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Surgery Tips

Post Knee Replacement - 5 Exercises That Can Help You Recover Fast!

Dr. Aparna Pradhan 88% (96 ratings)
BPTh/BPT, MPT
Physiotherapist, Pune
Post Knee Replacement - 5 Exercises That Can Help You Recover Fast!

The after effects of any surgery can be harsh on the body. Post knee replacement surgery, one will need to remain in a straight and relaxed position for a long time due to the bed rest prescribed by the orthopaedic specialist. Yet, it is important to carry out some kind of activity after the surgery so as to make the knee strong, firm and ready to be normal again.

Here are a few physiotherapy exercises that can help post knee replacement patients: 

  • Heel Slide: The heel slide is a good option for those who are going through bed rest. This exercise ensures that you work your knee in a suitable way as the bending motion gets the knee to get used to being functional again. Due to the posture of the patient, this does not put pressure on the knee. Slowly bring your heel up, stop and then slide it down. Repeat at least ten times for each knee before increasing it to twenty times. 
  • Kicks: While you are lying down, you can render small kicks into the air. Repeat at least ten times for each leg before increasing it gradually to twenty kicks per leg. This should be done when you are lying flat on your back. This exercise can help in flexing and strengthening your quadriceps. Hold the kick for at least five to ten seconds before you relax and repeat with the other leg. 
  • Sitting Flex: You can also sit in a chair and flex your knee, holding the leg out in front of you for at least five to ten seconds, before slowly bringing it down and lifting again. This will help in strengthening the thigh and knee to a great extent.

You will need to exercise regularly in order to recover well after a knee replacement procedure.

Weight Loss Surgery - 4 Types Of It!

Dr. Nitin Jha 86% (14 ratings)
FAIS, FIAGES, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Noida
Weight Loss Surgery - 4 Types Of It!

Obesity is unarguably one of the most regularly discussed topics around the world. A major section of the world's population is suffering from a variety of obesity related problems. There are a number of natural methods to check obesity; however, several medical surgeries are gaining popularity among the masses with instant results to reduce weight.

Here is a list of the most common types of weight loss surgeries:

1. Gastric sleeve surgery: This surgery is performed where removal of a large part of the stomach takes place. A long pouch is created, which connects the small intestine with the oesophagus. The pouch gets stapled and after that the other parts of the stomach are reduced. In some cases, an additional step is taken for reinforcement of the staple line.

Gastric sleeve reduces the size of the stomach and a patient will feel full after eating lesser amount of food. Because a portion of the stomach is reduced, lesser amount of hunger causing hormones are produced. The patient will therefore feel less hungry.

2. Gastric bypass surgery: This is another effective weight loss surgery, which reduces the patient's stomach size, resulting in reduced appetite. The intestines are rearranged, which makes the body absorb fewer minerals. While performing this surgery, the stomach is cut and stapled to create a pouch. 

The remaining stomach is attached to the small intestine's top portion, and the small intestine is cut and attached to the pouch as well. After this, the end portion of the small intestine is connected with the non-pouch part of the stomach and is attached to the roux limb bottom. This makes the stomach's digestive juices to meet the food present in the intestines.

3. Duodenal switch: This surgery reduces the stomach size in patients, which leads to decreased appetite or craving for food. Fewer hormones, which cause hunger, are secreted and the rearrangement of the intestine causes the body to absorb minimal minerals or calories.

A part of the stomach is removed and a pouch is created. The small intestine's top portion is cut off, but the duodenum is kept attached to the stomach. The small intestines are cut, and the part attached to the large intestine called colon is connected with the duodenum. Finally, the loose end of the small intestine gets attached to the small intestine to enable digestive juices to mix with food.

4. Lap band surgery: By this surgery, a band is wrapped around the upper middle section of the stomach which squeezes the stomach. Thus a smaller section of the stomach is created above the band which fills up very quickly while having food. The patient feels full by eating less. A laparoscopic adjustable gastric band is used.

There are many different weight loss surgeries. Most of them aim at reducing the capacity of the stomach, so that the person eats less food.

4 Things That Can Help Take Care Post Hernia Surgery!

Dr. Praveen C R 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Diploma In Minimal Access Surgery
General Surgeon, Bangalore
4 Things That Can Help Take Care Post Hernia Surgery!

Hernias are mostly treated by surgeries as definitive care. Post-operative period has become comfortable with the invention of minimal-invasive surgeries. Postoperative recovery is smoother and faster after laparoscopic and robotic surgeries.

