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Pituitary Dwarfism Tips

Pituitary Surgery: What You Need To Know?

Dr. B G Ratnam 88% (10 ratings)
MBBS , MCh (Neursurgery), MCh
Neurosurgeon, Hyderabad
Pituitary Surgery: What You Need To Know?

Endocrine complications

DI and anterior pituitary insufficiency were the most frequent complications reported in the national survey. With the least experienced surgeons, one of five transsphenoidal operations resulted in both of these complications. In contrast, the incidence of these complications was lower in the hands of the most experienced surgeons.

Figure 11Postoperative anterior pituitary insufficiency has been reported in the literature as being rare (72). Various series cite an incidence ranging from less than 1 to 10% (63, 97,101), with one series reporting an incidence of 27% (82). Postoperative anterior pituitary insufficiency was also reported to occur more frequently after removal of larger tumors and in patients whose anterior pituitary functions were impaired pre-operatively (63).The residual normal anterior pituitary tissue can be identified in the preoperative, T1-weighted, infused magnetic resonance imaging scans as a thin layer of enhanced tissue draping around the tumor,mostly over the upper pole of the tumor (Fig. 11). Every effort should be made to preserve this attenuated, residual, normal anterior pituitary tissue, because it can prove sufficient to maintain or even improve anterior pituitary functions in the postoperative period (64).

Temporary post-transsphenoidal surgery DI has been reported to occur in 10 to 60% of cases (26, 68, 82). Permanent DI, however,seems to be relatively rare, with the reported incidence ranging in most large series from 0.5 to 15% (8, 26, 44, 52, 61, 68, 71,97,101). DI after removal of microadenomas usually occurs as a consequence of stalk manipulations. Vertically oriented vessels on the pale-reddish stalk are helpful landmarks for recognizing the stalk. In pituitary macroadenomas, the stalk and the posterior lobe are often not seen because they can be displaced in any direction, flattened, and covered by a fibrous layer. The latter finding explains the relatively low incidence of permanent postoperative DI in patients undergoing removal of pituitary macroadenomas.

In addition, the postoperative course can be complicated by inappropriate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone, which occurs usually on the 6th or 7th postoperative day and thus frequently after the patient has been released from the hospital (5,15,19,95, 97). One of the explanations for this phenomenon is presumed necrosis of a portion of the posterior lobe because of surgical trauma, resulting in a sudden release of the antidiuretic hormone.

5 people found this helpful

How To Spot The Signs of Pituitary Glands?

Dr. Namit Singhal 90% (26 ratings)
MCH Neuro Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery
Neurosurgeon, Agra
How To Spot The Signs of Pituitary Glands?

Pituitary tumors are a rare occurrence, and not all of them show some kind of symptoms. However, in some cases, the patients may display few symptoms. This totally depends on whether the tumor is functional or non-functional. When the tumor is functional, it means that they are releasing excess hormones while non-functional tumor would not cause excess release of hormones.

Types of pituitary tumors:
As already pointed, there are two variants of pituitary tumors- functional and non-functional.

  • Functional adenomas can lead to issues owing to the hormones they release. Typically, a functional adenoma creates an excess amount of a single hormone. The symptoms are dependent on the type of hormone secreted by them.
  • Tumors which do not lead to excess secretion of hormones tend to become large even before they are noticed. They may lead to different kinds of symptoms when they press against other parts of the brain or nerves or other areas of the pituitary.
  • Non-functional adenomas which do not lead to any symptoms are often found owing to the MRI or CT scan performed for other health troubles. These tumors are becoming more common since CT scans and MRIs are done more commonly, and these are the most prevalent type of tumors. There is no need to treat them as long as they do not cause any discomfort or symptoms.

Symptoms caused by pituitary tumors:
The carcinomas, as well as macroadenomas, are large enough to press on a nearby nerve or other parts of the brain regardless of whether they are functional or not. This may lead to signs and symptoms such as loss of peripheral vision, headaches, dizziness, facial numbness or pain, blurred or double vision and loss of consciousness. Sudden bleeding into the tumor can lead to loss of consciousness and even death. Depending on the type of nerves affected by the pituitary tumor can cause weakness, unexplained loss or gain of weight, nausea, feeling tired and cold, menstrual changes, erectile dysfunction, and reduced interest in sex, particularly in men.

