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ADHD In Children

Dr. Ajay Nihalani 88% (105 ratings)
Member of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, United Kingdom (MRC Psych), MD - Psychiatry, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Ghaziabad
ADHD In Children

Adhd stands for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It usually manifests itself in early childhood and creates problems at school, home and play.
The main core features of the condition are

  • Attention deficit
  • Hyperactivity
  • Impulsivity

Attention deficit manifests as

  • Forgetfullness
  • Easily getting distracted
  • Not seeming to listen
  • Being disorganised

Taking a long time to start doing things and rarely finishing them eg homework.

Hyperactivity manifests as

  • Being restless, fidgety, full of energy ‘always on the go’. 
  • They may seem loud and noisy often disturbing the class, finding it difficult to sit through the class.

Impulsivity manifests as

  • Doing things without thinking. 
  • Difficulty waiting for their turn in games or in a queue.
  • Interrupting others in conversation.

How common is ADHD?
Nowadays adhd is very common affecting 5 percent of school children. It is seven times more commoner in boys.

What causes adhd and how can it be cured?
No one knows exactly but a neurochemical called norepinephrine is abnormal which gets corrected by adhd medication leading to improvement in the symptoms allowing the child to lead a normal life and removing the academic handicap that these children often face. Behavior therapy focussed on improving behaviours helps a lot.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms In Children And Teenagers!

Ms. Ekta Singh 90% (286 ratings)
MA - Psychology, M-Phill Psychology, B.Ed, C.I.G, ECCE, B.A. Psychology
Psychologist, Ghaziabad
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms In Children And Teenagers!

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common neurobehavioral disorders presenting for treatment in children and adolescents. ADHD is often chronic with prominent symptoms and impairment spanning into adulthood. ADHD is often associated with co-occurring disorders including disruptive, mood, anxiety, and substance abuse. The diagnosis of ADHD is clinically established by review of symptoms and impairment. The biological underpinning of the disorder is supported by genetic, neuroimaging, neurochemistry and neuropsychological data. Consideration of all aspects of an individual’s life needs to be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. 

Multimodal treatment includes educational, family, and individual support. Psychotherapy alone and in combination with medication is helpful for ADHD and comorbid problems. Pharmacotherapy including stimulants, noradrenergic agents, alpha agonists, and antidepressants plays a fundamental role in the long-term management of ADHD across the lifespan. 

The management of ADHD includes consideration of two major areas: non-pharmacological (educational remediation, individual and family psychotherapy) and pharmacotherapy.

I personally support Psychotherapy. Specialized educational planning based on the child’s difficulties is necessary in a majority of cases. Since learning disorders co-occur in one-third of ADHD youth, ADHD individuals should be screened and appropriate individualised educational plans developed. Educational adjustments should be considered in individuals with ADHD with difficulties in behavioral or academic performance. Increased structure, predictable routine, learning aids, resource room time, and checked homework are among typical educational considerations in these individuals. Similar modifications in the home environment should be undertaken to optimize the ability to complete homework. For youth, frequent parental communication with the school about the child’s progress is essential. 

Symptoms in children and teenagers 

The symptoms of ADHD in children and teenagers are well defined, and they're usually noticeable before the age of six. They occur in more than one situation, such as at home and at school. The main signs of each behavioural problem are detailed below:

  1. Inattentiveness: having a short attention span and being easily distracted making careless mistakes – for example, in schoolwork appearing forgetful or losing things being unable to stick at tasks that are tedious or time-consuming appearing to be unable to listen to or carry out instructions constantly changing activity or task having difficulty organising tasks 
  2. Hyperactivity and impulsiveness: being unable to sit still, especially in calm or quiet surroundings constantly fidgeting being unable to concentrate on tasks excessive physical movement excessive talking being unable to wait their turn acting without thinking interrupting conversations little or no sense of danger 

These symptoms can cause significant problems in a child's life, such as underachievement at school, poor social interaction with other children and adults, and problems with discipline. 

Related conditions in children and teenagers 

Although not always the case, some children may also have signs of other problems or conditions alongside ADHD, such as: 

  • anxiety disorder – which causes your child to worry and be nervous much of the time; it may also cause physical symptoms, such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating and dizziness 
  • oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) – this is defined by negative and disruptive behaviour, particularly towards authority figures, such as parents and teachers 
  • conduct disorder – this often involves a tendency towards highly antisocial behaviour, such as stealing, fighting, vandalism and harming people or animals 
  • depression 
  • sleep problems – finding it difficult to get to sleep at night, and having irregular sleeping patterns 
  • autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) – this affects social interaction, communication, interests and behaviour 
  • epilepsy – a condition that affects the brain and causes repeated fits or seizures 
  • Tourette’s syndrome – a condition of the nervous system, characterised by a combination of involuntary noises and movements called tics 
  • learning difficulties – such as dyslexia Symptoms in adults In adults, the symptoms of ADHD are more difficult to define. This is largely due to a lack of research into adults with ADHD. 

ADHD is a developmental disorder; it's believed that it can't develop in adults without it first appearing during childhood. But it's known that symptoms of ADHD often persist from childhood into a person's teenage years, and then adulthood. Any additional problems or conditions experienced by children with ADHD, such as depression or dyslexia, may also continue into adulthood. By the age of 25, an estimated 15% of people diagnosed with ADHD as children still have a full range of symptoms, and 65% still have some symptoms that affect their daily lives. The symptoms in children and teenagers, which are listed above, is sometimes also applied to adults with possible ADHD. But some specialists say that the way in which inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness affect adults can be very different from the way they affect children. For example, hyperactivity tends to decrease in adults, while inattentiveness tends to get worse as the pressure of adult life increases. Adult symptoms of ADHD also tend to be far more subtle than childhood symptoms. 

Some specialists have suggested the following list of symptoms associated with ADHD in adults: 

  • carelessness and lack of attention to detail 
  • continually starting new tasks before finishing old ones 
  • poor organisational skills 
  • inability to focus or prioritise 
  • continually losing or misplacing things 
  • forgetfulness 
  • restlessness and edginess 
  • difficulty keeping quiet and speaking out of turn 
  • blurting out responses and often interrupting others 
  • mood swings, irritability and a quick temper 
  • inability to deal with stress 
  • extreme impatience 
  • taking risks in activities, often with little or no regard for personal safety or the safety of others – for example, driving dangerously 

Additional problems in adults with ADHD As with ADHD in children and teenagers, ADHD in adults can occur alongside several related problems or conditions. One of the most common conditions is depression. Other conditions that adults may have alongside ADHD include: 

  • personality disorders – conditions in which an individual differs significantly from an average person, in terms of how they think, perceive, feel or relate to others 
  • bipolar disordera condition that affects your moods, which can swing from one extreme to another 
  • obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) – a condition that causes obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviour 

The behavioural problems associated with ADHD can also cause problems such as difficulties with relationships, social interaction, drugs and crime. Some adults with ADHD find it hard to find and stay in a job. If you notice any of the above in your child or yourself , it is worth making the effort and spending some time and money to have your child and or yourself assessed on a priority basis as ADHD causes neural changes in the brain. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2513 people found this helpful

ADHD - Know Its Symptoms In Children And Teenagers!

M.A -Psychology, pgdg&pc
Psychologist, Kolkata
ADHD - Know Its Symptoms In Children And Teenagers!

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common neurobehavioral disorders presenting for treatment in children and adolescents. ADHD is often chronic with prominent symptoms and impairment spanning into adulthood. ADHD is often associated with co-occurring disorders including disruptive, mood, anxiety, and substance abuse. The diagnosis of ADHD is clinically established by review of symptoms and impairment. The biological underpinning of the disorder is supported by genetic, neuroimaging, neurochemistry and neuropsychological data. Consideration of all aspects of an individual’s life needs to be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. 

Multimodal treatment includes educational, family, and individual support. Psychotherapy alone and in combination with medication is helpful for ADHD and comorbid problems. Pharmacotherapy including stimulants, noradrenergic agents, alpha agonists, and antidepressants plays a fundamental role in the long-term management of ADHD across the lifespan. 

The management of ADHD includes consideration of two major areas: non-pharmacological (educational remediation, individual and family psychotherapy) and pharmacotherapy.

I personally support Psychotherapy. Specialized educational planning based on the child’s difficulties is necessary in a majority of cases. Since learning disorders co-occur in one-third of ADHD youth, ADHD individuals should be screened and appropriate individualised educational plans developed. Educational adjustments should be considered in individuals with ADHD with difficulties in behavioral or academic performance. Increased structure, predictable routine, learning aids, resource room time, and checked homework are among typical educational considerations in these individuals. Similar modifications in the home environment should be undertaken to optimize the ability to complete homework. For youth, frequent parental communication with the school about the child’s progress is essential. 

Symptoms in children and teenagers 

The symptoms of ADHD in children and teenagers are well defined, and they're usually noticeable before the age of six. They occur in more than one situation, such as at home and at school. The main signs of each behavioural problem are detailed below:

  1. Inattentiveness: having a short attention span and being easily distracted making careless mistakes – for example, in schoolwork appearing forgetful or losing things being unable to stick at tasks that are tedious or time-consuming appearing to be unable to listen to or carry out instructions constantly changing activity or task having difficulty organising tasks 
  2. Hyperactivity and impulsiveness: being unable to sit still, especially in calm or quiet surroundings constantly fidgeting being unable to concentrate on tasks excessive physical movement excessive talking being unable to wait their turn acting without thinking interrupting conversations little or no sense of danger 

These symptoms can cause significant problems in a child's life, such as underachievement at school, poor social interaction with other children and adults, and problems with discipline. 

Related conditions in children and teenagers 

Although not always the case, some children may also have signs of other problems or conditions alongside ADHD, such as: 

  • anxiety disorder – which causes your child to worry and be nervous much of the time; it may also cause physical symptoms, such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating and dizziness 
  • oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) – this is defined by negative and disruptive behaviour, particularly towards authority figures, such as parents and teachers 
  • conduct disorder – this often involves a tendency towards highly antisocial behaviour, such as stealing, fighting, vandalism and harming people or animals 
  • depression 
  • sleep problems – finding it difficult to get to sleep at night, and having irregular sleeping patterns 
  • autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) – this affects social interaction, communication, interests and behaviour 
  • epilepsy – a condition that affects the brain and causes repeated fits or seizures 
  • Tourette’s syndrome – a condition of the nervous system, characterised by a combination of involuntary noises and movements called tics 
  • learning difficulties – such as dyslexia Symptoms in adults In adults, the symptoms of ADHD are more difficult to define. This is largely due to a lack of research into adults with ADHD. 

ADHD is a developmental disorder; it's believed that it can't develop in adults without it first appearing during childhood. But it's known that symptoms of ADHD often persist from childhood into a person's teenage years, and then adulthood. Any additional problems or conditions experienced by children with ADHD, such as depression or dyslexia, may also continue into adulthood. By the age of 25, an estimated 15% of people diagnosed with ADHD as children still have a full range of symptoms, and 65% still have some symptoms that affect their daily lives. The symptoms in children and teenagers, which are listed above, is sometimes also applied to adults with possible ADHD. But some specialists say that the way in which inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness affect adults can be very different from the way they affect children. For example, hyperactivity tends to decrease in adults, while inattentiveness tends to get worse as the pressure of adult life increases. Adult symptoms of ADHD also tend to be far more subtle than childhood symptoms. 

Some specialists have suggested the following list of symptoms associated with ADHD in adults: 

  • carelessness and lack of attention to detail 
  • continually starting new tasks before finishing old ones 
  • poor organisational skills 
  • inability to focus or prioritise 
  • continually losing or misplacing things 
  • forgetfulness 
  • restlessness and edginess 
  • difficulty keeping quiet and speaking out of turn 
  • blurting out responses and often interrupting others 
  • mood swings, irritability and a quick temper 
  • inability to deal with stress 
  • extreme impatience 
  • taking risks in activities, often with little or no regard for personal safety or the safety of others – for example, driving dangerously 

Additional problems in adults with ADHD As with ADHD in children and teenagers, ADHD in adults can occur alongside several related problems or conditions. One of the most common conditions is depression. Other conditions that adults may have alongside ADHD include: 

  • personality disorders – conditions in which an individual differs significantly from an average person, in terms of how they think, perceive, feel or relate to others 
  • bipolar disordera condition that affects your moods, which can swing from one extreme to another 
  • obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) – a condition that causes obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviour 

The behavioural problems associated with ADHD can also cause problems such as difficulties with relationships, social interaction, drugs and crime. Some adults with ADHD find it hard to find and stay in a job. If you notice any of the above in your child or yourself , it is worth making the effort and spending some time and money to have your child and or yourself assessed on a priority basis as ADHD causes neural changes in the brain. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2209 people found this helpful

Sign and Symptoms Your Child Might Be Suffering from ADHD

Dr. Iram Parveen 90% (682 ratings)
Master of Occupational Therapy (MOT), Bachelor of Occupational Therapy (BOT)
Occupational Therapist, Delhi
Sign and Symptoms Your Child Might Be Suffering from ADHD

If you have noticed your child to be restless and anxious all the time, it might look cute as the child is highly energetic, but it could be a cause for concern at the same time. It is not normal and the child could be having ADHD that is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. As the name suggests, it is a disorder with deficiency of attention and in which the child is always hyperactive.

ADHD is a disorder in which the symptoms usually show up before the age of seven. It is characterized by a group of behavioral symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. The impact of these symptoms is felt extensively where his overall self-esteem is affected, be it at home, preschool or school, academics or extracurricular activities and in interpersonal relationships.

The most common symptoms, which are almost diagnostic of ADHD are:

  1. Inability to hold attention: The child's attention span is very short and it is very difficult to keep them engaged on one particular thing.
  2. Increased restlessness: The child would be extremely restless and gets distracted easily.
  3. Fidgeting: The child would be seen constantly fidgeting with his fingers.

The following are the less common ones:

  1. Learning disability is rare, but can happen. However, the good news is that it does not affect the child's intelligence.
  2. Sleep disorders
  3. Difficulty in following directions
  4. Poor executive functioning skills
  5. Disorganization, which can lead to poor motor coordination and impaired movements
  6. ADHD kids tend to forget things very easily and need help with coordinating movements
  7. The child suffering from ADHD could easily tire and/or feel lethargic with very low energy levels. This can lead to the child procrastinating things and not wanting to do things on priority basis
  8. These children also have difficulties with fine motor and cognitive skills and so there is delay in their overall participation in games.

While these are the pressing symptoms of ADHD, occupational therapy can play a significant role in managing the child in the following ways. As a first step, the caregiver should have a detailed discussion with the school staff and any other people with whom the child interacts significantly. This will help identify areas that need support from an Occupational Therapy, which are the following:

  1. Support with gross and/or fine motor skills
  2. Support with improving handwriting
  3. Support with engaging in playing sports and games
  4. Support in engaging in social activities
  5. Improving sensory processing difficulties
  6. Improving visual perception
  7. Support in adapting to the environment
  8. Teaching strategies to participate in various social and academic activities

So, while an ADHD child is definitely a cause for concern, proper support from family can help manage the condition.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3231 people found this helpful

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder In Kids - Parenting Tips That Can Help!

Dr. Vaibhav Dubey 86% (18 ratings)
MD - Psychiatry, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Bhopal
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder In Kids - Parenting Tips That Can Help!

ADHD is one of the commonest behavioral disorders that are found in mostly school going kids. In fact, this kind of trouble might affect kid's ability quite adversely. There are a few signs with the help of which ADHD in kids can be easily detected and some of the commonest ones are emotional turmoil, unfinished tasks, squirm and fidget, low focus careless mistakes and other related ones. 

Both interpersonal relationship and schooling success can be hampered to a great extent with this kind of mental disorder. This is why the kids facing the mentioned signs need to be thoroughly diagnosed medically so that the doctors can recommend best treatments that can provide fastest recovery and that too safely and easily. 

Best tips for tackling ADHD in kids:

  1. Setting behavior limits: If you make your kids learn how to lead a disciplined life, then appropriate behavioral limits are established. Arrogant child is mostly exposed towards ADHD. 
  2. Staying calm: Child anger should be efficiently controlled otherwise. ADHD cannot be cured. If the kids remain calm and quiet, then only their concentration level will increase, and they can show productive outcomes. 
  3. Setting pressure free structure: sensible routines and scheduled charts are to be prepared so that unwanted risks can be easily avoided. If the kids are under tremendous pressure, then they might face different kinds of behavioral troubles. 
  4. Allow kids to make wise choices: If you let your kids free, then only they will be able to take right decisions. Kids with a cool mind can take wise decisions that are very much appropriate for upgrading their performances. 
  5. Advocating child: Child advocating is highly needed for maintaining a good and healthy balance. But too much strictness should be avoided so that your kids' behavior can be controlled with ease.  This should be done either by parents or tutors so that they can choose the best direction in life. 
  6. Avoid muting any headstrong child: Communicate with your child so that a proper interaction can be maintained. If your child remains silent for too long, then they might face different behavioral troubles. 
  7. Acquiring knowledge about ADHD: Both parents and kids should have equal knowledge about ADHD and then only the probable signs can be easily avoided, and the necessary treatments can be known. 
  8. Being persistent: Persistent behavior is to be maintained, and if you find any deviation in your kids, then you should take them to a doctor.

Intelligence Quotient Or Emotional Quotient - Which Is More Important In Life?

Dr. Sampada Kathuria 90% (39 ratings)
MS - Counselling & Psychotherapy, BA - Psychology, MA - Counseling & Psychology
Psychologist, Delhi
Intelligence Quotient Or Emotional Quotient - Which Is More Important In Life?

A higher Intelligence Quotient does not guarantee you happiness or success in life. To succeed in life, it is not your IQ, but your EQ that plays a bigger role. Emotional Quotient (EQ) or emotional intelligence stands for your ability to understand and manage your emotions effectively. It influences various aspects of your life, from how you behave to how you interact with others and has a direct effect on your happiness, life quality and self-satisfaction.

Several studies on emotional intelligence have revealed that while about 80% of the common man's success is linked to emotional intelligence, only the remaining 20% is a result of his intelligence quotient! So, how does EQ affect your life?

  1. At work: At the workplace, emotional intelligence can have a significant impact on your performance. It shapes your business as well as professional relationships, while helping you to navigate the social complexities that characterize a place of work.  
  2. For your health: It affects your physical health too, as management of stress levels is directly linked to your EQ levels. High level of stress can make you susceptible to many diseases like stroke, heart attack, high blood pressure, etc. Likewise, if you're unable to handle and manage your emotions effectively, it can lead to mental problems like depression, mood swings and anxiety. 
  3. Personal relationships: The role of EQ can't be ignored when it comes to building relationships. It enables you to communicate successfully, while helping you to build stronger relationships. Whether they are your professional relationships or personal ones, a better understanding and control of your emotions is imperative for not only a better expression of your feelings but also for a complete understanding of what others are feeling.

So, how can you improve your EQ?

Unlike IQ, you can certainly improve your EQ significantly by developing and honing these key abilities. 

  1. The ability to manage negative emotions: Although both negative and positive emotions are needed to succeed in life, sometimes, negative emotions can overwhelm you and can affect your judgment. Developing skills that do not let negative emotions get to you can significantly increase your EQ level.
  2. The ability to reduce stress: Effectively controlling and managing stress is also an ability, the development of which can bring you great success in life. Staying focused, balanced and in control is what you should aim at when under severe pressure. You should be able to quieten yourself down quickly while relieving yourself from stress.
  3. The ability to stay positive even in times of difficulty: Last but not the least, when faced with a difficult situation or even a difficult person, it's crucial to remain positive as then the difficulty faced becomes easier to handle. Arriving at resolutions for difficult situations positively and with confidence is what you should strive to do.

EQ helps you to do well at work, build strong relationships and accomplish your personal and career goals. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3925 people found this helpful

2 Major Causes Behind ADHD

Dr. Rupali 95% (56 ratings)
M. D. Psychiatry, Diploma In Psychological Medicine-DPM, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Noida
2 Major Causes Behind ADHD

What is ADHD?

ADHD refers to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, which is a brain-related condition found among preschoolers, children, teenagers and in many cases extends well into adulthood. These individuals have significant impairment in academics as well as social situations and interpersonal relations. The child has difficulty sustaining attention, phases of hyper activeness and cannot control his/her impulses which make their day to day life at school and home difficult.

ADHD Symptoms

The symptoms of this disorder among children can be categorized under three headings.

