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Poultry Feed Formulation

Dr. Vijaya Kumar 92% (101 ratings)
MVSc
Veterinarian, Lawspet  •  1 year experience
Poultry Feed Formulation

Formulation of 50 kg bag (broiler feed)

Broilers have different feed requirements in terms of energy, proteins, and minerals during different stages of their growth.Therefore, it is important that farmers adapt feed rations to these requirements for maximum production. Young broilers have a high protein requirement for the development of muscles, feathers, etc. As the broilers grow, their energy requirements for the deposit of fat increase and their protein requirements decrease. They require high protein content in their starter rations than in the grower and finisher rations. Broilers should have a feed that has between 22 – 24 per cent digestible crude protein, DCP.

 

The following guidelines can help the farmer to make the right feed at each stage of growth:

  • 7.2kg of whole maize
  • 11.9kg of maize germ
  • 9.5kg of wheat pollard
  • 7.2kg wheat bran
  • 4.3kg of cotton seed cake
  • 3.4kg of sunflower cake
  • 2.1kg of fishmeal
  • 1.4kg of lime
  • 2.5kg of soya meal
  • 45g of bone meal
  • 10g of grower PMX
  • 5g of salt
  • 5g of coccidiostat 
  •  5g of Zincbacitrach

 Broiler starter feed (1-4 weeks)

  • 28.6kg of whole maize
  • 8.6kg of fishmeal
  • 10kg of soya bean meal
  • 2.9kg of lime
  • 70g of premix

Amino acids to add

  •  35g of lysine
  •  35g of threonine

Preparing of layers chick mash (1-4 weeks)

chicks require feed with Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) of between 18 to 20 per cent. Amino acids are important nutrients in all feeds in order to make a complete feed for all animals. For hybrid chickens, the addition of amino acids is very important to maintain a balanced diet for fast growth

(50 kg bag of chick mash)

  • 22.5kg of whole maize
  • 6.5kg of wheat bran,
  • 5.0 kg of wheat pollard,
  • 12 kg of sunflower (or 12 kg of linseed),
  • 1.1 kg of fishmeal
  • 1.25 kg of lime
  • 30g of salt
  • 20g of premix

Amino acids to be added

  • 70g of tryptophan
  • 3.0g of lysine
  • 10g of methionine
  • 70 g of threonine
  • 50g of enzymes
  • 60g of coccidiostat
  • 50g of toxin binder


 To make a 50 kg bag growers feed (1 to 8 weeks), it is very necessary that pullets or young layers should be provided with a feed having a protein content of between 16 and 18 per cent. Such feed makes the pullet to grow fast and prepare for egg laying.

Note:  Layers’ feed should never be fed to chickens younger than 18 weeks as it contains calcium that can damage their kidneys (they can develop kidney stones), which interfere with egg production and also shorten their lifespan. Grit (sand) should be provided to growers that are not on free range to aid in digestion.

70 kg bag layer mash (18 weeks and above)

  • 24.3kg of whole maize
  • 8.6kg of Soya
  • 5.7kg of fishmeal
  • 7.1kg of maize bran, rice germ or wheat bran
  • 4.3 kg of lime
  • 180g premix

Amino acids to be added

  • 70g lysine
  • 35g methionine
  • 70kg threonine
  • 35g tryptophan
  • 50g toxin binder

Note: Layer feed should contain a Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) content of between 16-18 per cent. Calcium is important for the formation of eggshells (Laying hens that do not get enough calcium will use the calcium stored in their own bone tissue to produce eggshells). Layer feed should be introduced at 18 weeks.

 Important tips

  • When making home made feed rations, it is important to do experimental trials. Isolate a number of chickens, feed them and observing their performance. If the feed rations are right, the broilers will grow fast and the layers will increase egg production (at least 1 egg after every 27 hours).
  • Farmers should be very careful with the quality of feed ingredients or raw materials. Poultry, especially chickens are very sensitive to feeds that contain mycotoxins which are present in most of the raw materials. Never use rotten maize to make chicken feed.
  • Buy quality fishmeal from reputable companies. If omena(silver cyprinid) is used the farmers must be sure of its quality; most of the omena in the open-air markets may be contaminated.
  • It is very important to mix all the micronutrients (amino acids) first before mixing with the rest of the feed.
  • For mixing, farmers are advised to use a drum mixer (many welding artisans can make one). Never use a shovel to mix feed because the ingredients will be unevenly distributed.
  • Never use rotten raw materials like maize to make feed. Rotten materials might contain mycotoxins which are detrimental to poultry health.
  • Small scale families can contribute resources to the making of feed to ensure high-quality feed materials are used and also reduce costs.

Note: To improve on the feed quality, farmers making their own feeds should always have it tested to ensure the feed is well balanced.You can take your feed samples to agro-chemical industries for testing to ensure the feeds are balanced nutritionally.

 

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