An enraged beast frothing at the mouth, is typically the word Rabies brings to our mind. Since an encounter with such an infected animal can result in a life-threatening, painful condition as being mentioned above.According to WHO (World Health Organization) report there are more than 60,000 people, who get infected with this dreadful disease every year. And most out of them, approximately 90% have been bitten by a rabid dog. However, the availability of rabies vaccine for both human and the animals has led to a steep decline of rabies in all developed nations across the world.
Rabies is a disease that affects the CNS (Central Nervous System) in human beings, especially the brain. Wild animals like bats, skunks, raccoons and domesticated wildlife like dogs, rabbits and cats can transfer the rabies virus to human beings. This happens when humans gets bitten or scratched by these wild and domesticated beasts.The key to fighting this disease is to look for an immediate medical assistance, once you are bitten or scratched by any of these animals, be at home or in the wild.
Once infected the incubation period between the bite and the onset of the rabies symptoms usually takes anywhere between 4-12 weeks. But it has also been noticed, this incubation can also range from a few days to 6 yrs.
If left untreated, rabies symptoms develop between 3 to 12 weeks. First few symptoms are :
Other symptoms appear a few days later and are:
After the symptoms appear, rabies is mostly fatal. Flu-like symptoms of fever, headache, muscle ache, weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea, and tiredness are common initially. At first, tingling, numbness, and itching around the bite area may be seen. Sensitivity to lights, sounds or touch is commonly seen along with other symptoms. Fear of choking and fear of water are common signs of rabies.
Animals who are infected with this disease transfer the rabies virus to other animals and human begins following a bite or a scratch via their saliva. Nevertheless, any contact of the rabies virus with an open wound or with the mucous membrane can spread this disease.
While human transmission of rabies virus is an extremely rare occurrence, transmission of this virus exclusively occurs from animal to animal and animal to human beings. According to reports from WHO, for all the humans who get infected with this disease, an unvaccinated dog is by far the most common threat for spreading this disease.
So, if you have been exposed to the rabies virus, and you have not been vaccinated before, rabies immunoglobulin is injected on the patients on such emergency circumstances, which prevents the virus from getting a foothold.
The incubation period of rabies in humans is generally between 20-60 days. Although the fulminant disease can become symptomatic within 5-6 days, the point of concern is that in 1-3% cases, the incubation period may be greater than 6 months. Definitive diagnosis has been made plenty of times even 7 years after exposure, although the reasons for this latency are unknown.
The incubation period relies upon a few factors, for example, the area of infection passage and viral burden. A few cases with long incubation periods can't be affirmed because the individual may have been exposed to the infection on different occasions.
Rabies disease is brought about by the rabies infection. The infection is spread through the spit of infected creatures who spread it by gnawing another creature or individual. At times, rabies is spread when the rabies contamination gets into open injury or the mucous layers, for instance, mouth or eyes and it happens when an infected creature licks these territories.
Any warm-blooded creature can transmit the rabies infection. Most basic creatures transmitting the infection are:
In a couple of uncommon cases, the rabies infection might be transmitted to tissue and organ transplant beneficiaries from an infected organ.
If rabies disease is set up, there is no compelling treatment. The disease is typically lethal. Thus, you have been exposed to the rabies infection, you should get a couple of shots to keep the infection from grabbing hold. If you have been bitten by an infected animal, you receive these shots. If the animal that has bitten you can’t be located, it is safest to assume that the animal is infected.
Rabies shots are of two sorts:
Now and again, it might be conceivable to distinguish whether the creature that bit you is infected or not.
Procedures to determine this may vary from situation to situation.
High-risk people like veterans, animal handlers, etc. should be given this vaccine. People whose activities bring them into contact with the rabies virus and rabid animals and international travelers who come into contact with all types of animals should also be considered for these vaccines.
The pre-exposure schedule for vaccines is in 3 doses given as:
Booster doses need to be given to people who are repeatedly exposed to the virus.
Vaccination after an introduction: An individual who is uncovered and has never been immunized against rabies ought to get 4 dosages of rabies immunization one portion immediately, extra dosages on third, seventh and fourteenth days. They ought to likewise get another shot called Rabies Immune Globulin simultaneously as the main portion.
An individual who has been as of lately vaccinated should get 2 portions of rabies antibody one quickly and another on the third day and rabies Immune Globulin isn't required.
These symptoms lead to massive brain inflammation leading to a coma. If intensive care is not provided on time, death is inevitable in a few hours to days.
The main aspect one should always look in for after bitten by any animal is to get emergency first aid and it involves washing out the wound immediately with soap or with the antiseptic solution available. By doing so one can kill the germs that may be transferred via the bite of the animal.
Efforts must be done to stop bleeding in the wound. The local bodies or the animal owner should be notified immediately to prevent further cases. Then the person should approach the nearest health care center to get further treatment. Leaving wound untreated may lead to complications henceforth it is advised to get health care treatment at the nearest health care center rather than at home.