Treatment of pituitary tumors:
Many patients suffering from pituitary tumors do not need any treatment. However, there are various factors like the size, type, and reach of the tumor that play an important role in deciding whether the patients require treatment or not. Moreover, the age of the patients and overall health conditions are the most crucial aspect in the decision of the same.

Surgical removal of the pituitary tumor is generally advised by the doctor when the tumor is pressing on the optic nerves or when the tumor is overproducing some hormones. On the other hand, radiation therapy makes use of high-energy X-rays for destroying tumors. Lastly, treatment with medicines can help in blocking excess secretion of hormone and even shrink certain types of pituitary tumors.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1982 people found this helpful

Pituitary Gland Tumor - How To Spot The Signs of It?

MCh - Neurosurgery, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
Pituitary Gland Tumor - How To Spot The Signs of It?

Pituitary tumors are a rare occurrence, and not all of them show some kind of symptoms. However, in some cases, the patients may display few symptoms. This totally depends on whether the tumor is functional or non-functional. When the tumor is functional, it means that they are releasing excess hormones while non-functional tumor would not cause excess release of hormones.

Types of pituitary tumors:
As already pointed, there are two variants of pituitary tumors- functional and non-functional.

  • Functional adenomas can lead to issues owing to the hormones they release. Typically, a functional adenoma creates an excess amount of a single hormone. The symptoms are dependent on the type of hormone secreted by them.
  • Tumors which do not lead to excess secretion of hormones tend to become large even before they are noticed. They may lead to different kinds of symptoms when they press against other parts of the brain or nerves or other areas of the pituitary.
  • Non-functional adenomas which do not lead to any symptoms are often found owing to the MRI or CT scan performed for other health troubles. These tumors are becoming more common since CT scans and MRIs are done more commonly, and these are the most prevalent type of tumors. There is no need to treat them as long as they do not cause any discomfort or symptoms.

Symptoms caused by pituitary tumors:
The carcinomas, as well as macroadenomas, are large enough to press on a nearby nerve or other parts of the brain regardless of whether they are functional or not. This may lead to signs and symptoms such as loss of peripheral vision, headaches, dizziness, facial numbness or pain, blurred or double vision and loss of consciousness. Sudden bleeding into the tumor can lead to loss of consciousness and even death. Depending on the type of nerves affected by the pituitary tumor can cause weakness, unexplained loss or gain of weight, nausea, feeling tired and cold, menstrual changes, erectile dysfunction, and reduced interest in sex, particularly in men.

Treatment of pituitary tumors:
Many patients suffering from pituitary tumors do not need any treatment. However, there are various factors like the size, type, and reach of the tumor that play an important role in deciding whether the patients require treatment or not. Moreover, the age of the patients and overall health conditions are the most crucial aspect in the decision of the same.

Surgical removal of the pituitary tumor is generally advised by the doctor when the tumor is pressing on the optic nerves or when the tumor is overproducing some hormones. On the other hand, radiation therapy makes use of high-energy X-rays for destroying tumors. Lastly, treatment with medicines can help in blocking excess secretion of hormone and even shrink certain types of pituitary tumors.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3621 people found this helpful

Hypopituitarism: Early Warning Signs You Need To Know

Dr. Rajiv Kumar Srivastava 88% (135 ratings)
M.Ch - Cardio Thoracic Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Cardiologist, Durgapur
Hypopituitarism: Early Warning Signs You Need To Know

Hypopituitarism is defined as a condition in which the pituitary gland is unable to produce enough hormones. Under-secretion of pituitary hormones affects reproduction, body growth and blood pressure. It also results in pre-mature aging.

The pituitary gland is a small bean-shaped gland situated at the base of your brain, behind your nose and between your ears. Despite its size, this gland secretes hormones that influence nearly every part of your body.

In hypopituitarism, you have a short supply of one or more of these pituitary hormones. This deficiency can affect any number of your body's routine functions, such as growth, blood pressure and reproduction.

Few Causes:

  1. Head injury

  2. Tuberculosis

  3. Radiation treatment

  4. Stroke

  5. Brain tumors

  6. Brain surgery

  7. Meningitis (brain infection)

  8. Hypophysitis (autoimmune inflammatory disorder)

  9. Sarcoidosis is an infiltrative (accumulation of cells and tissues in excess of the normal amount) disease which occurs in various organs.

  10. Impaired hormone secretion by the pituitary gland is caused by genetic mutations.

  11. Sheehan’s syndrome: It is a condition in which the pituitary gland gets damaged due to severe blood loss during childbirth.

