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Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis Tips

All About Pulmonary Diseases

MD - Pulmonary, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
All About Pulmonary Diseases

Pulmonary diseases are some of the most commonly experienced health conditions all over the world. Millions of people suffer due to various causes including genetics, smoking, pollutants and infection. Now lungs are one of the most important and complex organs of the body. They are the apparatus through which oxygen enters and carbon dioxide gets expelled.

Lungs expand and contract on a constant basis to ensure that we can breathe properly. Let us find out more about lung or pulmonary diseases.

  1. Asthma: This is one of the most common and potentially fatal conditions that affect children and adults. It grips the airways formed by the bronchi which branch off into smaller tubes from the main trachea that holds them. This condition causes inflammation, and even spasms, which can lead to wheezing and breathlessness. The main triggers of asthma attacks include allergies, infections and pollutants that may escape into the airways.
  2. COPD: This is also known as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder. It is an umbrella term used for various lung conditions that cause breathing difficulties due to an obstruction of the airways. Chronic bronchitis is one of the conditions that falls under COPD, and is usually characterised by persistent, hacking coughs.
  3. Cystic Fibrosis: This is another condition that affects the airways by causing poor passage of mucus from the bronchial tubes. This condition is a genetic one where the mucus that gathers eventually becomes a lung infection.
  4. Pneumonia: This is a condition that causes an infection in the alveoli, which are the tiny tubes that the airways branch into. These are air sacs that can catch myriad infections like pneumonia.
  5. Tuberculosis: This is also a kind of pneumonia, which is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. This condition usually attacks the air sacs of the lungs and can be a potentially fatal disease if it is not treated on time. The patient will require immediate hospitalisation.
  6. Pulmonary Edema: This condition is caused by fluid leaks from the tiny blood vessels into the surrounding air sacs within the lungs. It can also be caused due to heart failure as well as back pressure which falls on the lungs. Direct injury to the lungs can also lead to this condition.
  7. Lung Cancer: This is a fatal disease which can be found in any part of the lungs. It has many forms and the type as well as the location usually determines the kind of treatment option that will be followed.
  8. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: When the lungs suffer a sudden injury which is usually caused by a bout of serious illness, it is called ARDS. Treatment involves the use of life support ventilation.
4367 people found this helpful

Ways Pulmonary Edema Can be Treated!

MBBS, MD - Pulmonary Medicine
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
Ways Pulmonary Edema Can be Treated!

Pulmonary edema is a disorder wherein fluid accumulates in the lungs leading to lack of oxygen in the body. The usual cause of pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure (the muscles of the heart are unable to pump blood). In this disorder, the heart has to work extra hard to pump blood, so this adds extra pressure on the blood vessels that are present in the lungs. In a bid to relieve this added pressure, fluid is released into the lungs by the blood vessels.

The function of your lungs is to take in oxygen from the air and circulate it in the bloodstream. However, fluid accumulation in the lungs impairs the ability to supply oxygen in the blood. As the oxygen does not reach the blood, the body gets deprived of oxygen.

Causes
The most frequent cause of pulmonary edema is congestive heart failure. Some other causes of pulmonary edema are pneumonia, failure of the kidney, damage to the lungs, high blood pressure and sepsis of the blood (infection). Apart from these internal medical causes, certain external factors such as exposure to high altitudes, drug overdose and inhalation of toxic substances can also cause pulmonary edema.

Symptoms
The symptoms of pulmonary edema are coughing, swelling of the legs, breathlessness and wheezing. In case of severe pulmonary edema, symptoms such as respiratory failure, shock and organ damage due to lack of oxygen may occur.

Treatment
The initial step to treat pulmonary edema is to administer oxygen. Oxygen is given through a nasal cannula; it is a flexible tube made of plastic with two openings that allow oxygen to be delivered to the nostrils. The oxygen levels in your body are closely monitored by the doctor.

Based on the cause of pulmonary edema, the following treatments are administered:

  1. MorphineMorphine is administered to reduce breathing difficulties and anxiety.
  2. Preload reducers: These medications help relieve the pressure in the lungs and the heart. Diuretics are a type of preload reducers; it is also known to cause excessive urination.
  3. Afterload reducers: Afterload reducers are medications that relieve pressure from the left ventricle by dilating the blood vessels.
  4. Use of blood pressure medication: Pulmonary edema caused by blood pressure changes i.e. if the disorder is caused by changes in your blood pressure, then blood pressure medications are administered to get your pressure back to normal levels.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2522 people found this helpful

Pulmonary Embolism - Know How Can It Be Diagnosed!

