedures related to the airways, ventilation, analgesia, antimetics are followed in the preoperative state.
5. Any injury that may be inflicted on the blood vessels present in the walls of the abdomen or on the sidewall in the pelvic region, as well as injuries in the bowel area and the urinary tract: Proper protocol must be followed by the doctor to avoid such complications as much as possible.
A brain stroke can affect anyone at any point of time when the supply of blood to the brain is interrupted. It can threaten major physical functions and can prove to be fatally dangerous at times. The brain stem which is placed right above the spinal cord controls the breathing, heartbeat and levels of blood pressure. It is also in charge of controlling some elementary functions such as swallowing, hearing, speech and eye movements.
What are the different types of strokes?
There are three main kinds of stroke: ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes and transient ischemic attacks. The most common type of brain stroke is the ischemic stroke is caused by narrowing or blocking of arteries to the brain, which prevents the proper supply of blood to the brain. Sometimes it so happens that the blood clot that has formed elsewhere in the body have travelled via the blood vessels and has been trapped in the blood vessel which provides blood to the brain. When the supply of blood to a part of the brain is hindered, the tissue in that area dies off owing to lack of oxygen. The other variant of brain stroke is termed as hemorrhagic stroke is caused when the blood vessels in and around the brain burst or leak. Strokes need to be diagnosed and treated as quickly as possible in order to minimize brain damage. Remembering the F.A.S.T. acronym can help with recognizing the onset of stroke (Face, Arms, Speed, Time - explained below).
What are the common symptoms of a brain stroke?
The symptoms of the brain stroke are largely dependent on the area of the brain that has been affected. It can interfere with normal functioning, such as breathing and talking and other functions which human beings can perform without thinking such as eye movements or swallowing. Since all the signals from the brain as well as other parts of the body traverse through the brain stem, the interruption of blood flow often leads to numbness or paralysis in different parts of the body.
Who is likely to have a stroke?
Anyone is at a risk of developing brain stroke although ageing is directly proportional to the risk of having a stroke. Not only that an individual with a family history of brain stroke or transient ischemic attack is at a higher risk of developing stroke. People who have aged over 65 accounts for about 33 percent of all brain strokes. It is important to point here that individuals with high blood pressure, high blood sugar, cholesterol, cancer, autoimmune diseases and some blood disorders are at a higher risk of developing brain stroke.
There are a few factors which can increase the risk of developing stroke beyond any control. But there are certain lifestyle choices as well which aids in controlling the chances of being affected by stroke. It is crucial to refrain from long-term hormone replacement therapies as well as birth control pills, smoking, lack of physical activity, excessive use of alcohol and drug addiction. A brain stroke is a life-threatening medical condition, and when an individual has symptoms that resemble that of stroke, it is crucial to seek immediate medical help.
Treatment for stroke
What is TPA?
TPA is a thrombolytic or a “Clot Buster” drug. This clot buster is used to break-up the clot that is causing a blockage or disruption in the flow of blood to the brain and helps restore the blood flow to the area of the brain. It is given by intravenous (IV). This can be given only within 4.5 hrs of the onset of symptoms
Time is brain
Another treatment option is an endovascular procedure* called mechanical thrombectomy, strongly recommended, in which trained doctors try removing a large blood clot by sending a wired-caged device called a stent retriever, to the site of the blocked blood vessel in the brain
The good news is that 80 percent of all strokes are preventable. It starts with managing key risk factors, including
The best way to get better after a stroke is to start stroke rehabilitation ("rehab"). In stroke rehab, a team of health professionals works with you to regain skills you lost as the result of a stroke.
Laparoscopic surgery is also known as minimal invasive surgery. The smaller length and depth of the incision leads to faster recovery than usual. It causes smaller, lighter scars once the surgery wound heals completely.
In the procedure, small tubes, surgical instruments and video cameras are used for operations through small incisions or cuts in your body. The procedure has become very popular in recent times.
However, there are some myths around it which you shouldn't believe:
Myth: If you've undergone multiple abdominal surgeries in the past, you can't opt for a laparoscopy.
The truth is that you can go for a laparoscopy even if you've gone through multiple surgeries previously, irrespective of the location or size of the previous incisions. This is done through the use of a special instrument, called a microlaparscope that enables safe entry into the abdomen of the patient.
Myth: If you're overweight or underweight, you can't undergo a laparoscopy
No matter if you're obese or too thin, you can still undergo a laparoscopy as the tools used for this surgical procedure are available in different lengths and sizes, and can be adjusted as per the body type of the patient before the incision is made.
Myth: The images taken through a laparoscope are of poor quality This is not true. In fact, the visuals obtained through a laparoscope are clearer and much more accurate when compared to those obtained via an open surgery. The visuals of a video laparoscopy provide a detailed magnification of even those parts of the area that are inaccessible by the human eye.
Besides, you should also be aware of the complications to deal with the procedure better post surgery: