Common Specialities
{{speciality.keyWord}}
Common Issues
{{issue.keyWord}}
Common Treatments
{{treatment.keyWord}}

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Tips

All About Cerebral Palsy!

Dr. Ramakanth Reddy 94% (157 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Child Health
Pediatrician, Hyderabad
All About Cerebral Palsy!

Cerebral Palsy: What You Need to Know

  • Injuries to the brain before, during or after birth can cause cerebral palsy.

  • Symptoms of cerebral palsy are usually noticed in infants and toddlers.
  • There is currently no cure for cerebral palsy, but treatment options are available to treat associated orthopaedic conditions.
  • The functional abilities and intellect of a person with cerebral palsy can vary greatly.

What is cerebral palsy?

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a condition that is a result of a brain injury. This injury can occur before, during or shortly after birth. Cerebral palsy affects movement and muscle tone.

What are the symptoms of cerebral palsy?

Signs of CP are usually noticed during infancy or in toddlers. It can be associated with exaggerated reflexes, floppiness in the trunk or limbs, or stiffness in the trunk and limbs. It can present with involuntary movements and abnormal gait.

Cerebral Palsy Treatment

There is no cure for CP, but there are many treatment options to help with the orthopaedic problems associated with CP.

Common Orthopaedic Conditions Seen in Children with Cerebral Palsy

Hip Dysplasia

This is a deformity of the hip that can be found on one or both hips in children with an underlying neuromuscular condition, such as CP. Increased or decreased tone in the muscles can lead to migration of the femoral head out of the hip socket, requiring additional treatment.

Treatment:

  • Proximal Femoral osteotomy:This surgical procedure can be used to correct hip subluxation or dislocation in children who have an underlying neuromuscular disorder. It is used to correct the position of the proximal femur for better coverage by the acetabulum, leading to better distribution of weight on the femur. A wedge of bone is typically removed to place the proximal femur into the hip joint. A plate and screws are used to secure the femur bone properly in place.
  • Acetabular osteotomy: This surgical procedure can be used to provide better coverage of the femoral head by the acetabulum. A wedge of bone is cut and placed in a position to add coverage. Hardware is used to secure the bone in place.

Neuromuscular Scoliosis

Neuromuscular scoliosis is a condition of the spine associated with an underlying neuromuscular condition, such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy or spinal cord injury. The underlying condition typically causes changes in the muscles, leaving them unable to support the spine adequately. This leads to a curvature of the spine. The typical presentation is an abnormal S- or C-shaped curvature. The spine can also have rotation creating a multidimensional curve. The curvature can be progressive, especially with growth spurts.

Treatment:

  • Bracing: A back brace may assist in better positioning and supply better support, but it usually does not stop the progression of the curve. In children who are nonambulatory, modifications to the wheelchair can also assist in better spine support and sitting position.
  • Spinal usion surgery: This is a common treatment option for neuromuscular scoliosis when the curvature of the spine interferes with function or becomes a high degree of curvature. The spinal fusion surgery fuses the spine with metal hardware to stabilize the curve and secure the spine.  

Equinovarus Foot

This is a foot deformity commonly seen in children with CP. Due to muscle imbalance, the deformity can make weight-bearing activities challenging.

Treatment:

  • Split anterior tibial tendon transfer: This surgical intervention releases and transfers tendons in the foot to correct the deformity.
  • Calcaneal Osteotomy: This bony surgical procedure is used in patients who have more rigidity of the deformity in the hind foot.

Neuromuscular Flatfoot

This is a deformity of the foot due to an underlying neuromuscular condition. The abnormality of the muscles in the feet leads to a flat foot with minimal or no arch. This condition is commonly seen in children with hypotonia or low tone.

Treatment:

Orthotics: In children with flexible flatfoot, a brace or orthotic may be helpful to provide better arch support and decrease pain. In children with rigid or painful flatfoot, a surgery may be recommended to correct this deformity and improve the alignment of the foot.

Toe Walking

This is a condition in children with an underlying neuromuscular disorder that leads to high tone or muscle tightness in a child’s ankles, and can cause them to walk on the toes or balls of the feet.