Dr. Gurmeet Singh Chabbra 91% (54 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Chest & TB
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
Pulmonary Embolism - Know How Can It Be Diagnosed!

When blood clot blocks one or more arteries in your lungs the condition is known as pulmonary embolism. It can cause a decrease in the oxygen levels in your blood, damage to your lungs due to sudden restrictions in the flow of blood along with adverse effects on other parts of your body. Life threatening blockage can cause death if left untreated and you should immediately contact your health care provider to get proper diagnosis. Pulmonary embolism requires various lab tests and generally requires short time to resolve.

Symptoms: The symptoms of pulmonary embolism mainly depend upon many factors pertaining to your previous medical history. Pulmonary embolism varies with the size of your lungs, the size of the clots formed in your blood, and any other underlying history of the heart or lungs. That said, pulmonary embolism has symptoms which are not similar to any two persons and will vary accordingly.

The common symptoms however may include the following and you are advised to opt for a health checkup if these are persistent in your body:

  1. Cough along with bloody sputum is a common symptom.
  2. Shortness of breath, which will become worse as the days passes by. They will appear suddenly and cause huge discomfort in breathing.
  3. Chest pain which may give you the feeling of a heart attack. The pain will intensify when you sit to eat or cough. Deep breath will cause problems too and will not go away easily with exertion.
  4. Some other symptoms include fever, excess sweat, irregular heartbeat and dizziness.

Pulmonary embolism can be diagnosed by the following methods:

  1. Electrocardiography (also known popularly as ECG) to measure your heart's electrical activity and functioning.
  2. CT plumonary angiography is gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism.
  3. Chest x ray, which is a common and non invasive test to check your heart and lungs as well as the problems with any bones surrounding them.
  4. ECHO can detect secondary changes in heart due to pulmonary embolism.

Pulmonary embolism usually requires treatment for 3 to 6 months but in some cases may require life long treatment.

Treatment of pulmonary embolism can be done with medicines if it is detected at an early stage or also if the clot is small. However, if the size of your clot is problematic and blocks the blood flow to your lungs or heart then surgery may be necessary. Open surgery and clot removal surgery are common in the treatment of pulmonary embolism and will require good regular follow up check ups. Regular leg exercises will also reduce the chances of any underlying disease and you should hence consult your doctor. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2639 people found this helpful

Saans Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program

Physiotherapist, Delhi
Saans Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program

What is Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

Pulmonary Rehabilitation (Rehab) is a medically supervised program that helps to improve the health and well being of people who have pulmonary problems.

Rehab programs include endurance training, chest therapy, education on lung hygiene and healthy living, counseling to reduce stress & trigger factors and smoking cessation thus helping you return to an active and healthy lifestyle.

Who requires Pulmonary Rehabilitation?

People with following diseases require Pulmonary Rehabilitation:

What are the facilities for Pulmonary Rehabilitation at SAANS?

SAANS Foundation has a dedicated Pulmonary Rehab facility with separate areas for postural drainage, oxygen therapy and Non Invasive Ventilation, nebulisation and telemetric ECG monitored exercise systems i.e. ergo cycles, stepper and cross trainer; a gymnasium for pre-class warm-up and resistance training classes; Lung function testing labs; and a dedicated area for patient education.

The Pulmonary Rehab team

A multi-disciplinary team consisting of

  • Physiatrists (rehab physician)

  • Pulmonologists

  • Nurses

  • Exercise Physiologists

  •  Physical and Occupational Therapists

  • Psychologists and Wellness Coach

  • Nutritionists

What is the duration of the program?

As per patient requirement, the program duration can vary from 4-6 weeks to lifelong.

What can one achieve through this program?

The goal of this program is to prevent and limit the physiological and psychological effects of pulmonary illness and to improve overall cardio-pulmonary status and health. This is accomplished by developing individualized programs of exercise, education and lifestyle modification that are tailored to individual needs and abilities.

Three phase program

Phase I (Initial)

This is an inpatient program which starts at the time of hospitalization. It aims to initiate early mobilization to reduce the effects of de-conditioning. It consists of oxygen therapy, chest wall manipulation, nebulization, postural drainage, breathing exercises and incentive spirometry to improve oxygenation. This is continued with a walking and exercise program at home or till patient return back to the hospital for Phase II.