Yes, the patient has to go for a surgery, if hernias spreads to quite an extent. In such cases, there are several steps that need to be taken as a part of the post-operative care for this surgery. Hernia surgery is quite common in today’s medical world. All you need to have is a good medical practitioner who would operate on you and you need to have complete trust on the expert and their methods of treatment. There are several ways to take care of yourself after the surgery.

Some of these are explained below.

  • Patient is discharged only after anaesthetic effects are completely gone: For some time after the surgery, the patient is under the effects of the anaesthesia. If it is a local one then it would take a few hours for its effects to completely subside. But if it is a complex one, then it might take some more time for its effects to completely withdraw. Only after the patient is completely out of the effects of anaesthesia, will he/she be allowed a discharge.
  • Avoid headache: Patients are made to lie down flat on their back for at least a few hours after the surgery so that they do not experience anaesthetic headache. This can be painful and unbearable at times. But this can be avoided if the patient lies down for quite some time till the effects of it have worn off.
  • Shower: Usually there is a restriction in getting the operated area wet. But a shower can be carefully taken after at least two days of the operation.

Thus, these are some of the most important post-operative hernia surgery care tips. If you adhere to these points, your recovery process will speed up and it would prevent you from getting affected by any other health problems in your recovery period.

Suffering From Thyroid - Why Surgery Is Required?

Dr. Bhagyesh Patel 96% (8331 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Suffering From Thyroid - Why Surgery Is Required?

The thyroid disease is increasing rapidly in India and this is creating an alarming situation. According to the Indian express over 30% of Indians suffer from thyroid disorders. This makes it a possibility that every third Indian is suffering from this disease. As there are many ways to cure the disease but surgery is an effective way to cure the disease.

What is thyroid? 

It is a small gland located below the voice box at the front end of the neck. The function of the thyroid gland is to produce hormones that release through the blood in the body. Thyroid is good for maintaining the metabolism of the body. It also helps in the proper functioning of the organs. The problem occurs when thyroid starts to produce hormones in excess. 

Due to this excessive production body faces many changes such as swelling and growth of nodules. For treatment of this disease, thyroid surgery is necessary. In thyroid surgery, the whole or portion of the thyroid gland is removed. 

There are multiple reasons why surgery is required to cure thyroid such as

  • Presence of nodules on the thyroid gland: The growth of nodules are the reason why surgery should be preferred as some nodules can be gentle but in some cases, these nodules can be very dangerous as nodules can be cancerous. And, these nodules help in the overproduction of the hormones. As these nodules, if not removed can become large enough that they hinder the functioning of the throat. So surgery is a good option as nodule is removed so the cause of the problem is eliminated by it.
  • HyperthyroidismThe second reason is Hyperthyroidism. As it can be cured by the surgery. Hyperthyroidism is caused by the Grave's disease. What it does is that it interrupts the functioning of the body. The body attacks the thyroid glands by the antidotes. Which intensify the production of hormones, which causes overproduction. Therefore, surgery is the most suitable option.
  • Swelling and enlargement: As due the excess of hormones. The swelling is caused in the throat this disrupts the functioning of throat and throat gets blocked due to swelling. It effects the speaking, breathing and eating . This swelling and enlargement is called goiter. This goiter can be removed through surgery. As medicine takes a lot of time to heal the swelling.

Moreover apart from things mentioned above surgery is the most suitable way to cure thyroid it takes less time than the medication. The type of the surgery depends on the nature of your thyroid. 

Gallbladder Removal Surgery - Why Laparoscopy Is A Better Option?

Dr. Bhagyesh Patel 96% (8331 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Gallbladder Removal Surgery - Why Laparoscopy Is A Better Option?

What is Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal Surgery (Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy)?

Gallbladder removal is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Gallbladder removal surgery is usually performed with minimally invasive techniques and the medical name for this procedure is Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy or Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal.

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ that rests beneath the right side of the liver. Its main purpose is to collect and concentrate a digestive liquid (bile) produced by the liver. Bile is released from the gallbladder after eating, aiding digestion. Bile travels through narrow tubular channels (bile ducts) into the small intestine. Removal of the gallbladder is not associated with any impairment of digestion in most people.

What Causes Gallbladder Problems?

Gallbladder problems are usually caused by the presence of gallstones which are usually small and hard, consisting primarily of cholesterol and bile salts that form in the gallbladder or in the bile duct.