1. Hyperactivity which includes - 

  • Fidgets often
  • Restlessness
  • Inability to stay at one place runs around and tries to climb things
  • Trouble playing quietly
  • Excessive talking

2. Inattention, which can be divided into symptoms like

  • Getting easily distracted
  • Tendency to loose things
  • Daydreaming
  • Facing problems related to organizing things
  • Not listening carefully
  • Forgetting about daily activities, carelessness

3. Impulsiveness

  • Interrupts others as they speak and talks out of turn
  • Answers questions without listening to what has been asked
  • Not being able to wait for their turn to come

Prevalence :
10-12% of school children before puberty are affected by one or more types of ADHD. ADHD especially hyperactivity is more prevalent in boys than in girls, with the ratio up to 9:1. Inattention and poor concentration are more commonly seen amongst girls. The rate of ADHD in parents and sibling of children with ADHD is 5-10 times higher than in the general population.

ADHD Causes
The probable causes of ADHD among children are,

  1. Neurodevelopmental changes - A poorly developed activity of the brain particularly in the areas that control attention and concentration cause ADHD. This causes an imbalance in the neurotransmitters or the chemicals important for brain functioning and development.
  2. Genetic Factors - genetic studies show that ADHD is largely hereditary in nature with a heritability of 75% approximately. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
2360 people found this helpful

Behavioral Disorder In Children - What Should You Do?

Dr. Sudeshna Biswas 93% (10 ratings)
Post Graduate Diploma in Psychological Counselling (PGDPC, Diploma in Psychological Medicine, Certified NLP Expert (California, USA), MBBS
Psychiatrist, Delhi
Behavioral Disorder In Children - What Should You Do?

Childhood is bliss, and naturally, it is the ardent desire of every parent to help their child develop as well-rounded adults. However, it can be highly disconcerting if a young child behaves in a defiant, uncooperative manner with extreme hostility towards you. If this is the case, then you must consult with a psychiatrist to find out if your child is suffering from a behavioral disorder which is typically characterized by repetitive and persistent behavior for at least 6 months and more, which are uncommon in other children of the same age.

Types of behavioral disorder
Behavioral disorder can be of various types. However, among the children within 14 years of age, there are three most common types of behavioral disorders. These are conduct disorder where children become violent, aggressive and deceitful, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, where they fail to stay attentive to one thing for long and oppositional defiant disorder, where the children fail to follow disciplines and become argumentative, and defiant.

Common signs
Some of the common signs of a behavioral disorder among children are, threatening or harming themselves or people around them, getting into arguments frequently and throwing tantrums excessively. It might also include getting attracted to different addictions at an early age such as drug use or smoking, inability to perform well in school or developing a tendency to skip school, destroying and damaging property, stealing or lying.

Causes behind it
Factors causing children to develop behavioral disorder can be various. In some cases, it can be a solely genetic reason where the frontal lobe of the brain fails to act correctly. But for others, the reason may be the environment or the way the children are brought up, such as, being a victim of child abuse, or having a dysfunctional family, being neglected, etc.

Probable risks involved
Developing behavioral disorder not only disrupts the daily functioning and activities of a child, but it makes children burst in sudden anger, erupt in defiance, ignoring the disciplines, hampering the harmony and peace of a household.

Ways of dealing with it
The treatments that are available for dealing with behavioral disorder in children are multifaceted, depending on the factors contributing to it and the condition of the child. First of all, the parents need to develop traits like empathy, calm temperament and a cooperative attitude to better communicate with their children. Along with teaching the children various social skills, teaching them anger management, and encouraging them in their hobbies, prescribed medications, family therapy as well as cognitive behavioral therapy might be helpful.

If left untreated for long, behavioral disorder in children can cause severe mental health issues, leading them even to become dysfunctional adults. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3613 people found this helpful

How To Handle Depression In Children & Young Adults?

Mrs. Rachna Mimani 89% (28 ratings)
M.A. Clinical Psychology, Diploma In Counselling, Diploma In Mental Illness
Psychologist, Kolkata
How To Handle Depression In Children & Young Adults?