  12. Hypothalamus (a part of the brain which is located above the pituitary gland) diseases wherein the pituitary activities are directly affected by the hypothalamus.

Symptoms:

  1. Fatigue

  2. Reduced sex drive

  3. Decreased appetite

  4. Anemia

  5. Irregular menstruation, pubic hair loss, hot flashes (feverish heat), and inability to breast-feed properly because of low breast milk production).

  6. Dwarfism in children

  7. Weight loss

  8. Increased sensitivity to cold temperature

  9. Infertility

  10. Facial puffiness

  11. Reduction in body hair or facial hair

Treatment Options:

  1. Hormone replacement drugs include:

    • Corticosteroids: Adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency leads to low production of adrenal hormones (different kinds of hormones such as cortisol and adrenalin, produced in the endocrine glands). These drugs act as a replacement of adrenal hormones.

    • Growth hormone: Growth hormone, also known as somatropin, is injected beneath the skin. This treatment method promotes growth, which balances the height in children. Growth hormone deficiency in adults is also cured by these medications to some extent.

  2. Surgery: Surgical procedure is needed if the condition of hypopituitarism is the result of a tumor. The doctor will remove the tumor through surgery, thus resulting in normal growth.

  3. Radiation: Radiation therapy helps in reducing the size of the tumor which causes stunted growth or pre-mature aging.

 In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3290 people found this helpful

Hypopituitarism: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Dr. Neelam Pandey Kukreti 90% (88 ratings)
DM - Endocrinology, MD Medicine
Endocrinologist, Gurgaon
Hypopituitarism: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Hypopituitarism is defined as a condition in which the pituitary gland is unable to produce enough hormones. Under-secretion of pituitary hormones affects reproduction, body growth and blood pressure. It also results in pre-mature aging.

The pituitary gland is a small bean-shaped gland situated at the base of your brain, behind your nose and between your ears. Despite its size, this gland secretes hormones that influence nearly every part of your body.

In hypopituitarism, you have a short supply of one or more of these pituitary hormones. This deficiency can affect any number of your body's routine functions, such as growth, blood pressure and reproduction.

Few Causes:

  1. Head injury

  2. Tuberculosis

  3. Radiation treatment

  4. Stroke

  5. Brain tumors

  6. Brain surgery

  7. Meningitis (brain infection)

  8. Hypophysitis (autoimmune inflammatory disorder)

  9. Sarcoidosis is an infiltrative (accumulation of cells and tissues in excess of the normal amount) disease which occurs in various organs.

  10. Impaired hormone secretion by the pituitary gland is caused by genetic mutations.

  11. Sheehan’s syndrome: It is a condition in which the pituitary gland gets damaged due to severe blood loss during childbirth.

  12. Hypothalamus (a part of the brain which is located above the pituitary gland) diseases wherein the pituitary activities are directly affected by the hypothalamus.

Symptoms:

  1. Fatigue

  2. Reduced sex drive

  3. Decreased appetite

  4. Anemia

  5. Irregular menstruation, pubic hair loss, hot flashes (feverish heat), and inability to breast-feed properly because of low breast milk production).

  6. Dwarfism in children

  7. Weight loss

  8. Increased sensitivity to cold temperature

  9. Infertility

  10. Facial puffiness

  11. Reduction in body hair or facial hair

Treatment Options:

  1. Hormone replacement drugs include:

    • Corticosteroids: Adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency leads to low production of adrenal hormones (different kinds of hormones such as cortisol and adrenalin, produced in the endocrine glands). These drugs act as a replacement of adrenal hormones.

    • Growth hormone: Growth hormone, also known as somatropin, is injected beneath the skin. This treatment method promotes growth, which balances the height in children. Growth hormone deficiency in adults is also cured by these medications to some extent.

  2. Surgery: Surgical procedure is needed if the condition of hypopituitarism is the result of a tumor. The doctor will remove the tumor through surgery, thus resulting in normal growth.

  3. Radiation: Radiation therapy helps in reducing the size of the tumor which causes stunted growth or pre-mature aging. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

2751 people found this helpful

ZINC DEFICIENCY

Dr. Mrs Neeraj Gupta 91% (331 ratings)
BHMS, Certificate in Gynaecology & Obestric, MD - Homeopathy, Ph.D Homeopathy
Homeopath, Delhi
ZINC DEFICIENCY

Causes:-
Inadequate intake of zinc rich foods like meat, shell fish, liver gelatin, beans, rice, bread, cereals lentils etc. 
Incomplete absorption of zinc from the food due to many barrier likes presence of phytic acid in the diet hampers.