It is uncertain why some people form gallstones but risk factors include being female, prior pregnancy, age over 40 years and being overweight. Gallstones are also more common as you get older and some people may have a family history of gallstones. There is no known means to prevent gallstones.

These stones may block the flow of bile out of the gallbladder, causing it to swell and resulting in sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, indigestion and, occasionally, fever. If the gallstone blocks the common bile duct, jaundice (a yellowing of the skin) can occur.

Diagnosing 

  1. Ultrasound is most commonly used to find gallstones.
  2. In a few more complex cases, other X-ray test such as a CT scan or a gallbladder nuclear medicine scan may be used to evaluate gallbladder disease.

Gallstones do not go away on their own. Some can be temporarily managed by making dietary adjustments, such as reducing fat intake. This treatment has a low, short-term success rate. Symptoms will eventually continue unless the gallbladder is removed. Treatments to break up or dissolve gallstones are largely unsuccessful.

Surgical removal of the gallbladder is the time-honored and safest treatment of gallbladder disease.

What are the Advantages of Performing Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal?

  1. Rather than a five to seven inch incision, the operation requires only four small openings in the abdomen.
  2. Patients usually have minimal post-operative pain.
  3. Patients usually experience faster recovery than open gallbladder surgery patients.
  4. Most patients go home the same day of the surgery and enjoy a quicker return to normal activities.

Are you a Candidate?

Although there are many advantages to laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy), the procedure may not be appropriate for some patients who have severe complicated gallbladder disease or previous upper abdominal surgery. A thorough medical evaluation by your personal physician, in consultation with a surgeon trained in laparoscopy, can determine if laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy) is an appropriate procedure for you.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

423 people found this helpful

Things To Know About Endocrine Surgery!

Dr. Harika Tirungari 89% (79 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
Things To Know About Endocrine Surgery!

What is an Endocrine Surgery?

It is a surgery of one or more endocrine glands. Endocrine glands are glands which secrete hormones and control function of almost all the cells in the body. It is a surgical subspecialty. It includes surgery of endocrine glands, such as the thyroid gland, the parathyroid gland, the adrenal gland, glands of the endocrine pancreas, and some neuroendocrine glands.

Which are the Clinical Conditions that require Endocrinal Surgeries?

The conditions which require endocrinal surgery are as follows:

  1. Thyroid disorders: Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism), overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism), thyroid nodules, goiter, thyroid cancer, and thyroid cyst
  2. Parathyroid disorders: Primary hyperparathyroidism
  3. Adrenal gland disorders: Conn syndrome, pheochromocytoma, adrenocortical cancer, or Cushing's syndrome
  4. Diseases of pancreas: Insulinomas, gastrinomas, or type 1 diabetes
  5. Diseases of the pineal gland
  6. Disorders of the pituitary gland

Which surgeries are included in it?

Surgeries can be minimally invasive, such as laparoscopic surgeries or open surgeries. It includes following surgeries:

  1. Surgical removal of the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy) either as a part of the gland (lobectomy or hemithyroidectomy) or the whole gland (total thyroidectomy)
  2. Surgical removal of the parathyroid gland (parathyroidectomy)
  3. Surgical removal of the adrenal gland (either laparoscopic removal or open surgery)
  4. Adrenalectomy (i.e., surgical removal of the adrenal gland)
  5. Pancreatic surgery (simple tumor enucleation to larger resections)
  6. Surgical removal of the pineal gland (pinealectomy)
  7. Surgical removal of the pituitary gland (hypophysectomy or transsphenoidal surgery)

What Care needs to be Taken Preoperatively?

Following tests need to be done prior to the surgeries:

  • Complete blood count
  • Kidney profile
  • Serum electrolytes
  • Blood group
  • Blood sugar
  • ECG (for the patients who are 40 years and older)
  • Chest X-ray (for the patients who are 60 years and older)All the tests need to be done 24 hours before the surgery.

After completing the tests, the doctor will evaluate the reports and will advise undergoing surgery accordingly.

Which medication needs to be adjusted?

Medications which need to be adjusted before the surgery are as follows:

  1. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and vitamin E should be stopped one week prior to surgery unless otherwise directed by the doctor.
  2. Dosages of coumadin, steroids, and/or insulin need to be adjusted or substituted by another medication before surgery.

What are the complications of surgery?