Depression in children and young people affect people from ages 5 to 18. About one in four children in India suffer from childhood depression. Boys and girls up to the age of 10 and 16 respectively, are more prone to depression. As per the report released by WHO, among 10 South-East Asian countries, India has the highest suicide rate. An estimated rate of suicide per 1 lakh population of the age group of 15-29 is 35.5 percent.

Definition and Signs 
According to Thompson (1995), depression is an overall lowering of normal functions which is not specific to any one component of the mind. Clinically, the signs and symptoms of depression have the following components:

  1. Mood Changes: sadness, irritability, sense of loss of interest even in cherished activities
  2. Cognitive changes: inefficient thinking, poor self-esteem, a feeling of hopelessness, loss of concentration, poor attention span, indecisiveness. Rarely, suicidal tendencies, delusions, hallucinations.
  3. Physical changes: low energy, apathy, tiredness, increase or decrease in appetite, disturbed sleep, low emotional responsiveness. Children in primary school stage may report of headaches and stomach aches, limb pain.
  4. Impairment in personal and/or social functioning: Self-harm, deterioration in school work without any specific reason, sudden and persistent levels of aggression and irritability.

Causes:

  1. Marital or family disharmony
  2. Divorce and separation
  3. Physical and sexual abuse
  4. Domestic violence
  5. Problems at school: bullying, social isolation, exam failure
  6. Severe personal assault
  7. Children with parents suffering from depression

Diagnosis of Childhood Depression
Any child suffering from symptoms of depression for at least 2 weeks, should be scheduled to visit his health care provider. Parents and guardians should eliminate any physical reasons for the symptoms before visiting a mental health professional. There are no specific medical or psychological tests that can clearly diagnose childhood depression. Following measures can help to make an accurate diagnosis:

  1. Questionnaires for both the child and parents.
  2. Interviews and study of the patient's history by a mental health professional.
  3. Information from friends, teachers, and classmates can be useful to detect early symptoms of childhood depression.

Treatment

  • To alleviate depressive disorder
  • To reduce concurrent related conditions like ADHD (attention deficit hyperactive disorder) and learning disabilities
  • To promote normal social and emotional development and school performance
  • Relieve family distress
  • To prevent or reduce the risk of relapse


Psychological therapy is the first line of treatment and includes:

  1. Cognitive behavioural therapy in group and individual format
  2. Interpersonal psychotherapy focuses on interpersonal issues like interpersonal conflicts, grief and loss and its effect on current feelings and problems
  3. Psychodynamic child psychotherapy where children are given a way to express their issues through playing, drawing, talking
  4. Family therapy deals with solving family-related issues and management of crisis
  5. Art therapy is an approach to vent out your negative feelings using creative expression as an outlet.
  6. Guided self-help helps you in understanding the core of the problems and finding ways to manage the same with the help of a professional.
  7. Relaxation and self-modelling can go a long way in dealing with depression. Relaxation techniques like exercising, meditating and yoga help your mind soothe and reduce stress and anxiety which in turn elevates the mood and reduces depression.
  8. Counselling has help people overcome loneliness and discuss the things that make them feel low openly. This helps in seeking a solution for that particular cause.
2 people found this helpful

5 Don ts When Your ADHD Child Is Upset or Angry

Ms. Rachna Mishra 92% (199 ratings)
M.Sc - Applied Psychology, MS - Counselling and Psychotherapy, PG diploma in child guidance and family therapy
Psychologist, Delhi

Parents dread having to deal with meltdowns. However, parents of children with ADHD may face more meltdowns than other parents.

Children with ADHD are more prone to meltdowns for a number of reasons. Often their brain circuitry for emotional regulation is dysfunctional in which it takes less to trigger an anger episode that lasts for a longer periods of time than other children. This is the result of faulty wiring. Working with them on relaxation techniques like taking deep breaths or counting to ten at the first sign of being upset can help. It is important for them to practice these when they are calm.

These kids often aren’t fully tuned in to what is going on around them and miss important information that causes them to misinterpret a situation and then react to what they think is going on rather than what really happened. If you are having a discussion with your child, pause frequently to make sure they are getting your point. Ask questions to make sure they understand and encourage them to ask you questions as well.