Symptoms:-
- Reduced appetite
- Retarded growth. 

- Atrophy (shrinkage) of sexual organs. 
- Hair loss
- Diarrhea
- Keratosis (desquamation) of tongue
- Skin affections. 
- Dwarfism
- Infertility
- Delayed healing of wounds
- Decreased taste acuity

53 people found this helpful

क्या है पुरूषों में ( बांझपन ) इनफर्टिलिटी के कारण

Dr. B K Kashyap 88% (10 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Allahabad
क्या है पुरूषों में ( बांझपन ) इनफर्टिलिटी के कारण

क्या है पुरूषों में ( बांझपन ) इनफर्टिलिटी के कारण
 


पुरूषों में बांझपन वह अवस्था है जिसमें एक फर्टाइल पुरूष, महिला को गर्भधारण करवाने में असफल रहता है। पुरूषों में बांझपन का सबसे आम कारण शुक्राणुओं( मोटीलिटी ) का कम उत्पादन एवं सीमन की कम गुणवत्ता है।

1. शुक्राणुओं का कम उत्पादन  ( Low Sperm Count  या  Lomotility)
शुक्राणुओं का कम उत्पादन पुरूषों में बांझपन के सबसे आम कारणों में से एक है जिसमें टेस्टिस सामान्य से कम संख्या में शुक्राणुओं का उत्पादन करते है और ये शुक्राणु भी कम गुणवत्ता और कमजोर होते है जो प्रभावी रूप से कार्य नहीं कर पाते है। शुक्राणुओं की कम संख्या के सबसे आम कारण infection,tension और hypothalamus and pituitary gland  जो men sex hormone का उत्पादन करती है का सही कार्य नहीं करना है…… पुरूष infertility के दो-तिहाई मामले शुक्राणुओं के कम उत्पादन और शुक्राणुओं की कम गुणवत्ता के कारण होते है…
2. इन्फेक्शन ( Infection )
टेस्टिस इन्फेक्शन, मुख्य रूप से सेक्शूअली ट्रैन्स्मिटिड इन्फेक्शन जैसे क्लैमाइडिया और गोनोरिया भी शुक्राणुओं के उत्पादन और गुणवत्ता को प्रभावित करते है। ये इन्फेक्शन शुक्राणुओं के प्रवाह मार्ग में सहायक नलिका को अवरूद्ध कर देते है। यह प्रोस्टेट की सूजन और टेस्टिस की सूजन को बढ़ाता है जिससे टेस्टिस की भारी क्षति होती है। लेकिन ज्यादातर मामलों में शुक्राणुओं को बचा लिया जाता है और सहायक प्रजनन तकनीक में उपयोग किया जाता है।
3. शुक्राणु परिवहन में समस्या ( Low Sperm Motility )
शुक्राणु परिवहन में समस्या पुरूषों में बांझपन का दूसरा सबसे आम कारण है। वे नलिकाएँ जो शुक्राणुओं को टेस्टिस से पेनिस में ले जाती है चोट या बीमारी के कारण क्षतिग्रस्त हो सकती है या अवरूद्ध हो सकती है जिससे शुक्राणुओं का प्रवाह रूक जाता है। जो सिस्टिक फाइब्रोसिस से पीडि़त है, उनको भी शुक्राणु परिवहन संबंधी समस्या का face करना पड़ सकता है…… five in one male बांझपन के मामले इसी समस्या की वजह से होते है….
4. हॉर्मोन संबंधी समस्याएँ ( Hormonal Problem )
पुरूष में बांझपन का आम कारण हॉर्मोन संबंधी समस्या है। कभी-कभी, पिट्यूटरी ग्लैन्ड वृषण टेस्टिस तक सही संकेत नहीं पहुंचा पाते है, जिससे टेस्टोस्टेरोन का उत्पादन कम होता है(मेल हाइपोगोनेडिज्म) और taxes द्वारा sperm का उत्पादन low होता है. . . अन्य hormonal प्रणाली जैसे pituitary, हाइपोथैलेमस और एड्रीनल ग्लैन्ड में गड़बड़ी भी पुरूषों की फर्टिलिटी को प्रभावित करती है।
5. वैरिकोसिल ( Varicocele )
वैरिकोसिल जो की बांझपन का एक आम कारण है, उसका उपचार किया जा सकता है। यह टेस्टिकल संबंधी गड़बड़ी की वह अवस्था है जिसमें टेस्टिस के खराब पदार्थों को ले जाने वाली veins spread व swell जाती है जिससे taxes की प्राकृतिक रूप से cold होने की प्रक्रिया रूक जाती है..
स्क्रोटम का बढ़ा हुआ तापमान शुक्राणुओं की कमी और उनकी गतिहीनता से सीधे तौर पर संबंधित है। शुक्राणुओं की सामान्य गति और उनकी संख्या बढ़ाने के लिए इस अवस्था का उपचार किया जा सकता है ।

