The feeling of instability is the crux of borderline personality disorder. This condition usually begins in early adulthood and is worst at its onset. As a person ages, borderline personality disorder usually improves and becomes easier to handle. For a person with borderline personality disorder, everything from their relationships to their moods, thinking and behaviour is unstable and constantly changing. This can be frightening but thankfully, this condition can be treated.
As with any other personality disorder or health issue, the earlier a condition is diagnosed, the easier it is to treat. Hence, it is important to understand the signs and symptoms of this disorder. This disease manifests itself in different ways in each person but some symptoms are commonly experienced. These include:
Don’t like social gatherings? Have you always been the one who avoids family get together? If your answer is affirmative, then you are probably suffering from Avoidant personality disorder (APD). Avoidant personality disorder is a psychological condition wherein, one feels extremely shy. Becoming overly sensitive to rejection and developing feelings of inadequacy are common signs of this disorder. This disorder can lead to problems in your work life and relationships.
With APD, the commonly surfacing symptoms would include disapproval and disregard of situations and people, rejection and embarrassment. It generally gets very difficult for the one to get acquainted with new people and form intimate relationships. One generally ends up misinterpreting people’s comments and criticism thus, feeling angry and frustrated all the more.
The exact cause of APD has not been established yet. It is believed that environmental and genetic factors play a role in this disorder. People who are inherently shy and reserved are usually prone to developing this psychological anomaly.
How do you treat APD?
In order to treat APD, you can opt for the following modes of treatment:
Previously known as multiple personality disorder or simply split personalitydisorder, dissociative identity disorder is a very serious and unpleasant form of dissociation. It is based on the lack of connection, or rather a discontinuity in thought, action, feeling, memory or even a misplaced sense of identity.
It is usually considered to be a result of severe traumatic experiences in early childhood, varying from extremely physical to repeated emotional or sexual abuse. It is thought to be a self-defense mechanism where the person dissociates himself from any such experience or situation that would deem to be harmful to his or her conscious self. It is, however, not to be confused with schizophrenia.
There are innumerable indicators that point towards dissociative identity disorder. Some of them include:
The main causes of split personality disorder are unfortunately still unclear and vague, although 99% of persons who suffer from this disorder have a severe traumatic history or background. The causes need not be physical or sexual abuse. It could also stem from emotional abuse like insistent neglect. Studies have also showed that children may become dissociative, if their parents are either too strict or unpredictable.
Narcissistic personality disorder is a mental syndrome in which individuals have their very own inflated feeling of self-significance, a deep requirement to be inspired and an absence of compassion for others. However, behind this cover of ultra-confidence mask, lies a delicate self-esteem that is helpless against the slightest criticism.
A narcissistic personality disorder causes issues in numerous areas of life, for example, work, school, relationships or monetary issues. Here are a few signs and symptoms that can show if a person is suffering from this disorder:
People with bipolar disorder tend to have periodical changes; sometimes they are over happy and other times they might feel sad, depressed and hopeless. Between these changes, they are normal. The highs and lows are considered as extreme poles of moods, thus, the condition is called bipolar disorder.
Manic term is used when a person with bipolar disorder is highly excited and feels confident. Also, feelings of irritability and recklessness along with irrationality might occur. Some people with mania might have hallucination in which they see and hear the things that actually do not exist.
The term hypomania is used to describe mild symptoms of mania, in which a person does not have hallucinations and delusions and the symptoms do not interfere with their daily life. Similarly, the term depressive is used to describe a person's time when they feel depressed or sad.
Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder:
The highs and lows in a bipolar disorder do not follow any set pattern. One might feel manic or depressed for hours or days or weeks, months and even years together before they actually switch to a happy mood. The severity depends from person to person and also changes with time by becoming less or more severe.
Symptoms of mania are extreme excitement, change from being happy to angry and irritable along with restlessness, speech is rapid with low concentration, less sleep and increased energy, high sex drive, grand plans, alcohol and drug abuse and impulsiveness.
Symptoms of low or depressive phase are lethargy, worthlessness, feeling of sadness and hopelessness, lowered concentration, irritability, loss of sleep or excessive sleeping, loss of appetite and suicidal tendencies.
Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder:
In case, someone exhibits symptoms of bipolar disorder, then talking to a psychiatrist or a doctor helps. Doctors ask questions related to the mental illness and the associated concerns. Diagnosis is basically recognizing the symptoms of the person, whether they are due to some underlying cause or mood swings because of excessive alcohol. The symptoms have to be noted and the duration for which they last along with the severity should all be noted. The most obvious symptoms are that of lows and highs in mood and changes in behavior, energy, sleep and thoughts.
Consulting a doctor or talking to family and friends helps to differentiate the symptoms of bipolar disorder from unipolar disorder.
Dependent personality disorder (DPD) is a frequently diagnosed personality disorder that is characterised by a strong need to be taken care of and a fear of being abandoned by important people in the patient’s life.
Symptoms include long-term dependent and submissive behaviours to elicit caregiving in others. The disorder is found equally in men and women.
Causes of Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD)
Chronic physical illness or other psychological disorders like separation anxiety disorder in childhood can predispose a person to the development of dependent personality disorder. The exact cause of DPD is not known but several factors are involved like genetic, behavioural, psychological and temperamental.
Impaired parenting styles may also be to blame.
However, research suggests that no single factor is solely responsible rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important.
Many people with a dependent personality disorder don’t seek treatment until it starts to significantly interfere or impact their lives. This usually happens when a person can’t cope with stress due to life events.
People with DPD are more prone to develop depression or anxiety symptoms.