Some ADHD kids lack the ability to be flexible causing them to go into meltdown mode when there is a change in routine or an expected event does not happen. For instance a boy may be having a great time “rough housing” with his dad but does not want to stop when dad feels it has gone on long enough. This can become ugly and lead to fewer such play situations. Agreeing to use a timer and stop when the timer says to stop rather than dad might help avoid this.

Here are some tips for coping with a meltdown:

1. Don’t Loose Your Cool

Take a few deep breaths. This triggers the relaxation response and will lower your own anxiety/anger level and make it possible for you to think clearly and model appropriate behavior for your child. Remember the preflight instruction, “When the mask comes down, please cover your own nose and mouth first before you assist your child.”

2. Don’t React – Respond

If you and your child have already agreed on how meltdowns will be handled with a behavior plan, make sure the plan is being followed. As an example, you might have agreed on an incentive program where your child can earn rewards for following the behavior plan. Incentives might be earning points every time he/she is able to calm down before having a meltdown. Points earned can be cashed in at the end of the day for a desired activity such as television time or a special treat.

If you do not have a plan in place then you can respond by saying “WE have a problem here. Let’s see how we can solve the problem TOGETHER.” Find out what the child’s concern is. See if there is a way to address it. It is not giving in if you modify a situation in a way that is more accepting to the child while still meeting your needs as well. Good leaders listen to the people they are leading and incorporate the feedback they receive.

3. Don’t Dictate – Discuss

Ask, “What is making you upset?” Listen carefully and respond empathetically such as “I see you (want or don’t want), what’s up?”  Find out what the child is concerned about. For instance if the problem is not wanting to go to bed, you might say, “I understand you do not want to go to bed right now even though 9:00 is your usual bedtime. What is bothering you about this?” Perhaps the child says, “I need to finish my video game so I can get to the next level.” You then can say, “So here is the problem we have. I want you to go to bed because it is your bedtime and you need your sleep to feel good and do well at school and baseball tomorrow and you want to stay up later to finish your game. I am not saying you don’t have to go to be now but do you have any ideas on how we can solve this?”

For discussion let’s say it is only for a few minutes and you decide for tonight to let him finish the game to avoid an hour or more of meltdown versus a few more minutes. You might say, “Ok for tonight you can finish the game. Tomorrow we can talk about this and come up with a solution so that from now on you will be able to finish what you are doing and go to bed on time.”

It is ok for us to listen to our children’s perspective on difficult situations. If this is an isolated incidence then, problem solving could avoid a major meltdown. However, we need to follow up the next day with a detailed discussion on how this can be avoided in the future.

If this is an ongoing problem, then simply stick to the program/plan you have already set in place. If you have been working on anger management techniques such a taking deep breaths, then remind the child to practice it.

4. Don’t Demand – Encourage

If you have a prearranged plan to follow or you have come to an agreement for this crisis situation then you can say, “I know you are upset right now but I also know you can do a good job of calming down now,” or “You know what our agreement is and I bet you will do your part now just like the great job you did yesterday. I love how you are getting better at this each time.”

5. Don’t Give Up – Stay Committed

  • Raising a child with any type of special need, be it developmental, psychological or medical, requires a tremendous amount of patience and strength to endure and continue to handle tough situations when they come up. Make sure you have a good support system. Be sure to have a break from time to time to do something fun and relaxing. Also, try to view the whole situation from the 30,000 foot level to see the progress you have made so far and that meltdowns now and then can just be little bumps in the road to helping your child learn to cope with the day to day events they encounter.
  • If you have truly committed to following a behavioral approach under the guidance of a mental health provider and are not seeing progress, please don’t hesitate to discuss this with your child’s physician. A referral to a psychologist for a comprehensive evaluation may uncover other conditions that may need to be addressed. Sometimes ADHD may be misdiagnosed or a child can have more than one disorder which needs to be addressed.
  • When talking to a professional, you should be able to tell them when and where these episodes happen and what took place just before the meltdown; these are valuable clues that a well trained clinician can use to modify your approach or discover an underlying skill deficit that can be improved or addressed.
  • Sometimes, when behavioral approaches have been in place for some time and have been tweaked all they can, medication may need to be considered. Parents should be cautious about having their child placed on medication prematurely, but when symptoms are severe and interfering with a child’s ability to function in several environments then medication should be considered and can be extremely helpful.
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