बांझपन के कारणों के बारे में जागरूक रहें लेकिन उनके बारे में चिंता नहीं करें क्योंकि बांझपन के लिए अनेक उच्च स्तर के परीक्षण मौजूद है जिनसे समस्या का कुछ ही time में पता चल जाता है और उसका प्रभावी रूप से उपचार किया जा सकता है...नशा पदार्थ के सेवन से भी बांझपन होता है जैसे - शराब इत्यादि...

8 people found this helpful

RICKETS [RICKETS]

Dr. Mrs Neeraj Gupta 91% (331 ratings)
BHMS, Certificate in Gynaecology & Obestric, MD - Homeopathy, Ph.D Homeopathy
Homeopath, Delhi
It is the characteristic result of vitamin D deficiency in children.


CAUSES:

• It is less common in breastfed infants.
• Less exposure to sunlight.
• Dark skinned infants.
• Dietary deficiency of vitamin D.
• Malabsorption.
• Chronic liver disease.
• Renal osteodystrophy.
• Calcium wasting.
• Hereditary.


SIGN AND SYMPTOMS:

• Head:
– Prominent forehead.
– Delayed closing of anterior fontanels (normally closes by 6 months of age).
– Frequent rocking movement of the head.
– Temporary teeth usually appear late.
– Excessive sweating over the forehead.
• Thorax:
– Beading of ribs (rachitic rosary), at the junction of the ribs and cartilages.
– Prominent sternum (Pigeon`s Breast).
• Spinal column:
– Patient has hump in the back (Kyphosis).
• Extremities:
– Bow legs.
– Knock knees.
– Outwards curving of bones of forearm.
– Dwarfism in severe cases.
– Green stick fractures can occur in severe cases.
• Ligaments and muscles:
– Weakness of legs.
– Delayed walking and standing.
– Over extension of knee joints.
– Pot belly due to weakness of abdominal muscles.
• Digestive system:
– Indigestion due to liver and spleen affection.
• Nervous system:
– Restless at night.
– Rocking of head on the pillow.
– A predisposition to titanic convulsion.
• Respiratory system:
– Adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy.
– Rhinitis.
– Pharyngitis (inflammation of mucous lining of the pharynx).
– Bronchitis.
– Bronchopneumonia.
• Spasmophilia:
– Triad of tetany.
– Laryngismus strides.
– Convulsion may be expected in low calcium type of rickets.


DIETARY MANAGEMENT:

Avoid:
• Avoid bony injuries, to prevent factures.


CONSUME:

• You should have sun bath for at least 1 – 2 hrs every day.
• Consume foods rich in vitamin D:
– Animal food: egg yolk and fish liver oils are riches source.
– Liver, veal, beef, oyster, salt water fish – mackerel, kipper, herrings, salmon, sardines and tuna.
– Dairy products like – cream, butter, cheese, fortified milk and margarines.
– Plant foods are low in vitamin D – vegetable oils, fruits, nuts and green leafy vegetables.
• Reduce calcium intake (reduce but do not completely avoid calcium as it is needed for maintenance of our body):-
– milk and sea food, nuts, green leafy vegetables, whole grains, peas, lotus stem, pulses, legumes and oil seeds
– Should avoid custard apple and banana as they are high in calcium.
• Breast feeding should be continued.
• You can take vitamin D supplements – cod liver oil, fortified milk.


CONSULT PHYSICIAN:

• Consult physician if you have any of the above sigh and symptoms.
• Associated illness should be treated.
• Vitamin D injections can be injected under the guidance of your physician.