Treatment:

  • Physical therapy: Several sessions to work on stretching the tight muscles may be beneficial to decrease the amount of toe walking.
  • Serial casting: Short leg casts can be applied for two-week intervals to progressively work on stretching the tight muscles to improve the position of the foot and ankle. The addition of Botox injections to help stretch the tight muscles in casts may be more effective in some children.
  • Achilles tendon or gastrocnemius lengthening: When physical therapy and serial casting are ineffective in correcting the tight ankle, a surgery may be necessary to achieve a flat foot position with walking. A lengthening is a surgical procedure in which the tight Achilles tendon or gastrocnemius muscle is lengthened to allow greater range of motion and function of the foot and ankle. The lengthening also allows children to better tolerate ankle-foot orthosis and achieve a flat foot position with walking.

Limb Length Inequality

Limb length inequality is a difference in the lengths of a child’s lower extremities (legs). The difference in length can be found in children with hemiplegic CP.

Treatment:

The application of a shoe lift inside a child’s shoe on the shorter side assists in lessening the discrepancy. Surgical treatment to shorten the longer leg is also a way to decrease the discrepancy in children with a greater than 2-centimeter discrepancy. The procedure is called epiphysiodesis, and it is a carefully calculated surgery to close the growth plate in the longer leg and allow the shorter leg to continue to grow and balance out the discrepancy.

Torsional Disorders

Some children with CP develop an inward or outward twist in their lower extremities. When this is excessive, it can interfere with their gait pattern.

Treatment:

Tibial or femoral rotational osteotomy: This surgical procedure is used to correct deformity of the tibia or femur bone. The bone is cut, placed in a corrected position and secured with hardware. The deformities can be surgically corrected with different techniques to provide improved function, especially with gait.

Muscle Contracture

In a child with an underlying neuromuscular disorder, muscle tone can be increased, which can lead to a contracture of the muscle. This means the muscle does not stretch well. Common muscles involved are the hamstrings, adductors, hip flexors and gastrocnemii.

Treatment:

  • Physical therapy and bracing: Physical therapy and bracing techniques can help keep muscles stretched to improve range of motion and assist in preventing a muscle contracture.
  • Botox: An injection of this is used to temporarily weaken the muscle to allow for stretching of the muscle. The effects of Botox typically last about three months and then wear off. During this time, it is important to aggressively stretch the affected muscle to optimize the medication. Physical therapy and serial casting are commonly used in conjunction with Botox treatment.
  • Tendon lengthening surgery: When stretching and bracing are not effective in improving range of motion, tendon lengthening surgery can be used to provide additional stretch and function at various muscle sites. Common muscles lengthened include hamstrings, gastrocnemii and adductors.
6 people found this helpful

Cerebral Palsy And Occupational Therapy

Dr. R K Lohiya 88% (10 ratings)
Bachelor of Occupational Therapy (BOT), Master of Occupational Therapy (MOT)
Occupational Therapist, Gurgaon
Cerebral Palsy And Occupational Therapy

Cerebral palsy and occupational therapy

In order to recover the skills that are required for leading an independent and a satisfying life after any injury or disease, an occupational therapist is required. The word occupation refers to the tasks which one has to perform everyday not to one’s profession. Muscle and joint coordination issues can be fixed with the help of occupational therapy in case if kids .These include the daily activities like eating, brushing using the toilet. With the help of OT your cognitive and social abilities and even your motor skills will improve at a very good rate.

How is this beneficial for children with cerebral palsy?

Occupational therapy will be helpful to the children who are specially suffering from cerebral palsy. These benefits includes:

- It will increase the chances of making your child more independent.
- It will boost their ability to play as well as to learn.
- The self esteem and the confidence of your child will readily increase.
- They’ll have a sense of accomplishment.
- Their quality of life will improve as well.
- This is also beneficial for the parents as well. It will reduce your stress and will provide you with a sense of security.

What to expect?

Occupational therapy is different for different children who have cerebral palsy. It depends on one’s physical, intellectual and social emotional abilities .The first session is basically done for evaluation where your child’s fine motor and will be observed how your child responds to touch or any kind of movement. The parents are also interviewed in order to find out about the strengths and the weaknesses of your child. For children with cerebral palsy, a revaluation should be done in every 7-8 months in order to see the progress and change the treatment plan accordingly as per the improvement .The operational therapist will use some specific techniques which will help your child to improve very quickly and reach their destination.