Phase II (Conditioning Phase)

This consists of a comprehensive program to modify the aggravating factors for lung disease along with endurance training. This consists of chest care, aerobic exercise, stress management, smoking cessation, behavior modification, nutritional advice and patient and family education. The Phase II can begin after stabilization of the early symptoms. This is conducted in the form of group sessions or classes, one session usually last for 60-90 minutes. Frequency is 3-5 times a week to complete a total of about 20 sessions. Initial sessions of aerobic training are conducted with electrocardiographic monitoring. All sessions are physician monitored conducted by trained staff.

Phase III (Maintenance Phase)

This aims to continue the benefits gained by patients during Phase II. It consists of continuation of the aerobic exercise program but at a lesser frequency of 3 times a week at home/in a gymnasium/at a hospital.

1 person found this helpful

Lung or Pulmonary Diseases: What You Need To Know?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Diploma In HIV, DNB - Respiratory Diseases, V P Chest Delhi
Pulmonologist, Pune
Lung or Pulmonary Diseases: What You Need To Know?

Pulmonary diseases are some of the most commonly experienced health conditions all over the world. Millions of people suffer due to various causes including genetics, smoking, pollutants and infection. Now lungs are one of the most important and complex organs of the body. They are the apparatus through which oxygen enters and carbon dioxide gets expelled.

Lungs expand and contract on a constant basis to ensure that we can breathe properly. Let us find out more about lung or pulmonary diseases.

  1. Asthma: This is one of the most common and potentially fatal conditions that affect children and adults. It grips the airways formed by the bronchi which branch off into smaller tubes from the main trachea that holds them. This condition causes inflammation, and even spasms, which can lead to wheezing and breathlessness. The main triggers of asthma attacks include allergies, infections and pollutants that may escape into the airways.
  2. COPD: This is also known as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder. It is an umbrella term used for various lung conditions that cause breathing difficulties due to an obstruction of the airways. Chronic bronchitis is one of the conditions that falls under COPD, and is usually characterised by persistent, hacking coughs.
  3. Cystic Fibrosis: This is another condition that affects the airways by causing poor passage of mucus from the bronchial tubes. This condition is a genetic one where the mucus that gathers eventually becomes a lung infection.
  4. Pneumonia: This is a condition that causes an infection in the alveoli, which are the tiny tubes that the airways branch into. These are air sacs that can catch myriad infections like pneumonia.
  5. Tuberculosis: This is also a kind of pneumonia, which is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. This condition usually attacks the air sacs of the lungs and can be a potentially fatal disease if it is not treated on time. The patient will require immediate hospitalisation.
  6. Pulmonary Edema: This condition is caused by fluid leaks from the tiny blood vessels into the surrounding air sacs within the lungs. It can also be caused due to heart failure as well as back pressure which falls on the lungs. Direct injury to the lungs can also lead to this condition.
  7. Lung Cancer: This is a fatal disease which can be found in any part of the lungs. It has many forms and the type as well as the location usually determines the kind of treatment option that will be followed.
  8. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: When the lungs suffer a sudden injury which is usually caused by a bout of serious illness, it is called ARDS. Treatment involves the use of life support ventilation.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3168 people found this helpful

Know About Different Types Of Pulmonary Diseases!

Dr. Arunesh Kumar 92% (182 ratings)
MBBS, MRCP - General Medicine, MRCP Respiratory Medicine, CCST Respiratory Medicine
Pulmonologist, Gurgaon
Know About Different Types Of Pulmonary Diseases!

Pulmonary diseases are some of the most commonly experienced health conditions all over the world. Millions of people suffer due to various causes including genetics, smoking, pollutants and infection. Now lungs are one of the most important and complex organs of the body. They are the apparatus through which oxygen enters and carbon dioxide gets expelled.

Lungs expand and contract on a constant basis to ensure that we can breathe properly. Let us find out more about lung or pulmonary diseases.

