Diabetes can wreak havoc on the eye and the foot. Proper care is necessary in order to refrain from any serious consequences. It can damage the blood vessels and the nerves of the feet resulting in numbness and permanent disability. Some of the alarming foot symptoms include bruises, cuts, cracked skin and hard spots. Some of the common measures that need to be taken for foot include checking the temperature sensation of the foot by immersing it in hot water, drying the feet gently in between the toes and using agents such as lotion, lanolin, and petroleum jelly.
Some of the other preventive measure includes-
Some of the common symptoms of retina related problems include double vision, pressure in one eye, problems in corner vision, flashing lights, pain in the eye, blank spots etc. A simple check-up by an oculist can reveal any eye problems related to diabetes.
An ophthalmologist can treat the diabetes-related eye problem by medicine that blocks the protein responsible for fluid leakage and blood vessel growth. He can also go for laser treatment to treat macular edema. Even scatter laser treatments are also used for this purpose. If all else fails a doctor chooses to perform a procedure known as vitrectomy.
Retinopathy of Prematurity refers to a disease of the eye, seen in premature babies. The condition causes blood vessels in the eye to grow abnormally and eventually bleed or leak, leading to scarring of the retina. As the scar starts to shrink, it pulls on the retina, detaching it from the back of the eye. Since the retina is an essential part of the visual apparatus, its detachment can potentially lead to blindness.
ROP may also lead to other complications such as –
Who are at risk?
The smaller and more premature the baby, the more it is at risk of developing Retinopathy of Prematurity.
Why get screened for ROP?
Retinopathy of Prematurity does not exhibit noticeable signs or symptoms in infants. The only way to detect the condition is to undergo an eye examination.
The screening test will take place either at your baby’s bedside or at the clinic of your ophthalmologist. The following steps are involved in the screening exam –
• The doctor will apply dilating eye drops to dilate the pupil. This will allow the doctor to monitor the condition of the eye closely
• An eyelid speculum will help to hold the eyelids open
• The doctor will check the retina using a sclera depressor, which allows the eye to move in all positions
• Next, the doctor will direct a bright light into the eye using an ophthalmoscope to examine the retina.
In India, about, 1 in 1000 children is blind, in 24% to 47% of the cases, the reason is Retinopathy of Prematurity.
How often your baby needs screening for ROP depends on the status of the retina. Screening tests are typically done every 1-2 weeks until the condition is stabilized or cured. However, if the problem persists, the doctor may recommend screening every 4-6 weeks to make sure ROP does not deteriorate.
All babies born prematurely should receive regular monitoring and testing, starting from a month after birth. Treatment for ROP will depend on the severity of the condition. Talk to an eye specialist and discuss options to prevent the disease from progressing further.
Macular Degeneration is an age-related macular degeneration incurable eye disease, which might result in blurred vision or no vision in the centre of the vision field, which might lead to visual distortions, reduced central vision, decreased intensity of the colours and can make it difficult for the patient to recognize faces, read, drive and to perform other activities.
Types of Macular Degeneration
1. Dry Macular Degeneration: It is characterized by the presence of drusen and thinning of macula because of a breakdown or thinning of the layer of retinal pigment epithelial cells in the macula.
2. Wet macular degeneration: In this type of AMD, there is an excessive growth of blood vessels, which causes bleeding, leakage, as well as scaring under the retina, which results in a rapid and severe loss of the central vision and might become permanent if not treated.
Causes of Age-related Macular Degeneration:
This is caused due to a problem related to the part of eye known as Macula, which is a spot at the centre of the retina of the eye. The focus point of the incoming ray of light is on Macula, which is responsible for see the things direct in front of us, especially reading and writing.
Treatment of Age-related Macular Degeneration
1. Anti-VEGF Drugs: The dry macular degeneration cannot be cured while the wet macular degeneration can be stabilized and maintained with a number of medical treatments to be injected into the eye, such as Lucentis, Avastin and Eylea. These are not long procedures and continued monitoring of the vision to maintain or improve the vision.
2. Laser photocoagulation: It consists of a concentrated beam of high energy thermal light that is directed towards the retina to obliterate and seal leaking blood vessels.
Macular Degeneration is a condition in which the central part of the retina degenerates. In this condition, the posterior part of the eye, retina, is affected.
The central part of retina, macula, is associated with the central vision in the eye. The macula is responsible for controlling various abilities, such as distance perception, perceiving faces and colours, and identifying fine details of the objects. When this central part degenerates, the person slowly loses the ability to see clearly.
Such a condition can be treated with ayurvedic remedies.
The main cause of macular degeneration is the damage to the macula, the central part of the retina. This reduces the person’s ability to have a clear vision. This condition progresses with time and can result in complete blindness.