These techniques are :

Paediatric constraint induced Movement therapy: This therapy helps your child to move the weaker parts of the body by restraining the stronger counterpart. If you child has a difficulty in moving one of the arms then the stronger arm will be restrained and the weaker arm will be trained in order to gain the strength.

Sensory integration therapy: This type of therapy will help your child to improve the ability bro receive , interpret and act on the information and situations that comes in your child’s brain with the help of sensory receptors .

Occupational therapy has been a very important part in improving the physical and the mental discomfort faced by your child when he or she is suffering from cerebral palsy. The therapist may even provide your child with some gadgets in order to make his /her daily life easier and more independent. This helps your child to improve and gradually get better at it without any sort of negativity. While you’re looking for a OT make sure the person has enough experience and knowledge, just to ensure that your child gets the right treatment.

 

4247 people found this helpful

Cerebral Palsy - Know Its Symptoms and Effects!

Dr. Atul Kumar Garg 85% (12 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics, Fellowship In Arthroscopy & Arthroplasty, Advanced Life trauma Support, Diploma In Sports Injuries
Orthopedist, Delhi
Cerebral Palsy - Know Its Symptoms and Effects!

Lack of oxygen to the brain that occurs during, before or shortly after the birth of a child results in the disorder of movement, which is referred to as cerebral palsy. It is regarded as a common childhood disability that makes the movement of certain parts of the body very difficult. There are different categories of cerebral palsy and each of them has different characteristics and symptoms. The disorder of movement includes jerky and stiff movements such as spastic cerebral palsy. It may also lead to movements that are uncoordinated such as athetoid cerebral palsy. These include athetoid-dyskinetic, hypotonic, spastic and ataxic.

Effects of Cerebral palsy
In some, the disorder of movement is very severe and the patient is restrained to a wheelchair. In cases where movement is limited, it could be a slight limp in the arms or hands. The disorder cannot be considered as lack of intelligence or mental disability. The condition requires the medical diagnosis for treatment, but it cannot be cured. The involuntary and voluntary movements of the body are affected to a great extent due to the damage to the brain. The condition is not contagious and it also does not affect the cognitive ability of a child. In some cases the symptoms reduce over time. Further, since it is not progressive, it does not worsen with an increase in age. The lifespan of these individuals is also normal. The damage to the cerebrum can be caused during the birth of the infant or within 5 years of their birth.

Symptoms of Cerebral Palsy
The main symptoms that an infant with cerebral palsy can have include movement and muscular problems. The muscles of the child are underdeveloped, which leads to floppy and stiff movements. The child suffers from poor coordination and his movements of writing are also very slow. The stiff muscles of the body contract abnormally and this condition is also referred to as spastic paralysis.

The other signs are the infant would crawl in an unusual way and would lie down in awkward positions. The range of movements in these children is very limited and they often they suffer from eyesight and hearing problems. They have problems controlling their bladder and bowel movements, in swallowing food and even in walking.

Reasons Behind Its Occurrence
The three possible reasons behind the occurrence of Cerebral palsy include PVL or Periventricular leukomalacia, abnormal development of the brain and due to intracranial damage. The Periventricular leukomalacia mainly affects the white matter of the brain due to lack of oxygen in the womb. Mothers who suffer from low blood pressure, use illegal drugs or contract infections such as German measles are prone to this condition of lack of oxygen. Lack of oxygen to the brain can also be caused because of preterm delivery. There is also a higher risk of cerebral palsy due to a damaged placenta and multiple births. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4551 people found this helpful

How To Deal With Bell's Palsy?

Dr. Sankalp Mohan 89% (98 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, Fellow In Pain Management, DM - Neurology
Neurologist, Delhi
How To Deal With Bell's Palsy?

Bell’s palsy is a neurological condition that results in a temporary paralysis of the facial muscles. This paralysis or muscle weakness occurs when the cranial nerve responsible for controlling the facial muscles become compressed, swollen or inflamed. When this happens one side of the face may become stiff or can droop. You may experience trouble laughing, smiling or closing the eye located on the side of the face that has become affected.

Most often the condition of Bell’s palsy is temporary that will go away in a few days to a few weeks time. People between the age group of 16 and 60 years are at a risk of developing Bell’s palsy. The exact reasons why the cranial nerve becomes inflamed is not known but medical experts widely believe that it is because of viral infections.

