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Pulmonary Edema - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Pulmonary Edema?

Lungs are the organs in the body that takes in oxygen and removes the carbon dioxide from the blood. The blood from the heart is brought to the lungs through the veins and then oxygenated blood is taken back to the heart. The air sacs in the lungs help in the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen.

Pulmonary Edema is when there is water in the tiny air sacs of the lungs resulting in the lack of oxygen supply to the blood and excessive build-up of carbon dioxide. When there is such a condition then the person experiences breathlessness, pink frothy sputum, anxiety, headache and fluid retention.

Risk and complications :

Circulatory problems develop after a heart attack or when the left ventricle is severely damaged, then blood does not reach the lungs. This causes less oxygenated blood reaching the other parts of the body, this condition is called cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema is caused due to malfunction of the heart, hypertension, heart attack in which left ventricular failure happens, excessive fluid in the body or congestive heart failure.

When the lung tissues are injured it can cause pulmonary edema. The third type of edema is high altitude pulmonary edema which develops when a person visits high altitudes.

Diagnosis and Treatment :

People experiencing these symptoms should immediately contact a doctor. Doctors will do a series of blood tests, ECG, Chest X-rays to understand the pulmonary edema. Blood tests determine the level of oxygen in the blood, x-rays help to understand whether there is fluid in the lungs, ECG to know whether the person has suffered heart attack.

As there is less oxygen in the blood patients are first given oxygen supply. Breathing tube is placed in the trachea of the patient, some patients are put on ventilator. If there is a circulatory cause for the edema then the patients are given necessary medications to cure this condition. Treatment is essential for pulmonary edema as it is a fatal condition. In some patients the condition can cause coma. Proper treatment is necessary to cure the condition.

People who have conditions that can lead to pulmonary edema should be extra careful. Patients should thoroughly follow the instructions of the doctor to prevent further episodes of edema and keep the situation under control. Proper diet and weight is necessary for preventing development of pulmonary edema.

Anyone who is experiencing even mild symptoms should visit the doctor and get it treated.

Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Lab test sometimes required Short-term: resolves within days to weeks
Symptoms
Difficulty breathing Coughing up blood Excessive sweating Anxiety Pale skin Pale skin

Popular Health Tips

Pulmonary Edema - Ways It Can be Treated!

MBBS, MD - Pulmonary Medicine, DNB - Pulmonary Medicine, MD - Internal Medicine, Diploma in Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases (DTCD)
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Pulmonary Edema - Ways It Can be Treated!

Pulmonary edema is a disorder wherein fluid accumulates in the lungs leading to lack of oxygen in the body. The usual cause of pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure (the muscles of the heart are unable to pump blood). In this disorder, the heart has to work extra hard to pump blood, so this adds extra pressure on the blood vessels that are present in the lungs. In a bid to relieve this added pressure, fluid is released into the lungs by the blood vessels.

The function of your lungs is to take in oxygen from the air and circulate it in the bloodstream. However, fluid accumulation in the lungs impairs the ability to supply oxygen in the blood. As the oxygen does not reach the blood, the body gets deprived of oxygen.

Causes
The most frequent cause of pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure. Some other causes of pulmonary edema are pneumonia, failure of the kidney, damage to the lungs, high blood pressure and sepsis of the blood (infection). Apart from these internal medical causes, certain external factors such as exposure to high altitudes, drug overdose and inhalation of toxic substances can also cause pulmonary edema.

Symptoms
The symptoms of pulmonary edema are coughing, swelling of the legs, breathlessness and wheezing. In case of severe pulmonary edema, symptoms such as respiratory failure, shock and organ damage due to lack of oxygen may occur.

Treatment
The initial step to treat pulmonary edema is to administer oxygen. Oxygen is given through a nasal cannula; it is a flexible tube made of plastic with two openings that allow oxygen to be delivered to the nostrils. The oxygen levels in your body are closely monitored by the doctor.

Based on the cause of pulmonary edema, the following treatments are administered:

  1. MorphineMorphine is administered to reduce breathing difficulties and anxiety.
  2. Preload reducers: These medications help relieve the pressure in the lungs and the heart. Diuretics are a type of preload reducers; it is also known to cause excessive urination.
  3. Afterload reducers: Afterload reducers are medications that relieve pressure from the left ventricle by dilating the blood vessels.
  4. Use of blood pressure medication: Pulmonary edema caused by blood pressure changes i.e. if the disorder is caused by changes in your blood pressure, then blood pressure medications are administered to get your pressure back to normal levels. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pulmonologist.
2742 people found this helpful

Pulmonary Edema - Know More About It!

MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi

Pulmonary Edema
The term Edema refers to swelling. This swelling is generally caused by the fluids inside the blood vessels permeating to the outside of the blood vessels and into the tissues in the surrounding areas. The main causes of this happening are lack of proteins in the blood which hold the fluid in the plasma cells or because of excessive pressure in the blood vessels.

Pulmonary edema is the term used when the lungs are affected by edema. In this condition fluid accumulated in the air spaces and the lung tissues. This is also known as pulmonary congestion, lung congestion or lung water. The small blood vessels in the lungs are surrounded by air sacs known as alveoli. This is the location where oxygen is imbibed by the blood and carbon dioxide is exhaled out by the alveoli. The exchange of gases occurs in the alveoli through the thin walls, fluids are not allowed to enter into these walls unless the integrity of the walls is compromised.

When the alveoli are filled with fluid instead of air from the blood pulmonary edema occurs. This leads to problems in exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide causing difficulty in breathing due to poor oxygenation.

Types
Generally, the most often encountered type is cardiogenic mostly left ventricular but fluid accumulation can also happen due to lung damage due to other reasons. This damage to the lungs might be caused by direct damage or due to indirect damage due to high pressure in the pulmonary circulation. When pulmonary pressure is more than the average value of 15mmHg to more than 25mmHg.

-  Cardiogenic pulmonary edema happens due to the inability of the heart to pump out the blood at a satisfactory rate which may be due to the failure of the left ventricle or fluid overload.

-  Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema occurs when the alveoli are flooded with fluids and the capillaries are ruptured due to a negative pressure in the chest.

-  Flash pulmonary edema is rapidly starting to pulmonary edema. The most common cause is Myocardial infarction or heart attack but it can also be caused by aortic regurgitation which means blood flowing in the opposite direction because of leaking of the aortic valve in the heart. Flash pulmonary edema might occur due to any condition that causes heightened pressures in the left ventricular.

Symptoms
In this condition, the patient struggles to gain oxygen because of the excessive fluid filled in the lungs which prevent the oxygen to move into the bloodstream. The symptoms tend to worsen over time if the fluid is not removed from the lungs.

The most common sign of pulmonary edema is experiencing difficulty in breathing which might develop slowly over time or might be of a sudden onset if the patient is suffering from acute pulmonary edema. Some other common symptoms are tachypnea which is rapid breathing, easy fatigue, weakness and dizziness. Other symptoms like coughing blood which is frothy and pink, anxiety, paleness of the skin and excessive sweating can also be experienced. Hypoxia which is a low oxygen level in the blood might develop in patients with pulmonary edema. The doctor might look for abnormal sounds from the lungs like crackles on examination with a stethoscope.

The symptoms are also dependent on the type of pulmonary edema. These can be classified as:

The signs corresponding to long-term pulmonary edema include wheezing, fast weight gain particularly in the legs, difficulty breathing upon doing physical activities or when lying down, fatigue etc.

High altitude pulmonary edema exhibits symptoms such as fever, cough, rapid heart rate, headaches, and breathlessness after exertion etc.

Risk Factors
Individuals suffering from heart problems or those who have encountered the problem of heart failure at high risk for pulmonary edema. Other than this, some of the risk factors are a history of the disease in the family, blood disorders and a history of diseases affecting the lung such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and tuberculosis.

Causes

  • The causes of pulmonary edema can be divided into cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic causes.
  • In a healthy individual, the lungs extract oxygen from the air and release it into the bloodstream. But when fluid is filled in the lungs, this process is compromised and the body is deprived of oxygen.
  • The cardiogenic causes occur due to poor functioning of the heart because of increased pressure in the blood vessels present in the lungs. The most generally encountered cause is congestive heart failure. This happens when the heart is unable to pump blood adequately throughout the individual’s body. This leads to back up the creation of pressure in the small blood vessels in the lungs and subsequently makes the fluid leak from these blood vessels. Heart attacks and abnormality in the heart valves can also lead to excessive accumulation of blood in the blood vessels in the lungs which might eventually cause pressure build-up which leads to leakage of fluid from the blood vessels into the alveoli.

Non-cardiogenic causes of pulmonary edema include:

  • Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is a condition which leads to leakage from the alveoli because of an inflammatory response. It is caused by infections, injury to the lungs, trauma, toxin inhalation, infections of the lungs, smoking cocaine etc.
  • An overdose of aspirin might cause aspirin intoxication which can lead to pulmonary edema in elderly people. An overdose of methadone or heroin can also lead to this condition.
  • High altitude pulmonary edema can manifest because of rapid ascent to altitudes more than 10000 feet. Failure of kidneys and the subsequent inability to expel fluids from the body can lead to an excess build-up of fluids in the blood vessels which can cause pulmonary edema. If someone is suffering from an advanced kidney disorder, dialysis may be required to expel the fluids.
  • Rapid lung expansion may sometimes cause re-expansion pulmonary edema. This can happen when a huge amount of fluid is removed from around the lungs or when the lung collapses causing lung expansion. Bleeding in the brain, surgery of the brain, brain trauma can also lead to accumulation of fluids in lungs causing neurogenic pulmonary edema.

Diagnosis

The doctor will check for fluid in the patient’s lungs or for symptoms in the lungs caused by the presence of the fluid. The doctors will perform a medical history check and physical examinations. The doctors listen to the patient’s lungs using a stethoscope, to find out if:

-  There is an increased heart rate of the patient.
-  The patient is breathing rapidly.
-  There are any crackling sounds in the patient’s lungs. 
-  There are any unusual heart sounds.

The doctors also look for a build-up of fluids in the abdomen, legs and neck for swelling. The doctors will also check if you have pale or blue coloured skin. If the doctor believes the patient has fluid in their lungs, they will take additional tests. The tests done in diagnosing pulmonary edema include:

-  Chest X-ray is done to check for fluids and any other problems persisting in the lungs of the patient.
-  Blood tests to check for oxygen levels are done. A complete blood count (CBC) of the patient may also be taken by the doctors. The doctors also check the patient’s medical history.
-  Echocardiography is a test that produces live images of the heart using sound waves. The resulting image is called an Echocardiogram. The procedure is used to check for any abnormality in the heart. The images are used to spot blood clots in the heart, fluids in the sacs around the heart and problems with the aorta which is the main nerve connected to the heart. Echocardiography is the key procedure to determine the health of the heart muscles.  
-  Electrocardiography (ECG) is a procedure which records the electrical activity of the heart over a duration using electrodes attached to the skin of the patient. Electrocardiography is done to obtain structural and functional information of the heart. It is used to judge the heart’s rhythm and find any problems related to cardiac issues. Electrocardiography is used to check for any signs of heart attack.

Treatment
Pulmonary Edema is a very serious problem which requires immediate treatment. The first line of treatment for this condition has always been Oxygen. The medical professionals deliver 100 percent of oxygen to the patient using an oxygen mask, positive pressure mark or a nasal cannula. The doctors will prescribe the right treatment and medications for the cause after diagnosing Pulmonary Edema. Depending on the condition of the patient and the cause for the problem the doctors may also suggest:

-  Preload Reducers – Preload reducers are the drugs or the medications that decrease the preload of the blood vessels. They reduce the pressure from the fluids going into the lungs and heart. Diuretics help in reduction of preload and reducing the pressure by making the patient urinate. The urine helps in eliminating the fluids from their body.

-  Afterload Reducers – Afterload reducers are the drugs that or the medications that decrease the afterload in the blood vessels. These medications dilate the patient’s blood vessels and take the pressure off the patient’s heart. Afterload is the procedure of the heart pushing out or ejection of the blood to the other body organs. Vasodilators are commonly used in the reduction of both the preload and the afterload in the blood vessels of the patient. 

-  Heart Medication – The doctors also prescribe other drugs and medications to reduce other heart problems or to prevent them from occurring in the heart of the patient. These medications control the patient’s pulse, relieve the pressure in the patient’s arteries and veins and reduce the high blood pressure of the patient. 

-  Suction Catheter – A small suction catheter might be used to extract the fluids from the lungs of the patient. This is done by attaching the catheter to a tube and inserting the tube through the air passage of the patient.