Treatments for DPD are focused around psychotherapy, a type of counselling. Its goal is to help a person become more active and independent and to learn to form healthy relationships. The psychologist prefers short term therapy with specific goals when the focus is on managing behaviours that interfere with day-to-day functioning.
Assertiveness training helps the person with DPD develop self-confidence and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) helps him or her develop new attitudes and perspectives about themselves that are positive. However, change in someone's personality structure usually requires long-term psychoanalytic therapy. In this type of therapy, childhood experiences are examined for the formation of defence mechanisms, coping styles, and patterns of attachment in relationships.
DPD is the most difficult personality disorder to treat because of the patient’s strong need for constant reassurance and support. It is also very important for the doctor to monitor patient dependency.
Group therapy can also be helpful, although care needs to be taken so that the patient doesn’t use groups to reinforce dependent relationships in his life. Medication is also used though it’s not very effective. Medicines usually help DPD patients manage their depression or anxiety.
The mind is a very intricate organ and controls the entire body functioning with great precision. Any small change in its wiring would mean changes in the way a person functions, including changes of emotions and feelings.
There is a group of personality disorders known as “cluster A” personality disorders. One of the most common forms in this is a paranoid personality disorder, also known as PPD. The onset of the problem is in early adulthood and men are more likely to have this condition as compared to females. People with paranoid personality disorder are very odd or have eccentric ways of thinking. The most common way of thinking is suspicion with no reason to do so.
Causes: There is usually a past history of emotional or physical abuse, which is unresolved, leading to these symptoms. Hypnosis, which is often used to diagnose the condition, is very helpful in identifying the cause.
Diagnosis: There are specific assessment tools and questionnaires which are useful in confirming the diagnosis.
Management: Psychotherapy where the person is taught to manage the above feelings and taught to communicate and cope with others. This is often combined with antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and antipsychotics.
Sometimes you may feel like you are observing yourself from outside your body. For most people, this is a passing feeling but for some it can be a persistent feeling. This is known as depersonalization disorder. This dissociative disorder is most common amongst people who have suffered from a traumatic experience. In some cases, it may interfere with relationships, work-life and other types of daily activities. This disease may also be a sign of other personality disorders, seizures, brain disease or substance abuse.
Observing yourself from the outside is one of the most common signs of depersonalization disorder. Some other symptoms to watch out for are:
These episodes can last for hours, days, weeks or months and vary in terms of severity as well. Though the exact cause of this disorder is not known, it may be linked to an imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain. This makes parts of the brain more vulnerable to stress and fear. Depersonalization can be triggered by a number of factors including
Depersonalization is not a serious disorder on its own, but it can interfere with a person’s daily life. It can also cause difficulties remembering facts and focussing on tasks. It can also interfere with your daily routine activities and relationships.
In most cases, the symptoms go away with time but in some cases, you may need medication. Treatment is usually advised only in cases of recurrent episodes or when the disorder affects daily life and is customized to the patients symptoms. The goal of treatment of depersonalization is to address the stress resulting from the disorder. This treatment could be in the form of medication, family therapy, cognitive therapy, clinical hypnosis or a combination of them.
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is such a disorder of personality that causes mood swings, self-esteem issues, impulsive behavior and recurrent self-harm behaviour. It is very difficult to lead a normal life with these varied psychological issues.
People suffering from BPD fear abandonment and loneliness. Yet, they have a tendency of showing mood swings, sudden emotional outburst or anger and hostility. This prevents them from having a long lasting relationship in life. It usually starts affecting the patient's life from early adulthood. It however seems to improve with age. The patient also has distorted self-image. He or she is unclear about what they want from life or what they are in reality. Even minor incidents can trigger intense reactions in people with BPD.
Symptoms of BPD:
Causes for BPD:
Diagnosis for BPD:
There is no particular clinical test that can diagnose BPD. It can be diagnosed by a series of interactive session with the patient by a psychiatrist.
Love and support from family and friends are crucial for patients suffering from this disease. Prolonged counseling sessions, therapies and the effort to break away from the chronic gloomy thoughts will definitely lead one to a better life.
Somatic symptom disorder is when you put so much focus on symptoms such as pain or fatigue that you have trouble functioning or experience severe emotional distress. You will be visiting the doctor a lot, completely unnecessarily and will waste a lot of money when you have no major health concerns. However, there are treatments which can help you cope with this problem. Read further to find out what they are:
1. Worrying excessively about an illness which has not yet occurred
2. Frequent health care visits
3. Fear of physical activity damaging your body
4. Fearing that the evaluation of doctors is not adequate
There are many more symptoms which may indicate that you are suffering from somatic symptom disorder. However, the most important way of telling whether someone is suffering from somatic symptom disorder or not is to see whether the patient is overly worried about a physical problem which has not yet occurred. One of the first steps in making sure that this does not happen is finding out what causes the problem and preventing it. Here are the causes of somatic symptom disorder.
As with other psychological disorders, the exact cause of somatic symptom disorder is not yet known. However, there are a number of factors which may increase the risk of it. Here they are.
1. Genetic and biological factors
These, as well as increased sensitivity to pain, are some of the factors which you have no control over.
2. Environment you grew up in
Just like the genes you have, the environment you grew up in and your family influence will have a major impact on whether you develop the condition as well.
3. Problems processing emotions
When people have problems processing emotions, their physical symptoms seem like a bigger problem than they actually are.
Luckily, there are treatments for this disorder as well. They include.
Psychotherapy is the most common treatment used to help people with somatic symptom disorder.
Since depression and pain often occur when a person is suffering from somatic symptom disorder, antidepressants can be given as well.