Viruses that are sometimes instrumental behind causing Bell’s palsy are:

  1. HIV
  2. Herpes simplex
  3. Herpes Zoster Virus
  4. Lyme Disease
  5. Epstein-Barr Virus
  6. Sarcoidosis

Symptoms of Bell’s palsy can start to show up in a week or two’s time after you have developed an ear, eye or cold infection. The symptoms can occur all of a sudden and you will see them occurring usually in the morning. Generally, Bell’s palsy affects only one side of the face but it can also affect both sides. Aside from the stiffness of the facial muscles other symptoms of Bell’s palsy are:

  1. Trouble with either drinking or eating.
  2. Trouble with facial expressions
  3. Sudden twitching movements.
  4. Headaches
  5. Extreme sensitive to sound
  6. Eye irritation on the side(s) involved.
  7. Dryness of the eyes and mouth.

A Bell’s palsy condition can become risky if the person suffering from it is pregnant, has diabetes, has a pre-existing lung infection and also has a family medical history of this condition.
Most often a Bell’s palsy condition will improve on its own without requiring any treatment in a few days to few weeks time. But it can take many weeks for the facial muscles to recover their previous strength for muscle functioning.

The kinds of medications that can aid in speeding up the recovery process are:

  • Corticosteroids that help to lower the swelling and or the inflammation.
  • Antibacterials or antivirals to tackle the virus or the bacteria that may have been the reason behind your Bell’s palsy case.
  • Certain over-the-counter drugs that can help in providing temporary relief.
  • Some eye drops to deal with the eye dryness.

Some home remedies that can also be duly adopted are:

  1. Using a towel soaked in warm water to put on your face and get temporary relief from the pain.
  2. A facial massage.
  3. An eye patch.
  4. Therapy for stimulating the facial muscles.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2732 people found this helpful

9 Best Treatments for Bell's/facial Palsy

Dr. Vishwas Virmani 92% (23114 ratings)
MPT, BPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
9 Best Treatments for Bell's/facial Palsy

BELL'S PALSY

Bell’s palsy is a facial paralysis of acute onset presumed to be due to non-suppurative inflammation of unknown etiology of the facial nerve within its  canal above the stylomastoid foramen. 

CAUSES: 

History of exposure of  the year to extreme cold Water retention in  pregnancy  Infection of the ear Herpes zoster infection Upper respiratory tract infection Idiopathic They all causes facial   nerve lesion.It occurs any time from infancy to old age. However it is more seen among younger population and males are more affected than females.  

MANAGEMENT FOR BELL’S PALSY:

 Resolving the inflammation:     

If the patient comes immediately following the onset of paralysis, then he   may be treated with either SWD or IR to increase the circulation in the  stylomastoid  foramen so that the inflammation can be resolved. If the     paralysis is only due to compression or neuropraxia then the patient will  show a miraculous recovery once the inflammation is resolved and   compression on the nerve is relieve. Such heat modalities can be tried for   a period of one week to ten days.

 Maintenance of muscle     properties: This can be achieved with interrupted galvanic stimulation to the paralyzed muscles.  

Facial massage: Massage is essential to     maintain the circulation to the face as well as to keep the face supple. The direction of the manipulation used should be in upward direction and     not downward direction as downward movement tends to stretch the paralyzed  muscle more and can have deleterious effect. 

Taping or Splinting    These methods are used to decrease the facial asymmetry noticed in Bell’s palsy. 

Eye care: the patient     may be instructed to wear protective goggles to prevent entry of foreign   bodies into his eyes. 

Continuous monitoring:     the patient recovery status should be reviewed consistently.  SDC is  helpful in knowing the prognosis of the patient. 

Faradic Reeducation:     only if patient can tolerate sensory stimulus of faradic current to th  face, faradic reeducation is given. Other means of reeducating the  movement is by using 

PNF techniques, visual feedback exercises etc. 

Visual feedback   exercises: the patient may asked to do facial exercises in front of the mirror, so that he gets a visual feedback and can perform the exercises     more efficiently.

 Strengthening   exercises: once the facial muscles reach grade 3 or fair then resistance can be given to muscle action to further strengthen them.

7 people found this helpful

Role Of Physiotherapy In Cerebral Palsy!

Dr. Gaurav Mohan 91% (18 ratings)
MPTh/MPT, BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Delhi
Role Of Physiotherapy In Cerebral Palsy!