-  Morphine – Morphine is a drug that is used as a pain medication. It is found naturally in a number of plants and animals. It works directly upon the Central Nervous System (CNS) to decrease the feeling of pain in the body. The drug is used to relieve shortness of breath and anxiety. But due to the many risks involved not many doctors allow the use of morphine. The side effects include low blood pressure and reduced respiratory efforts. The drug also has a high chance of addiction and abuse. Common side effects are drowsiness, constipation and vomiting. Morphine also affects the baby if used during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

In a severe case of pulmonary edema, the patient will require critical or intensive care. Some of the patients of Pulmonary Edema may require treatments to assist their breathing. A machine is used to provide oxygen to get air into the lungs. This can also be done by a mask or a Cannula, also known as Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP). The doctors may also insert an endotracheal tube also called a breathing tube into the patient’s throat to use mechanical ventilation to help with the patient’s breathing issues.

Prevention-
There is no the way to completely prevent the disorder. People at high risk should get immediate medical attention as soon as they develop any of the symptoms. The most effective way to try and prevent pulmonary edema is to take good and proper care of your health.  Follow these tips to prevent the disorder:

-  Get vaccinated for pneumonia
-  Get vaccines for flu, especially if you are an older adult or if you have any issues in your heart. 
-  After having an episode of pulmonary edema, don’t stop the use of diuretics as they reduce the chances of the disorder reoccurring.

Try to decrease the chances of heart failure, which is one of the most common causes of pulmonary edema. This can be done by:
-  Visiting the doctor on a regular basis.
-  Refraining from the use of recreational drugs.
-  Avoiding smoking cigarettes.
-  Getting regular exercise and staying active. 
-  Eating healthy food and green vegetables. 
-  Maintaining a normal weight and keeping a check on excessive weight loss or weight gain. 

1 person found this helpful

Know About Different Types Of Pulmonary Diseases!

MBBS, MRCP - General Medicine, MRCP Respiratory Medicine, CCST Respiratory Medicine
Pulmonologist, Gurgaon
Know About Different Types Of Pulmonary Diseases!

Pulmonary diseases are some of the most commonly experienced health conditions all over the world. Millions of people suffer due to various causes including genetics, smoking, pollutants and infection. Now lungs are one of the most important and complex organs of the body. They are the apparatus through which oxygen enters and carbon dioxide gets expelled.

Lungs expand and contract on a constant basis to ensure that we can breathe properly. Let us find out more about lung or pulmonary diseases.

  1. Asthma: This is one of the most common and potentially fatal conditions that affect children and adults. It grips the airways formed by the bronchi which branch off into smaller tubes from the main trachea that holds them. This condition causes inflammation, and even spasms, which can lead to wheezing and breathlessness. The main triggers of asthma attacks include allergies, infections and pollutants that may escape into the airways.
  2. COPD: This is also known as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder. It is an umbrella term used for various lung conditions that cause breathing difficulties due to an obstruction of the airways. Chronic bronchitis is one of the conditions that falls under COPD, and is usually characterised by persistent, hacking coughs.
  3. Cystic Fibrosis: This is another condition that affects the airways by causing poor passage of mucus from the bronchial tubes. This condition is a genetic one where the mucus that gathers eventually becomes a lung infection.
  4. Pneumonia: This is a condition that causes an infection in the alveoli, which are the tiny tubes that the airways branch into. These are air sacs that can catch myriad infections like pneumonia.
  5. Tuberculosis: This is also a kind of pneumonia, which is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. This condition usually attacks the air sacs of the lungs and can be a potentially fatal disease if it is not treated on time. The patient will require immediate hospitalisation.
  6. Pulmonary Edema: This condition is caused by fluid leaks from the tiny blood vessels into the surrounding air sacs within the lungs. It can also be caused due to heart failure as well as back pressure which falls on the lungs. Direct injury to the lungs can also lead to this condition.
  7. Lung Cancer: This is a fatal disease which can be found in any part of the lungs. It has many forms and the type as well as the location usually determines the kind of treatment option that will be followed.
  8. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: When the lungs suffer a sudden injury which is usually caused by a bout of serious illness, it is called ARDS. Treatment involves the use of life support ventilation.
1490 people found this helpful

Ways Pulmonary Edema Can be Treated!

MD - Medicine, MD - Pulmonary Medicine
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Ways Pulmonary Edema Can be Treated!