Following are the most common complications:

  1. Infection due improper aseptic precautions
  2. Bleeding from the surgical wound
  3. Change in a patient’s voice and swallowing difficulty
  4. Low thyroid function
  5. Hypoparathyroidism (low blood levels of calcium caused by the removal of the parathyroid)
  6. Formation of seroma (swelling caused by a collection of fluid beneath the incision site)

Burn Repair Surgery: How Effective Is It?

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Plastic Surgery
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Delhi
Burn Repair Surgery: How Effective Is It?

A burn scar on your skin does not only spoil your appearance but also hampers your self-confidence. You can undertake a plastic surgery in order to eliminate burn scars and burn marks. A burn repair surgery is an effective way to fix any previous or fresh burn scars. Although a burn scar cannot be totally eliminated, this surgery helps in improving basic functions and makes the scar less prominent or noticeable.

About Burn Repair Surgery: There are two types of burn repair surgeries. An acute burn surgery is carried out immediately after a burn injury has been inflicted. It is undertaken in a hospital by a team of surgeons who specialize in acute burn repair surgeries.

A reconstructive burn surgery is usually carried out after the initial burn scar heals. Reconstructive burn surgery aims at improving both the functional appearance and the cosmetic appearance of a burn scar. This form of burn surgery incorporates the modification of the scar tissue. The treatment procedure for scar tissues requires several months to be successful. New scar contractures may appear for a long time after an injury. Facial burn scars, which cause problems with the eyes, lips, nose and cause hair loss can be rectified. Abnormally thick, white and discolored scars can also be lightened by undergoing a burn repair surgery.

Procedure: The surgical procedure of burn repair surgery primarily involves scar release methods. After a tight scar has been released, the opening or incision made in the skin is repaired. Several techniques are applied for the purpose of closing the wounds. These include skin grafts and skin rearrangement or Z-plasty. Sometimes, more advanced flaps are required. This depends on the location of the scar and the desired results. Minor procedures are performed in the form of an outpatient surgery, but in case of larger grafts and flaps, inpatient facility is required.

After undergoing the surgery, you must follow your surgeon's care instructions properly for effective healing. This would also enable you to have a long-term effect and improved appearance of burn scars. Follow-up appointments with your surgeon after the surgery are essential.

Before deciding on undergoing a burn repair surgery, you must consult an efficient cosmetic surgeon and discuss about the surgical procedure. You should know all important facts regarding the surgery and also have an idea about the results which would be obtained. Non-surgical therapies can also be undertaken for repairing burn scars, which include scar massage, application of pressure garments and some other topical therapies.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

374 people found this helpful

What are The Benefits Of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)?

Dr. Amit Sinkar 89% (22 ratings)
DNB (Cardiology), DNB (General Medicine), MBBS
Cardiologist, Pune
What are The Benefits Of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)?

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) is a traditional and well established surgical procedure for treating diseases in the coronary artery. The process is carried out by using blood vessels alternately (vein or artery). Initially, CABG was performed by using the left internal mammary artery and saphenous vein. It was observed that the chance of occlusion in the vein grafts was much higher than the arterial grafts. In the last decade, total arterial grafting, which uses all the arterial conduits, is being practiced as CABG for better results.

Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

  1. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: In this type of CABG, the surgeon will initially open up the chest bone to gain access to the heart. The heart is stopped using medications and the body is connected to a heart-lung bypass machine to circulate oxygen and blood throughout the body.
  2. Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting: In this surgery, small incisions are made on the left portion of the chest to gain access to the heart. This surgery is used to bypass the blood vessels present in the front portion of the heart.
  3. Off-pump Coronary artery bypass grafting: In this procedure, the chest bone is opened up to access the heart. Here, however, the heart is not stopped during the surgery.

Patients, who have been suffering since a long time and have been operated on the vein grafts, have a chance of re-developing certain artery diseases such as a heart attack. To counter this possibility, surgeons have started using the method of Total Artery CABG. In this procedure, the left and right internal mammary arteries are used from the chest and the radial artery, from the fore arm for the surgery.

The main advantages of this procedure are:

  1. The survival rate is higher in total artery CABG as compared to the traditional CABG.
  2. It comes with long term benefits
  3. The procedure is safe as well as feasible


 

1 person found this helpful

Cataract Surgery - How To Quickly Recover From It?

Asg Eye Hospital 87% (10 ratings)
ABC
Ophthalmologist, Jodhpur
Cataract Surgery - How To Quickly Recover From It?