What do we mean by the term cerebral palsy?
A cerebral palsy is a group of permanent movement disorders which occur in early childhood. It is a neurological disorder which can occur due to many causes, such as hypoxia, injury, infection, hypoglycemia, or any other cause.

What are the symptoms of cerebral palsy?
Stiffness; tightness in the muscles of the extremities either upper or lower extremity; exaggerated movements; limited movements; abnormal gait; crossed knees; and abnormal reflexes are the common presentations of this disease.

How does physiotherapy help in cerebral palsy?
Physiotherapy is one of the best methods to assist patients with cerebral palsy. It helps in following ways:

  1. By reducing the exaggerated tone of the muscle
  2. By enhancing the development of milestones
  3. By maintaining the muscle length
  4. By correcting the posture
  5. By improving activities of daily living

What are the goals of the physiotherapy in patients with cerebral palsy?
The main goals of the physiotherapy are as follows:

  1. To make the patient independent by improving functional mobility
  2. To strengthen and stimulate the growth of muscles
  3. To improve the ability to move parts of the body
  4. To prevent the joint stiffness and muscle atrophy (wasting of the muscles) of the limbs
  5. To improve the balance and joint stability

What methods are used in physiotherapy for the patients with cerebral palsy?
It includes following methods:

  1. Stretching exercises to improve the mobility of joints and soft tissues
  2. Use of toys and games to make the therapy enjoyable for the child
  3. Use of special positions, exercises, and cushions to maintain the natural position
  4. Use of braces, casts, and splints to straighten the joint, support the joint, and to manage uncontrolled limb movements
  5. Use of a special plastic jacket to prevent exaggerated curvature of joints
  6. Use of equipment for constraint-induced movement therapy, to improve movements through presenting interesting activities, and giving praise and rewards when a child makes attempts to use the less-functioning muscles
  7. Use of tilt-tables and standing frames
  8. Serial casting to increase the range of joint motion and repeated applications of casts, typically every one to two weeks to restore it
  9. Passive stretching or prolonged manual stretching by using the effect of body weight and gravity or mechanically with a machine or splints
  10. Use of exercise balls, resistance bands, free weights, swimming pools, and hot and cold packs
  11. Electric stimulation to improve gait and upper limb function
  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to improve the oxygen supply to the surrounding neurons
  13. Use of an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) in foot drop to prevent tripping over the toes 
  14. Use of walkers also may be prescribed to enhance mobility
2 people found this helpful

Cerebral Palsy In Kids - Treatments That Can Help!

Dr. Vineet Bhushan Gupta 88% (96 ratings)
Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MRCPCH, MRCP (UK), MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Delhi
Cerebral Palsy In Kids - Treatments That Can Help!

Cerebral Palsy is a disorder related to the posture, movement or muscle tone, mostly due to immature development of the brain in a baby. This condition usually crops up, when the baby is already in the womb. The symptoms may surface when the baby is in its infancy or even later. Irregularities in the reflexes, posture, walking style, etc should ring a bell for the parents. Kids suffering from cerebral palsy may also suffer from muscle imbalance of the eye muscles, leading to problems focusing on an object. The range of motions becomes limited as well. There could be conditions such as deafness, epilepsy, impaired brain function and blindness associated with this disease. 

Whom to consult for cerebral palsy in kids? 
A kid suffering from Cerebral Palsy might have to work with a medical team for a very long time. Parents might need the help of a paediatrician, orthopaedic surgeon, paediatric neurologist, physical therapist, speech-language pathologist, mental health specialist, developmental therapist, recreation therapist and special education teacher. 

Treatments that are available for Cerebral Palsy in kids Medication: 

Medications: Medications are often used to improve the functional abilities of a kid. Certain spasticity related complications, treatment of pain, and other symptoms of Cerebral Palsy can be treated with medications. It is important to discuss with the doctor, the side-effects involved in taking the medication. There are two types of medications- for isolated spasticity and for generalized spasticity. In case of Isolated spasticity, doctors recommend Botox injections every 4-6 months to stabilize one muscle group. If the whole body is affected due to cerebral palsy, doctors recommend medications such as baclofen, diazepam and dantrolene to relax the contracted and stiff muscles. 