Pulmonary edema is a disorder wherein fluid accumulates in the lungs leading to lack of oxygen in the body. The usual cause of pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure (the muscles of the heart are unable to pump blood). In this disorder, the heart has to work extra hard to pump blood, so this adds extra pressure on the blood vessels that are present in the lungs. In a bid to relieve this added pressure, fluid is released into the lungs by the blood vessels.

The function of your lungs is to take in oxygen from the air and circulate it in the bloodstream. However, fluid accumulation in the lungs impairs the ability to supply oxygen in the blood. As the oxygen does not reach the blood, the body gets deprived of oxygen.

Causes
The most frequent cause of pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure. Some other causes of pulmonary edema are pneumonia, failure of the kidney, damage to the lungs, high blood pressure and sepsis of the blood (infection). Apart from these internal medical causes, certain external factors such as exposure to high altitudes, drug overdose and inhalation of toxic substances can also cause pulmonary edema.

Symptoms
The symptoms of pulmonary edema are coughing, swelling of the legs, breathlessness and wheezing. In case of severe pulmonary edema, symptoms such as respiratory failure, shock and organ damage due to lack of oxygen may occur.

Treatment
The initial step to treat pulmonary edema is to administer oxygen. Oxygen is given through a nasal cannula; it is a flexible tube made of plastic with two openings that allow oxygen to be delivered to the nostrils. The oxygen levels in your body are closely monitored by the doctor.

Based on the cause of pulmonary edema, the following treatments are administered:

  1. MorphineMorphine is administered to reduce breathing difficulties and anxiety.
  2. Preload reducers: These medications help relieve the pressure in the lungs and the heart. Diuretics are a type of preload reducers; it is also known to cause excessive urination.
  3. Afterload reducers: Afterload reducers are medications that relieve pressure from the left ventricle by dilating the blood vessels.
  4. Use of blood pressure medication: Pulmonary edema caused by blood pressure changes i.e. if the disorder is caused by changes in your blood pressure, then blood pressure medications are administered to get your pressure back to normal levels. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
2022 people found this helpful

Ways Pulmonary Edema Can be Treated!

MBBS, MD - Pulmonary Medicine
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
Ways Pulmonary Edema Can be Treated!

Pulmonary edema is a disorder wherein fluid accumulates in the lungs leading to lack of oxygen in the body. The usual cause of pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure (the muscles of the heart are unable to pump blood). In this disorder, the heart has to work extra hard to pump blood, so this adds extra pressure on the blood vessels that are present in the lungs. In a bid to relieve this added pressure, fluid is released into the lungs by the blood vessels.

The function of your lungs is to take in oxygen from the air and circulate it in the bloodstream. However, fluid accumulation in the lungs impairs the ability to supply oxygen in the blood. As the oxygen does not reach the blood, the body gets deprived of oxygen.

Causes
The most frequent cause of pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure. Some other causes of pulmonary edema are pneumonia, failure of the kidney, damage to the lungs, high blood pressure and sepsis of the blood (infection). Apart from these internal medical causes, certain external factors such as exposure to high altitudes, drug overdose and inhalation of toxic substances can also cause pulmonary edema.

Symptoms
The symptoms of pulmonary edema are coughing, swelling of the legs, breathlessness and wheezing. In case of severe pulmonary edema, symptoms such as respiratory failure, shock and organ damage due to lack of oxygen may occur.

Treatment
The initial step to treat pulmonary edema is to administer oxygen. Oxygen is given through a nasal cannula; it is a flexible tube made of plastic with two openings that allow oxygen to be delivered to the nostrils. The oxygen levels in your body are closely monitored by the doctor.

Based on the cause of pulmonary edema, the following treatments are administered:

  1. MorphineMorphine is administered to reduce breathing difficulties and anxiety.
  2. Preload reducers: These medications help relieve the pressure in the lungs and the heart. Diuretics are a type of preload reducers; it is also known to cause excessive urination.
  3. Afterload reducers: Afterload reducers are medications that relieve pressure from the left ventricle by dilating the blood vessels.
  4. Use of blood pressure medication: Pulmonary edema caused by blood pressure changes i.e. if the disorder is caused by changes in your blood pressure, then blood pressure medications are administered to get your pressure back to normal levels.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2522 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

My father has lung infection i.e water in lungs and also kidneys affected. When he has wheezing problem and consulted they said this. I suspect this is pulmonary edema. Can you please suggest where can it get treated at low cost.

MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
Hi lybrate-user. One is by getting him treated in civil hospital. And other is by homoeopathic treatment. You can consult me through Lybrate. Total cost of treatment should not go beyond 5-6 ks.

Hiee! My dad suffered from pulmonary edema on the 10th of March. Though he is fine now but looks weak. Needed to know if I can take him to USA in the month of may - beginning. As it is a 17 + flight. Needed to know if its safe to take. Also he has cardiac history - bypass.

MD - Pulmonary, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
Cause of pulmonary oedema appears to be cardiac. During long flight patient may go into pulmonary oedema again. Get echo and cardiologist opinion.
2 people found this helpful

My mother 68 recently diagnosed with chronic kidney disease and was admitted for pulmonary edema her sugar level suddenly went to 370 was on tab before. But now on insulin 6 units 3 times of regular and if pp at night more then 200 then rapid 2 units for 200 to 250 4 units 250 to 300. Now her sugar level fasting is in the range 100 to 130 and pp is 140 to 250. My question is that is it compulsory to take insulin can she switch to medicines. As as a elderly person she is getting tensed with pricks But heard that for chronic kidney disease patients tablets will effect the kidney please advice. One more concern like there are different tablets so is the insulin types are also different.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
Hello, Thanks for the query. Chronic kidney disease is one of the often seen complication of long standing diabetes. ANti -diabetic drugs do not cause damage to kidney, it is the diabetes itself which leads to kidney disease. Plus with such high glucose levels Insulin is the only best treatment. Oral drugs may not afford necessary control as her pancreas (beta cells) is unlikely to produce adequate insulin. Hence, supplement is essential. Insulin pens are a good way to inject, very much painless and easy to adjust the dosage. There are different types of insulin, but I am sure doctors have already given her the best suited one. Thanks.
1 person found this helpful

About test for edema leg. Please name that test to find out infections of edema. This is only my doubt.

MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
There are various reasons for oedema. And taking test blindly is not of much use. Instead give proper details and then we will be able to give right suggestion. You can ocnsult me at Lybrate.
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is Pulmonary Edema?

Risk and complications :

Diagnosis and Treatment :

Play video
Pulmonary Physiotherapy
Hello everybody!

I am Dr. Ankita Grover, Cardio-Pulmonary Physiotherapist at Xcell Physiocare Pvt. Ltd. These days as you all know that the pollution levels are rising in India and especially when we talk about Delhi NCR, the situation is even worse. There are many respiratory problems that are associated with pollution and which is causing problems to the patients such as COPD, asthma, emphysema, pneumonia etc. All these are the problem very common that you will be able to find around your surroundings. This is not only creating diseases but it is also causing patients to frequently go to the hospital. And hospital admission rates have gone up, their medication usage has gone up which is creating internal side effects for them.

So, what we at Xcell have come up with is state of the art physio or pulmonary-physio specialised labs that we have set up here and it is properly dedicated to lung rehabilitation in India. It is first of its kind in Delhi NCR and it is properly dedicated to all the lung issues that you are facing. Now coming over to what we do at Xcell Physiocare. Our first start of the treatment before the treatment is the patient screening part and the assessment part that whenever the patient comes to us we access him thoroughly through the screening test and through our specialised scales that we use. We focus on proper assessment of the patient then after the assessment is done we chart some goals for the patient.

We frame some targets for him to achieve so that symptoms are reduced and his problems related to lung issues instead of getting worse, they lower down. After framing the goals for the patient, we start a customised treatment plan and that plan is according to the patients situation. It's like ABC, A part is your assessment, B is your goal formation and C is your customised treatment plan. Now coming to our treatment plan we are having certain specialised part of pulmonary and lung rehabilitation at our setup. Firstly we focus on airway clearance techniques. Now airways clearance techniques is something which is something very important for any patient who is having a lung issue. Their airways are blocked may be due to any kind of situation, be it asthama, maybe it is Bronchitis. So our motto is to clear their airways and for that we are having specialised devices in our setup and through them, we help in getting clearance techniques.