Zinc Deficiency - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Dr. Mrs Neeraj Gupta 91% (331 ratings)
BHMS, Certificate in Gynaecology & Obestric, MD - Homeopathy, Ph.D Homeopathy
Homeopath, Delhi

Causes:

  • Diet poor in zinc - inadequate intake of zinc rich foods like meat, shell fish, liver gelatin, beans, rice, bread, cereals lentils etc.
  • Strict vegetarians: their main foods are grains and legumes which are high in phytic acid and they hamper the absorption of zinc from the food.
  • Malabsorption syndrome.
  • Chron`s disease / ulcerative colitis.
  • Chronic liver disease.
  • Chronic renal disease.
  • Sickle cell disease.
  • Diabetes.
  • Malignancies.
  • Smoking and high alcohol consumption.
  • Elderly are more prone to deficiency.

Sign and symptoms:

  • Reduced appetite.
  • Retarded growth.
  • Atrophy (shrinkage) of sexual organs.
  • Loss of hair.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Repiratory tract infection.
  • Keratosis (desquamation) of tongue.
  • Skin affections.
  • Dwarfism.
  • Cognitive impairment.
  • Infertility- low sperm count.
  • Delayed healing of wounds.
  • Decreased taste acuity.
  • Deficiency during pregnancy can cause abnormal labor and retarded fetal growth.
  • Increased risk of infection.

Dietary management:
Consume:
Consume foods rich in zinc: zinc is present in wide variety of foods especially along with proteins. Vegetarian diet contains less zinc compared to meat based diet. Best sources of zinc are -

  • Beef, crabmeat, oysters, lamb, pork, turkey, salmon, shellfish, chicken, clams, lobster, milk, yoghurt and cheese cheddar.
  • Whole wheat bread, oatmeal, brown rice, spinach, lentils, beans, lima beans, rye bread, peas and baked potatoes. Meat, eggs and seafood.
  • Other sources of zinc are - green leafy vegetables, sea plants, japanese sea plants, yeast, nuts - cashews, almonds and peanuts, seeds - sesame and pumpkin seeds. Pumpkin seeds are one of the concentrated sources of zinc in vegetarian food.
  • Only 20% of the zinc present in diet is absorbed by our body, dietary fibers and phytic acid present in food inhibits absorption of zinc. Phytic acid and fiber are fond in foods like - bran, whole grain cereals, pulses and nuts.
  • Cooking process can reduce the effects of phytic acid and fibers on the absorption of zinc.
  • Ferment whole grains as enzymatic actions of yeast reduces the levels of phytic acid and thus absorption of zinc is adequate.
1 person found this helpful

Prolactinoma - Is There A Treatment For It?

Dr. Milind Patil 87% (42 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Endocrinology, DNB (Endocrinology)
Endocrinologist, Pune
Prolactinoma - Is There A Treatment For It?

The body functions are controlled by hormones which are produced by various endocrine glands (named so because these glands secrete hormones directly into the body). There are various endocrine glands, and these are controlled by the master endocrine gland which is the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland produces prolactin which helps regulate milk production when a woman is breast-feeding. To a smaller extent, it also has some effect on other hormones.

Prolactinoma is a benign tumour of the pituitary gland which produces large amount of prolactin. The cells in the pituitary gland multiply to produce large amounts of prolactin. In people with prolactinoma, there are reduced amounts of oestrogen in females and testosterones in males.

Causes: Though the cause is unknown, a genetic connection believed to exist. They can develop in men as well.

Types: Depending on the size of the tumour, the tumour is of two main types—microprolactinoma (when the tumour measures less than 10 mm) and macroprolactinoma (when the tumour measures more than 10 mm).

Signs and symptoms: Though the most important function of prolactin is the regulation of breast milk production, it also has various other functions in both men and women. The symptoms, therefore, would depend on the gender and the age group.

Men: Reduced libido, erectile dysfunction, reduced fertility, and gynecomastia and sometimes even production of milk.

Women: Menstrual disorders, including lack of periods or irregular periods, reduced fertility, reduced libido, increased facial hair, and spontaneous leakage of milk from the breasts.

In addition to the above symptoms, as the tumour continues to grow, there could be pressure on the surrounding nerves, leading to headaches, blurred of vision, and even double vision. As the tumour grows, the normal pituitary functioning may be affected, and other hormones may not be produced and accordingly the symptoms would appear.

Treatment: 

It is the only pituitary tumor which shrink in size with drugs known as dopamine agonist. Patient might require the treatment for 2-3 years. In some cases surgery and radiotherapy is needed.

So, the answer to the question is yes there is treatment for Prolactinoma and its medicine  in majority of the cases.

Consult your endocrinologist for details!

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