  1. Asthma: This is one of the most common and potentially fatal conditions that affect children and adults. It grips the airways formed by the bronchi which branch off into smaller tubes from the main trachea that holds them. This condition causes inflammation, and even spasms, which can lead to wheezing and breathlessness. The main triggers of asthma attacks include allergies, infections and pollutants that may escape into the airways.
  2. COPD: This is also known as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder. It is an umbrella term used for various lung conditions that cause breathing difficulties due to an obstruction of the airways. Chronic bronchitis is one of the conditions that falls under COPD, and is usually characterised by persistent, hacking coughs.
  3. Cystic Fibrosis: This is another condition that affects the airways by causing poor passage of mucus from the bronchial tubes. This condition is a genetic one where the mucus that gathers eventually becomes a lung infection.
  4. Pneumonia: This is a condition that causes an infection in the alveoli, which are the tiny tubes that the airways branch into. These are air sacs that can catch myriad infections like pneumonia.
  5. Tuberculosis: This is also a kind of pneumonia, which is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. This condition usually attacks the air sacs of the lungs and can be a potentially fatal disease if it is not treated on time. The patient will require immediate hospitalisation.
  6. Pulmonary Edema: This condition is caused by fluid leaks from the tiny blood vessels into the surrounding air sacs within the lungs. It can also be caused due to heart failure as well as back pressure which falls on the lungs. Direct injury to the lungs can also lead to this condition.
  7. Lung Cancer: This is a fatal disease which can be found in any part of the lungs. It has many forms and the type as well as the location usually determines the kind of treatment option that will be followed.
  8. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: When the lungs suffer a sudden injury which is usually caused by a bout of serious illness, it is called ARDS. Treatment involves the use of life support ventilation.
3 people found this helpful

Pulmonary Hypertension - How To Treat It?

Bansal Hospital 92% (134 ratings)
Internal Medicine Specialist, Delhi
Pulmonary Hypertension - How To Treat It?

Pulmonary hypertension is a medical condition that arises when the blood pressure remains consistently high in the vessels of the lungs. This condition can develop from a completely unrelated medical condition and is more prevalent among women. 

Pulmonary Hypertension can be a hard disease to diagnose. While it has no permanent cure, the medication depends on how far the disease has advanced. From group 1 PAH to group 5 PAH, pulmonary hypertension has 5 stages of advancement. 

Here is a list of 10 ways by which this disease can be kept under control along with the prescribed medication:

  1. Quit smoking: Smoking aggravates pulmonary hypertension. It has adverse effects on both the heart and the lung. It is therefore of utmost importance to quit smoking. If you fail to control your urge of smoking, contact your doctor who can suggest a quitting plan.
  2. Avoid high altitude: Patients suffering from pulmonary hypertension should avoid flying and living at high altitude. An altitude of 8000 feet and above can worsen the symptoms. It is therefore suggested that you do not take flights for travelling or come down below the altitude of 2428 meters if you are living in hilly areas.
  3. A healthy diet: A healthy diet consisting of fresh fruit and vegetables, lean meat and whole grains should be consumed on a daily basis. A nutritious diet goes a long way in keeping pulmonary hypertension in check.
  4. Adequate rest: A minimum of 8 hours of sleep is recommended for patients suffering from pulmonary hypertension. A good night’s sleep and frequent naps keeps fatigue at bay. 
  5. Pregnancy and birth control pills: Avoiding pregnancy is a must for patients suffering from this disease. Pregnancy can be life threatening for the both the baby and the mother. Birth control pills should be avoided as well. It greatly increases the chance of blood clots. 
  6. Maintain a steady blood pressure: Any activities that lower the blood pressure should be avoided by all means. Spending too much time in a bathtub or prolonged stress increases the chances fainting.
  7. Become more active: Patients of pulmonary hypertension often run out of breath with little to no activity. While activities such as weight lifting should be strictly avoided, some exercise or daily jogging can fetch good result in keeping a patient healthy.
  8. Get vaccine on time: Doctors often suggest vaccines if the patient suffers from pneumonia or influenza. It should be ensured that such vaccines are taken on time. For patients suffering from pulmonary hypertension, prolonged exposure to diseases such as pneumonia can wreak havoc.
  9. Regular checkup: Regular follow up with the doctor is of prime importance. Any possible side effects or deterioration can be arrested with constant supervision.
  10. On time medication: Patients of pulmonary hypertension should ensure that all the medicines suggested by the doctor are taken at regular intervals as per prescribed dosage.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

5324 people found this helpful

What Is Pulmonary Hypertension and How It Is Being Treated?

MBBS, MD -Pulmonary Medicine-Tuberculosis ,Respiratory Disease Medicine , Diploma in Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases (DTCD), European Diploma in Respiratory Medicine
Pulmonologist, Delhi
What Is Pulmonary Hypertension and How It Is Being Treated?

Having heard about getting any sort of pulmonary disease might give you a nightmare. Well, yes there are pulmonary problems, which are dangerous and become life threatening. Pulmonary hypertension is one such rare disease. It is a type of high blood pressure, which usually occurs in the pulmonary arteries that stream from human heart through lungs. The arteries become narrowed, constricted, which makes the flow of blood difficult through the vessels. As the situation occurs, the heart will have to work more to fix the situation. This causes high blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries. If the condition deteriorates the pressure increases along with risk factors. 

Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension: 

There are certain symptoms, which people experience under the pulmonary hypertension disease. The symptoms might get unnoticed for years and you might get delayed in treating such problems. This article can help you know about the disease, symptoms and its treatment. 

There is a list of symptoms, which can help you understand if you have pulmonary hypertension:

  • One of the major symptoms that you may notice is shortness of breath. The arteries and blood vessels which help in flowing blood through lungs help in breathing too. So a narrowed and constricted artery makes the inhalation and exhalation procedure laborious.
  • The next symptom that you might notice is fatigue and dizziness. If your lungs are not getting enough blood that means your brain and body are not getting enough oxygen to work. This hinders your body to perform any kind of activities smoothly. This can make you gain weight and increase several risk factors. 
  • Next, you might feel irregular heartbeat and chest pain. Increased pressure makes the heart work faster than its normal rate. This further makes the heart muscles weaker, and it is not able to control the heartbeat as it used to. 

Treatment of pulmonary hypertension: 

  • Pulmonary hypertension is generally treated with medication and surgery. Depending on its severity, your doctor will prescribe the medicines. Generally, doctors prescribe such medicines, which help in relaxing the blood vessels. The relaxed blood vessels can regulate blood flow easily. All the medicines are generally taken orally or injected or inhaled. 
  • If you adopt a severe case of pulmonary hypertension, then your doctor might suggest you a lung transplant or a heart-lung transplant. 
  • Depending upon the type of pulmonary hypertension, your doctor may prescribe you blood-thinning medicines also, if you have blood clots in your arteries. 
  • In a certain cases, doctors prescribe oxygen therapy, which helps in increasing the oxygen level in blood.
  • With the above mentioned methods, doctors ask for a change in lifestyle, which is important in treating the specific disease.
7071 people found this helpful

What Is Pulmonary Embolism?

MD - Pulmonary, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
What Is Pulmonary Embolism?

When blood clot blocks one or more arteries in your lungs the condition is known as pulmonary embolism. It can cause a decrease in the oxygen levels in your blood, damage to your lungs due to sudden restrictions in the flow of blood along with adverse effects on other parts of your body. Life threatening blockage can cause death if left untreated and you should immediately contact your health care provider to get proper diagnosis. Pulmonary embolism requires various lab tests and generally requires short time to resolve.

Symptoms: The symptoms of pulmonary embolism mainly depend upon many factors pertaining to your previous medical history. Pulmonary embolism varies with the size of your lungs, the size of the clots formed in your blood, and any other underlying history of the heart or lungs. That said, pulmonary embolism has symptoms which are not similar to any two persons and will vary accordingly.

The common symptoms however may include the following and you are advised to opt for a health checkup if these are persistent in your body:

  1. Cough along with bloody sputum is a common symptom.
  2. Shortness of breath, which will become worse as the days passes by. They will appear suddenly and cause huge discomfort in breathing.
  3. Chest pain which may give you the feeling of a heart attack. The pain will intensify when you sit to eat or cough. Deep breath will cause problems too and will not go away easily with exertion.
  4. Some other symptoms include fever, excess sweat, irregular heartbeat and dizziness.

Pulmonary embolism can be diagnosed by the following methods:

  1. Electrocardiography (also known popularly as ECG) to measure your heart's electrical activity and functioning.
  2. CT plumonary angiography is gold standard for diagnosing pulmonary embolism.
  3. Chest x ray, which is a common and non invasive test to check your heart and lungs as well as the problems with any bones surrounding them.
  4. ECHO can detect secondary changes in heart due to pulmonary embolism.

Treatment of pulmonary embolism can be done with medicines if it is detected at an early stage or also if the clot is small. However, if the size of your clot is problematic and blocks the blood flow to your lungs or heart then surgery may be necessary. Open surgery and clot removal surgery are common in the treatment of pulmonary embolism and will require good regular follow up check ups. Regular leg exercises will also reduce the chances of any underlying disease and you should hence consult your doctor.

5414 people found this helpful

How To Treat Pulmonary Hypertension?

DTCD (TDD), C-HIV
Pulmonologist, Pune
How To Treat Pulmonary Hypertension?

Pulmonary hypertension mainly occurs due to narrowing of the arteries of the lungs as a result of which the flow of blood is restricted. In this kind of condition, blood fails to carry oxygen to your heart and thus your heart gets adversely affected. The blood pressure of your body will get increased to a great extent if this situation remains untreated, thus leading to bdreadful consequenses, specifically situation like heart failure, serious pulmonary diseases, blood clots in lungs and congenial heart defects, etc.