Secondly we have focus on breathing exercises of the patient which is very important because many of the patient that come up to a centre are either complaining of shortness of breath which we call Dyspnea in medical terms and they are not able to breathe properly or even if they are breathing the breath is very shallow. We focus on training their breathing and make them do breathing exercises. Now breathing exercises and not just the exercises that we do teaching them manually but we also have devices here which specially train the respiratory muscles of the patients. You all have heard about muscle training through equipments, the body muscle training through various equipments for exercises but when it comes to respiratory muscle training I think India is far behind compared to the western countries.

We have dedicatedly planned an inspiratory muscle training program also for the patients so that we can increase their inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength which is very important for their lung rehabilitation program. Coming over the third aspect that we deal is their overall increased energy levels and that will come through their increased strength, their increase stamina or endurance and this is done through our gym section which we have at our set up at Xcell Physiocare. We also train the patients through specialised equipment that we have had for strength and conditioning as well as for endurance. This is all how our Xcell Physiocare pulmonary setup is. I have just given you an introduction about it and I would like you all to come and visit us and also I would like to you to know that on your first visit we have a special free consultation offer going for you for this month. So please do make a visit and let us know about your experience.

Thank You!
Play video
Pulmonary Disorder: Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Good afternoon friends,

I am Dr Hemant Kalra, I am a pulmonologist.

Today I will talk about a very-very important topic that is Obstructive Sleep Apnea which is widely prevalent in our country but very-very underdiagnose and awareness is very-very less. So what is obstructive sleep apnea, those patients who snore very-very heavily, who feel tired or feel sleepy during the daytime they may have Obstructive Sleep Apnea. So what is normal breathing, normal breathing is when our upper airways they allow free air to go inside the lungs and out of the lungs, this is normal breathing. So what are the obstructive airways, obstructive airways is then these upper airways collapse and this collapse of upper airways causes snoring and sensation in breathing, this is abnormal breathing or obstructive breathing at night time when we sleep? So what are the symptoms, symptoms can be nighttime symptoms can be there or daytime symptoms can be there. Night time symptoms are frequent visits to bathroom, weakness, sensation in breathing, choking or gasping for air or loud a persistent snoring or restless sleep, these 5 can be there in the night time symptoms and daytime symptoms are early morning headache, lethargy, and poor concentration, poor memory, feeling asleep during and routine activities and daytime somnolence or daytime sleepiness, these are daytime symptoms. So what kinds of patients are prone to have obstructive sleep apnea. Those patients who are obese with a short and thick neck with large tongue or hypothyroidism such patients if they snore heavily or feel tired or sleepy during the daytime or if they have night time or daytime and symptoms they must be investigated for obstructive sleep apnea. So how to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea, there is a very small test called polysomnography that can be done at a house or in hospitals. That is conducted in two parts, one is diagnostic, one is titration in diagnostic. We diagnose, whether a patient is having obstructive episodes in the night or not, or in another part, if an obstruction is there what is the pressure required to eliminate those obstructions in the night time. So obstructive diagnostic and titration component one night sleep steady is more than enough. Once we diagnose obstructive sleep apnea then we have to treat it also. There are so many treatments available but gold standard till now is CPAP therapy Continuous Positive Airway Pressure therapy is the most appropriate therapy to treat obstructive sleep apnea and once you treated you will feel that next day if you get up you will feel very-very energetic and if you do not treat obstructive sleep apnea then you may have heart problems, rythm problems, your BP may not be controlled, your sugar may not be control, you may have strokes in future also. So, if you treat obstructive sleep apnea with CPAP therapy, it is a gold standard therapy in India it is widely available in our country but lack of awareness is there. It is a very important disorder you must be treated as early as possible.

Thank you.
Play video
Asthma In Kid
Asthma is a painful pulmonary disease that is usually caused due to inflammation of the air passages. The tubes that help us breathe in and out can get contaminated with pollutants and allergens like dust, smoke, pet hair, pollen and nettle, amongst various other substances. This can lead to coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain due to breathing difficulties and wheezing as the lungs try to get more oxygen which cannot pass through the swollen airways. This is usually at least as asthma.
Play video
Early Warning Signs of Kidney Disease
Hi!

My name is Dr. Sudeep Singh Sachdev and I am currently working as a consultant nephrology in Narayana Super Specialty Hospital, Gurugram, Sec-24. Today I will be talking about the early warning signs of kidney diseases. Now millions of people on this earth are suffering from kidney diseases but most of them do not even have the idea about it. Why? Because most of the kidney diseases present with non-specific symptoms and are only prevalent when the patient prevents in advance stages of the disease. While the only way to confirm the presence of kidney diseases is to get confirmatory investigations done which include blood test, urine test and various form of image investigation.