Therapies: While there are many therapy treatment, three types of therapies are the most important for treating a child suffering from cerebral palsy. They are physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech& language therapy. Physical therapy is necessary for the flexibility, mobility and motor development of the child. Occupational therapy helps a kid imbibe alternative strategies to participate in daily activities. From teaching a child to walk with a cane to help them operate a wheelchair, physical therapy makes a child self-sufficient as much as possible. Speech and language therapy helps child’s ability to communicate either verbally or with sign-language. 

Surgery: Surgery may be necessary to loosen the muscles, correct abnormalities of the bone etc. An orthopaedic surgery is necessary in cases where a kid was born with several deformities. The correction can decrease pain and increase mobility. In severe cases when the normal treatments do not help, doctors cut the tendon of spastic muscle. It helps to relieve the pain and relax the muscle.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2638 people found this helpful

Cranial Nerve Palsy - How To Treat It?

Dr. Anand Palimkar 89% (10 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - Ophthalmology
Ophthalmologist, Pune
Cranial Nerve Palsy - How To Treat It?

Cranial nerve palsy is one of the common culprits of causing double vision. This is all the more true for people above the age of 60. A person is more prone to cranial nerve palsy if he is suffering from high blood pressure and diabetes. This is the reason why this disease is more commonly known as diabetes palsy. Eventually, though they get better and the problem of double vision disappears.

Symptoms:

One weak cranial nerve leads to the weakness of other cranial nerves as well. In case the eyes fail to move together, chances are that the patient will have double or blurred vision. In case the sixth nerve gets affected, side to side double vision is encountered. For the 3rd and 4th nerve disturbance, there could be a vertical double vision. The lack of blood flow causes pain to the eye.

Possible Causes of Cranial Nerve Palsy?

Cranial nerve palsy can result from traumatic or congenital factors. They can also result from vascular diseases such as strokes, hypertension, diabetes, and aneurysms. It can also arise out of infections, increased intracranial pressure, migraines, and tumours. A patient's age and clinical findings help a doctor decide the right course of treatment.

Treatment:

There are no particular treatments which can speed up the recovery of cranial nerve palsy. In a case of pupil pain, doctors may prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs such as Motrin and Advil. They key to natural recovery is to ensure that the blood sugar and the blood pressure is diligently controlled. By patching the eyes, the problem of double vision can be resolved. They are typically worn over both the eyes. They are however known to slow down the process of recovery and strain the eye. There is no known exercise to fix this condition. Botulinum injections are sometimes used by doctors to straighten the eyes but the result of such a treatment greatly varies from person to person. Doctors mostly rely on watchful waiting until the phase passes within 6-8 weeks. Pain medications are recommended on a case to case basis.

Lifestyle Changes:

Managing cranial nerve palsy can be difficult for a working person. It involves many lifestyle changes till the condition fully cares. Some of the suggestions given by an ophthalmologist include resting the eye as long as one can. Reading or working on a computer should be eschewed since it puts great pressure on the eyes. The eye should not be contacted with forehands in case there is too much pain. Other basic hygiene issues include taking the medicine time to time, cleaning the eye with fresh water two to three times a day, putting the eye drops on time as prescribed by the doctor.

Cerebral Palsy (CP) - How Speech Therapy Can Help You?

Dr. Murli Singh 92% (221 ratings)
D.H.L.S, B.A.S.L.P, M.A, B.Ed .SE . ( H.I )
Speech Therapist, Delhi
Cerebral Palsy (CP) - How Speech Therapy Can Help You?

ÏCerebral Palsy (CG) is a neurological disorder caused by an injury to the brain or a brain malformation that occurs while the child’s brain is still developing – in the mother’s womb before birth, during birth, or immediately after birth.

This disorder affects the child’s movement and muscle coordination and control. It also affects his:

  1. Reflexes
  2. Balance
  3. Posture
  4. Motor skills and
  5. Oral motor functions

In easy to understand language, CG can impact the child’s ability to walk, talk, sit, do simple tasks like eating, combing hair, talking, and other activities we take for granted. The physical impairment caused by cerebral palsy can affect all limbs, the face and head, or it may just affect one limb. Since CG affects muscles and a child’s ability to control them, common symptoms include muscles that contract too much, too little, or all at the same time, leading to limbs that are stiff and forced into awkward positions. Other complications also arise such as intellectual impairment, seizures, or vision/ hearing and speech impairment.