There are certain forms of pulmonary hypertension, which are serious in nature and worsen with time, so much so that they are even fatal at times. It also includes forms which are non curable in nature, however, in order to improve the quality of life, symptoms can be reduced with proper treatment. The treatment for pulmonary hypertension is often complex and it takes some time to find the most appropriate treatment and requires extensive follow-up care. Your doctor might also need to change your treatment if it's no longer effective. However, when pulmonary hypertension is caused by another condition, your doctor will treat the underlying cause whenever possible.

Common Treatments for pulmonary hypertension:

Medications:

  1. Blood vessel dilators (vasodilators): Vasodilators open narrowed blood vessels. They are one of the most commonly prescribed vasodilators for pulmonary hypertension is epoprostenol (Flolan, Veletri). The drawback to epoprostenol is that the effect lasts only for few minutes. This drug is continuously injected through an intravenous (IV) catheter via a small pump that you wear in a pack on your belt or shoulder.
  2. Ventavis: Another form of the drug, iloprost (Ventavis), can be inhaled six to nine times a day through a nebulizer, a machine that vaporizes your medication. Because it's inhaled, it goes directly to the lungs.
  3. Treprostinil (Tyvaso, Remodulin, Orenitram): It is another form of the drug, which can be given four times a day and can be inhaled or can be taken as an oral medication and can also be administered through injection.
  4. Endothelin receptor antagonists: These medications reverse the effect of endothelin, a substance in the walls of blood vessels that causes them to narrow. These drugs may improve your energy level and symptoms. However, these drugs shouldn't be taken if you're pregnant. Also, these drugs can damage your liver and you may need monthly liver monitoring.
  5. Sildenafil and tadalafil: Sildenafil (Revatio, Viagra) and tadalafil (Cialis, Adcirca) are sometimes used to treat pulmonary hypertension. These drugs work by opening the blood vessels in the lungs to allow blood to flow through more easily.
  6. High-dose calcium channel blockers: These drugs help relax the muscles in the walls of your blood vessels. They include medications, such as amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem, Tiazac, others) and nifedipine (Procardia, others). Although calcium channel blockers can be effective, only a small number of people with pulmonary hypertension respond to them.
  7. Soluble guanylate cyclase (SGC) stimulator: Soluble guanylate cyclase (SGC) stimulators (Adempas) interact with nitric oxide and help relax the pulmonary arteries and lower the pressure within the arteries. These medications should not be taken if you're pregnant. They can sometimes cause dizziness or nausea.
  8. Anticoagulants: Your doctor is likely to prescribe the anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to help prevent the formation of blood clots within the small pulmonary arteries. Because anticoagulants prevent normal blood coagulation, they increase your risk of bleeding complications. Take warfarin exactly as prescribed, because warfarin can cause severe side effects if taken incorrectly. If you're taking warfarin, your doctor will ask you to have periodic blood tests to check how well the drug is working. Many other drugs, herbal supplements and foods can interact with warfarin, so be sure your doctor knows all of the medications you're taking.
  9. Digoxin: Digoxin (Lanoxin) can help the heart beat stronger and pump more blood. It can help control the heart rate if you experience arrhythmias.
  10. Diuretics: Commonly known as water pills, these medications help eliminate excess fluid from your body. This reduces the amount of work your heart has to do. They may also be used to limit fluid buildup in your lungs.
  11. Oxygen: Your doctor might suggest that you sometimes breathe pure oxygen, a treatment known as oxygen therapy, to help treat pulmonary hypertension, especially if you live at a high altitude or have sleep apnea. Some people who have pulmonary hypertension eventually require continuous oxygen therapy.

Surgeries:

  1. Atrial Septostomy: If medications don't control your pulmonary hypertension, this open heart surgery might be an option. In an atrial septostomy, a surgeon will create an opening between the upper left and right chambers of your heart (atria) to relieve the pressure on the right side of your heart.
  2. Lung Transplantation: In some cases, a lung or heart lung transplant might be an option, especially for younger people who have idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Reducing Complications:

  1. The complications need to be reduced by taking proper health care. Healthy diet needs to be taken regularly along with proper medications. Smoking should be stopped and exercising sessions should be attended daily without any fail
  2. Overweight or obesity needs to be controlled properly for reducing the complications. Specialized caring strategies need to be maintained for avoiding severe kinds of health complications that are quite annoying. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pulmonologist.
1872 people found this helpful
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