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Pediatric Neurosurgery Tips

Stroke: Role of Neurosurgery!

Dr. Manish Vaish 86% (77 ratings)
IFAANS, DNB (Neurosurgery), MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Ghaziabad
Stroke: Role of Neurosurgery!

A stroke may be called a brain attack. It may happen to any person at any time. A stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain is cut off. The brain cells become oxygen deprived due to the stroke and eventually die. Dead brain cells result in brain dysfunction due to which patients lose control over muscle and memory.

Strokes can be mild to life threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Stroke requires advanced care and should be treated by extensively qualified and experienced medical experts. 

Neurosurgery satisfies all the required clauses for treatment of stroke and accounts for being one of the best ways for management of stroke. Renowned hospitals have a dedicated neurosurgical wing and a team of neurological specialists who know how to deal with stroke the best.

Vascular Neurology
This form of neurology focuses on patients who have undergone a stroke or have experienced symptoms of stroke. A multidisciplinary approach is taken for the prevention of recurrent cerebrovascular conditions.

Types of stroke

  1. Ischemic stroke: This kind of stroke occurs when there is a blockage in a blood vessel, which supplies blood to the brain. This form of stroke is the more common. The underlying cause of this stroke is known as atherosclerosis, which is a condition where fatty deposits occur in the walls of the blood vessels and cause blockage in them.
  2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel gets weak and ruptures into the brain. This is caused by two types of weak blood vessels known as aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation.
  3. Transient ischemic attack: This type of stroke is also known as a mini stroke. These attacks occur because of blood clots. The blockage caused is temporary or transient in nature.

Treatment of Ischemic stroke

  1. Tissue Plasminogen Activator: This is one of the best ways to treat ischemic strokes. This medicine is given to the patient intravenously. It dissolves the blood clot and improves blood flow to the area of the brain which is affected. The medicine should be given within three to four hours after stroke symptoms appear.
  2. Endovascular procedure: This is a process by which the blood clot is removed using a catheter, which gets inserted into the area of the blocked blood vessel. It helps in restoring blood flow to that area. 

Treatment of Hemorrhagic stroke

  1. Endovascular procedure: Several endovascular techniques and methods are used so that the weakening of blood vessels is reduced and less bleeding is caused.
  2. Surgical treatment: Different modes of neurosurgery may be undertaken to stop bleeding and for relieving pressure within the skull.

Clipping (Surgery) in Aneurysm Treatment

Clipping is a surgery performed to treat an aneurysm — a balloon-like bulge of an artery wall. The choice of aneurysm treatment (observation, surgical clipping or bypass, or endovascular coiling) must be weighed against the risk of rupture and the overall health of the patient. Because clipping involves the use of anesthesia and surgically entering the skull, patients with other health conditions or who are in poor health may be treated with observation or coiling.

Clipping may be an effective treatment for the following:

Ruptured aneurysms burst open and release blood into the space between the brain and skull. The risk of repeated bleeding is 35% within the first 14 days after the first bleed. So, timing of surgery is important - usually within 72 hours of the first bleed. Vasospasm is a common complication of SAH, which must be closely managed after treatment to prevent stroke.

Unruptured aneurysms may not cause symptoms and are typically detected during routine testing. People with a family history of brain aneurysms should have a screening test (CT or MR angiogram). The risk of aneurysm rupture is about 1% per year but may be higher or lower depending on the size and location of the aneurysm. However, when rupture occurs, the risk of death is 40%, and the risk of disability is 80%.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1931 people found this helpful

Management of Stroke: The Role of The Neurosurgery!

Dr. Rajyaguru Hardik N 90% (144 ratings)
DNB(Neurosurgery)
Neurosurgeon, Durgapur
Management of Stroke: The Role of The Neurosurgery!

A stroke may be called a brain attack. It may happen to any person at any time. A stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain is cut off. The brain cells become oxygen deprived due to the stroke and eventually die. Dead brain cells result in brain dysfunction due to which patients lose control over muscle and memory.

Strokes can be mild to life threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Stroke requires advanced care and should be treated by extensively qualified and experienced medical experts. 

Neurosurgery satisfies all the required clauses for treatment of stroke and accounts for being one of the best ways for management of stroke. Renowned hospitals have a dedicated neurosurgical wing and a team of neurological specialists who know how to deal with stroke the best.