How does Speech Therapy help?
Speech problems affect more than half of all children with cerebral palsy as they have difficulty controlling the muscles in their face, throat, neck and head. Apart from speaking, this also affects chewing and swallowing. It can also cause drooling and the ability to learn, difficulty hearing and understanding spoken language.

This is where speech and language therapy comes in. Speech therapy improves a child’s speech and communication by strengthening the muscles used for speech. It also improves understanding of speech and language as well as help with swallowing disorders, like dysphagia.

Speech therapy helps exponentially as when children improve their speech and communication, they are able to express their needs, share their thoughts and interact with others, leading to an overall improvement in their overall quality of life.

Speech therapy can help with the following:

  1. Listening
  2. Articulation of words
  3. Pronunciation
  4. Fluency
  5. Sound and word formation
  6. Language and vocabulary development
  7. Breath control
  8. Chewing
  9. Swallowing
  10. Speech muscle coordination

Apart from this, the other primary benefits are boosting self esteem, socialization, independence and reducing shyness. 

Exercises used in Speech Therapy
Speech therapy treatment usually consists of exercises tailored to a child’s specific needs. Different exercises are used in speech therapy like:

  1. Articulation therapy: The therapist uses language cards to help focus attention on specific sounds to encourage the child to make sounds while looking in the mirror to help him understand how his mouth moves.
  2. Blowing exercises: The therapist encourages the child to blow bubbles or a whistle to train the mouth muscles to produce sounds.
  3. Breathing exercises: Work is exclusively on inhalation and exhalation to strengthen the diaphragm.
  4. Jaw exercises: The child is encouraged to eat foods that require extra chewing to strengthen jaw muscles.
  5. Language and word association: The therapist uses flashcards with different words and sounds written on them. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Speech Therapist.
4236 people found this helpful

How To Treat And Manage Cranial Nerve Palsy?

Dr. Rajeev Sudan 88% (52 ratings)
MD - Ophthalmology, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
How To Treat And Manage Cranial Nerve Palsy?

Cranial nerve palsy is one of the common culprits of causing double vision. This is all the more true for people above the age of 60. A person is more prone to cranial nerve palsy if he is suffering from high blood pressure and diabetes. This is the reason why this disease is more commonly known as diabetes palsy. Eventually, though they get better and the problem of double vision disappears.

Symptoms:

One weak cranial nerve leads to the weakness of other cranial nerves as well. In case the eyes fail to move together, chances are that the patient will have double or blurred vision. In case the sixth nerve gets affected, side to side double vision is encountered. For the 3rd and 4th nerve disturbance, there could be a vertical double vision. The lack of blood flow causes pain to the eye.

Possible Causes of Cranial Nerve Palsy?

Cranial nerve palsy can result from traumatic or congenital factors. They can also result from vascular diseases such as strokes, hypertension, diabetes, and aneurysms. It can also arise out of infections, increased intracranial pressure, migraines, and tumours. A patient's age and clinical findings help a doctor decide the right course of treatment.

Treatment:

There are no particular treatments which can speed up the recovery of cranial nerve palsy. In a case of pupil pain, doctors may prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs such as Motrin and Advil. They key to natural recovery is to ensure that the blood sugar and the blood pressure is diligently controlled. By patching the eyes, the problem of double vision can be resolved. They are typically worn over both the eyes. They are however known to slow down the process of recovery and strain the eye. There is no known exercise to fix this condition. Botulinum injections are sometimes used by doctors to straighten the eyes but the result of such a treatment greatly varies from person to person. Doctors mostly rely on watchful waiting until the phase passes within 6-8 weeks. Pain medications are recommended on a case to case basis.

Lifestyle Changes:

Managing cranial nerve palsy can be difficult for a working person. It involves many lifestyle changes till the condition fully cares. Some of the suggestions given by an ophthalmologist include resting the eye as long as one can. Reading or working on a computer should be eschewed since it puts great pressure on the eyes. The eye should not be contacted with forehands in case there is too much pain. Other basic hygiene issues include taking the medicine time to time, cleaning the eye with fresh water two to three times a day, putting the eye drops on time as prescribed by the doctor. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a ophthalmologist and ask a free question.

3808 people found this helpful
Icon

Book appointment with top doctors for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy treatment

View fees, clinic timings and reviews