Type of Macular Degeneration
Macular degeneration is of two types:
Dry Macular Degeneration: In this condition, there is a change in the pigment of the macula. Moreover, small piles of waste products generated by cells also appear on the retina. These tiny waste piles deteriorate the retina over time. Among people affected by macular degeneration, almost 90 percent of people have “dry” macular degeneration. This condition is also called non-neovascular AMD (age-related macular degeneration)
Wet Macular Degeneration: In this condition, new blood vessels begin to grow behind the retina in the choroid layer. That is why this condition is also referred to as Choroidal neovascularization (CNV). These new blood vessels are weak and begin to leak fluids, blood, and lipids (parts of cell structure). These leaks get into the layers of the retina and macula that results in scar tissue. Since wet macular degeneration is caused by leaking of fluids from newly formed blood vessels, it is also called neovascular AMD.
Treating Macular Degeneration with Ayurveda
In Ayurveda, there are several types of herbal medications that ensure improving the vision quality and enhancing the overall quality of life of the patient.
Some of the eye supplements for macular degeneration is Ayurveda are:
Triphala Guggulu: One of the most effective herbs in Ayurveda, it has an antioxidant effect that protects the eye against free radicals and treating macular degeneration.
Shilajeet (Asphaltum): This herb is associated with anti-aging properties. It restricts the degenerative process in the eye that result due to the advancing age.
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera): For managing macular degeneration in India, this herb is used to regenerate macula and helps in restoring the vision.
Giloy (Tinospora cordifolia): This herb protects the eyes from free radicals and prevents blindness due to macular degeneration.
Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica): It is a source of vitamin C that prevents the deterioration of the retina and macula.
Macular degeneration is caused due to the deterioration of the central part of the retina. It is caused either in the “dry” form or “wet” form. Dry AMD is common in people. Ayurveda can help in regenerating and restoring the functioning of retina and help is improving overall vision.
Even something as small as an eyeball has multiple parts within it. The retina at the back of the eyeball is responsible for the clarity of vision. The central area of the retina is known as the macula. Macular degeneration is the deterioration of this part of the retina. Macular degeneration is age-related and considered an incurable condition. People suffering from macular degeneration experience blurred vision, black spots and may eventually lose central vision while retaining peripheral vision.
There are two types of macular degeneration; wet and dry. The dry form of this disease is more common than its wet form. Of these, the latter causes more serious vision loss. Dry macular degeneration leads to white or yellow deposits on the retina leading to further degeneration. In the wet form of this disease, blood vessels beneath the retina start growing towards the macula and may pull it away from the base when they break or leak fluid.
There are three stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
- Early AMD
This is diagnosed by the presence of deposits on the retina. In most cases, ether is no vision loss at this stage but regular check-ups are essential.
- Intermediate AMD
A comprehensive eye exam will show the presence of larger deposits or pigment changes in the retina. At this stage, slight vision loss may be experienced.
- Late AMD
People suffering from late AMD have noticeable vision loss.
Though this disease is linked to aging, the exact triggers for macular degeneration are unknown. It is understood to be a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. The presence of certain genes and their variants has been associated with a number of cases of this disease. Studies also show that Caucasians are at the highest risk of suffering from this disease. Depriving cells in the retina of oxygen can also increase a person's risk of getting this disease. Other risk factors for this disease are obesity, smoking, high blood pressure and light eye colour. The side effects of certain drugs can also induce this condition.
Macular degeneration is considered to be incurable but certain forms of treatment can improve vision and slow down the rate of deterioration. Treatment prescribed by a doctor depends on the stage of the disease and whether it is wet or dry. Studies suggest that a diet rich in omega 3 fatty acids can prevent AMD and lower the risk of its progression.
Age-related macular degeneration, also known in brief as AMD or ARMD is one of the most common age-related causes for vision loss. It causes “blind spots” in vision, causing difficulty in activities requiring central vision like reading, sewing, driving, watching TV, computer usage, etc.
How it happens?
The centre portion of the eye is known as retina which has a screen in the posterior portion. For proper vision, light falls on this screen and is then processed to enable ‘vision.’ When this screen is not clear, blurred vision results. It may not cause total blindness but impairs vision including double vision and loss of central vision.
Types: There are two types of AMD, wet and dry.
Risk factors: Though age related, there are definitely some factors which put one at a higher risk for AMD
There is no cure, but progress can be delayed
While we usually consider the eye to be a single element, it does, in fact, have a number of smaller parts each which play a distinct role in helping us see. The retina covers more than half the interior surface of the eye and can be described as the light-sensitive layer that converts light into optic signals that are then carried to the brain. Retinal detachment is a serious condition that causes the retina to be separated from the supportive tissue. If not treated immediately, it could lead to permanent blindness.
Retinal detachment can be passed down from one generation of a family to another and hence if someone in your family has suffered from this condition, you have a high risk of suffering from it as well. People who are severely nearsighted or those who have suffered from an eye injury are also at a high risk of suffering from retinal detachment.
Retinal detachment is not a painful condition and may have no warning signs. Some of the symptoms of this condition include seeing flashes of light, floaters and darkening of the peripheral vision. An early diagnosis can help prevent blindness caused by retinal detachment. To diagnose this condition, the doctor will dilate the patient’s eyes and use a special tool to get a closer look at the retina.
The method best suited to treating retinal detachment depends on the condition of the retina and advancement of the detachment.