A simple, uncomplicated cataract surgery should not take more than 10 minutes to perform. The best part about a cataract surgery is that most people see almost immediate results and improved vision. However, full recovery can take awhile. Each person heals at a different speed but ideally, your eyes should heal completely in a month. Here are a few tips to help speed up this process and avoid infections and eye injuries.

Take it easy
Just because the surgery takes a short time is no reason to underestimate its importance. Do not drive on the first day and as far as possible avoid driving for the next few days as well. Do not put any extra pressure on your eyes by bending, lifting weights etc. This will ensure that your stitches do not tear open. Try to avoid excessive sneezing and coughing as this can jerk the lens out of place.

Protect your eyes
Wearing sunglasses is a good idea after a cataract surgery. This will protect your delicate eyes against dust, wind etc. Avoid using community swimming pools and hot tubs immediately after such a surgery to lower the risk of infections. Avoid rubbing your eyes aggressively. For the first week, keep your face out of the shower so as to avoid feeling the need to press or rub your eyes as well as to protect them from bacteria in the water.

Lubricate
Your eyes may feel dry and scratchy after a cataract surgery. This is normal and not something to worry about. Your doctor will prescribe eye drops to be taken after the surgery. Use these regularly. Once this is over you may need additional artificial tears or lubricating eye drops. However, do not take these drops without first consulting your doctor. If your eyes are sensitive to the preservatives in bottled eye drops, look for single use ampoules. Ensure that you always wash your hands well before administering the eye drops.

Keep the eye clean
Though washing your face is avoidable, you must still keep the eye clean. Use cotton and a sterile saline wash for the first few days. You can later replace the saline with cool boiled water.

If you feel any deterioration in your vision, pain or excessive discharge in the operated eye, you must immediately consult your doctor. Seeing sudden flashes of light or floaters in your vision should also not be ignored.

3 people found this helpful

How Laparoscopy Can Help Manage Hernia?

MBBS, DNB ( General Surgery )
General Surgeon, Delhi
How Laparoscopy Can Help Manage Hernia?

Laparoscopy surgery is a very vital component of the hernia repair. Studies have shown that many patients have a better outcome when they opt for laparoscopic surgery. Candidates eligible for this mode of surgery include those with bilateral inguinal hernias, ventral hernias, and recurrent hernia. People associated with athletics and other outdoor sports prefer to go for a laparoscopic hernia surgery as it ensures a speedy recovery and minimal tissue invasion (due to small incisions).

Laparoscopic hernia repair- inguinal
A laparoscopic surgery requires an incision of 1-2 cm at the belly (at the lower end). Two small punctures are done near the umbilicus. The punctures are done to make room for the cameras so that the surgeon is able to view the abdomen clearly. The smaller incisions allows the operating instrument to enter into the stomach.

The Procedure:
A balloon is placed in between the abdomen and the overlying muscle so that the peritoneum can be separated. When space is successfully made, the camera comes into the action to view the condition of a hernia. A hernia is pulled from its hole into the abdomen. Once the hole is detected, the defect of a hernia is fixed.

Laparoscopic hernia repair- incisional/ventral: Laparoscopic hernia repair is suitable for all types of a hernia such as an umbilical hernia, ventral hernia, recurrent umbilical hernia, epigastric hernia etc. Just like an inguinal hernia, A camera is placed into the abdomen through the muscles. Two small incisions are made for the operating instruments to get through. This is followed by the cutting of the tissue that is placed between a hernia and the intestine. The hole thus gets exposed. Through one of the laparoscopic ports, the hernia mesh gets rolled and is placed into the abdomen. A hernia is then pulled up and the mesh gets secured with 4 sutures. A special device is used to fix the healthy muscle.

Tension free repair: “Tension free” repair is often used to symbolize hernia surgery. A hernia is often triggered by the weakened muscles. Few surgeons endeavors to sew the muscle around the area of a hernia. Since the muscles surrounding the hernia are weak in the first place, they pull apart causing a recurrence of a hernia. To avoid this, most surgeons use a mesh to strengthen the cells around the hernia region. This procedure ensures that the muscles aren’t sewn but the mesh placed over the hole can prevent the muscle to push through the walls of the abdomen.

The use of mesh: There are some reservations about using the mesh in a hernia surgery. However, this is the safest and most appropriate way to perform a hernia laparoscopic surgery. The use of a mesh also negates the risk of open incisions and recurrence of a hernia.

1 person found this helpful
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