However, the following are the few early signs of kidney diseases. One of the earliest sign is the appearance of swelling over the feet, ankle or legs. One will start to notice edema which pits on applying pressure and often termed as pitting edema. This is usually due to the fact, that when renal dysfunction advances, there is salt retention and accumulation of fluid in the extra vascular spaces of the body. Now another common and early sign is the presence of periorbital puffiness which is the appearance of edema on the upper and lower eyelid. It especially occurs in people who have protein leakage from their kidneys. And in often termed as nephrotic syndrome.

Another one of the early signs is the presence of early morning nausea. Now the patient would classically present to the bathroom at the time of brushing his teeth with the sensation of early morning nausea which leads to a separation of his appetite and decreases in taking of food during the day. This in turn can also be expedited if the patient also complaints during the later stages of disease with the sensation of metallic taste because of which he starts to deny even the most favourite products which he had loved to eat beforehand. Now another one of the early sign is anemia. By anemia I mean there is a fall in hemoglobin without any apparent blood loss from the body. There is no visible site of blood loss but the hemoglobin of the person starts to fall.

The reason for this is that kidney is a site where there is production of erythropoietin in the body. And erythropoietin is required for hemoglobin production. As renal dysfunction advances there is decrease in erythropoietin levels which present as low hemoglobin levels thus leading to anemia. Now another one of the early signs is the change in the frequency of urination of the person. One might start to urinate more often and it is often described as increase in the frequency of maturation during the night termed as notaria. This can also happen during prostate disorder in man and also urinary tract infection or could be the early sign of kidney disease.

Now one should also be very careful about any changes that occur in the nature, consistency or color of urination. As the filtering mechanism of the kidney fails, there is leakage of both protein or blood cells from the kidney. Thus the presence of blood could indicate the presence of prostate disorder, urinary tract infection or even presence of tumors of the kidney, presence of pus in the urine along with fever which indicates the serious infection of kidneys like pyelonephritis or excessive frothiness of the urine would indicate presence of great amount of protein leakage which needs to be evaluated in further detail. Another non-specific sign would be the presence of dry skin or psoriasis. As the renal dysfunction would advance there would be also associated itching and one can notice itch marks on the skin of the person. Now a non-specific early sign could also be either a backache which would present as pain along the side or below the rib or even lower abdominal pain which could be in pubic region.

This will either indicate the presence of stone, maybe in the kidney or in the bladder itself or the respective infections. Last but not the least, another presenting sign of kidney disease could be the high blood pressure. Often when high blood pressure detected it s not evaluated for kidney etiologies. Thus, it is very important for any person who presents with hypertension to get his kidney function test done along with imaging of the kidney to rule out renal etiology of hypertension. Lastly, I would like to mention that recognition and awareness along with timely intervention would lead to early detection and treatment of a kidney disorder which otherwise, could end up with dialysis, transplant or even an unfortunate circumstance as death.

Thank You!
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Management of Bronchial Asthma
Management of Bronchial Asthma
I m Dr. M. C. Gupta, practicing at Jeevan Jyoti Hospital, Faridabad for the last forty years in pulmonary medicine. Today, I will talk regarding bronchial Asthma. Asthma is prevalent in about 5-10 percent population. Symptoms of asthma are cough, breathlessness, chest, tightness and wheeze. It can occur at any age from an infant to old person. On examination, one may find bronchitis on chest.

Prevention of asthma is by avoiding pollution, dust, smoke, stress and sudden change of temperature.

The treatment of asthma is, if it is mild and infrequent then, only SABAs that is Short-Acting Beta-Agonists can be taken off and on as and when required. If someone is having persistent asthma then along with inhaled corticosteroids one need LABAs that is Long-Acting Beta-Agonist which is to be continued till the symptoms are controlled. After the symptoms are controlled, one can be put on controller medicine that is inhaled corticosteroids and which should be taken in the minimum possible dose to prevent any side effects of the inhaled steroids. The side effects of inhaled steroids are very less as compared to oral steroids. The treatment may continue lifelong or the patient may go into reminiscence.

If you want to consult me regarding asthma, you can consult me via Lybrate.
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