Vascular Neurology
This form of neurology focuses on patients who have undergone a stroke or have experienced symptoms of stroke. A multidisciplinary approach is taken for the prevention of recurrent cerebrovascular conditions.

Types of stroke

  1. Ischemic stroke: This kind of stroke occurs when there is a blockage in a blood vessel, which supplies blood to the brain. This form of stroke is the more common. The underlying cause of this stroke is known as atherosclerosis, which is a condition where fatty deposits occur in the walls of the blood vessels and cause blockage in them.
  2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel gets weak and ruptures into the brain. This is caused by two types of weak blood vessels known as aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation.
  3. Transient ischemic attack: This type of stroke is also known as a mini stroke. These attacks occur because of blood clots. The blockage caused is temporary or transient in nature.

Treatment of Ischemic stroke

  1. Tissue Plasminogen Activator: This is one of the best ways to treat ischemic strokes. This medicine is given to the patient intravenously. It dissolves the blood clot and improves blood flow to the area of the brain which is affected. The medicine should be given within three to four hours after stroke symptoms appear.
  2. Endovascular procedure: This is a process by which the blood clot is removed using a catheter, which gets inserted into the area of the blocked blood vessel. It helps in restoring blood flow to that area. 

Treatment of Hemorrhagic stroke

  1. Endovascular procedure: Several endovascular techniques and methods are used so that the weakening of blood vessels is reduced and less bleeding is caused.
  2. Surgical treatment: Different modes of neurosurgery may be undertaken to stop bleeding and for relieving pressure within the skull. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.
1930 people found this helpful

Neurosurgery In Management Of Stroke!

Dr. Vikas Bhardwaj 82% (10 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MCh - Neuro Surgery, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Greater Noida
Neurosurgery In Management Of Stroke!

Neurosurgery mainly deals with treating of functional disorders that affect the nerves, brain and muscles through major or minor surgery. The field of neurosurgery makes use of advanced surgical procedures. The different techniques are used to treat brain tumors, trauma to the head, cerebral hemorrhages, spinal disc herniation, brain aneurysms and peripheral neuropathy.

Neurosurgery Treatment
The main aim of neurosurgery treatment in patients suffering from stoke is to prevent neurologic deterioration as well as the recurrence of stroke. The advancement in medical treatment has increased to a great extent, however the mortality and morbidity in stroke patients is very high. The second leading cause of death all over the world is stroke, and hence, through neurosurgery stroke can be managed. Each year in the U.S there are about 800,000 people who suffer from stroke which causes disability.

Symptoms of Stroke and its Effects
The main symptoms of stroke are not identified easily by people. However, the symptoms that are caused on delay of treatment include difficulty in speaking, weakness on one side of the body, drooping on one side of the face and difficulty in walking.

Stroke at times is life threatening and it is also referred to as brain attack and can occur at any time to an individual. It is caused when the flow of blood supply to the brain is cut off and oxygen is deprived to the brain cells. Brain dysfunction occurs due to the dead brain cells and hence some patients lose their memory and control over their muscle movement. The treatment of stroke in such cases includes a neurosurgery by a neurological specialist.

Types of Stroke
The abrupt interruption to the flow of blood that causes hindrance in the neurological function can be best treated if detected early and by accurate diagnosis by a neurosurgeon. There are 3 different types of stroke that can occur and these include Hemorrhagic stroke, Ischemic stroke and Transient ischemic attack. The Ischemic stroke mainly occurs when blood vessels that supply blood to the brain are blocked. It is a common form of stroke and its underlying cause is known as atherosclerosis. The main procedures that are used for treating ischemic stroke include tissue plasminogen activator and endovascular procedure.

In the tissue plasminogen activator procedure, the patient is given medicine intravenously. The blood flow to the affected area of the brain is improved when the blood clot dissolves through this method. The medication is given immediately after 3-4 hours on occurrence of the stroke symptoms. In the second procedure, a catheter is used, which is injected in the area of the obstructed blood vessel. The blood flow to the area is restored by the endovascular procedure. Even anticoagulants are given to thin the blood and prevent clogging. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2726 people found this helpful

Role of Neurosurgery in Management of Stroke

MCh - Neurosurgery, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
Role of Neurosurgery in Management of Stroke

A stroke may be called a brain attack. It may happen to any person at any time. A stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain is cut off. The brain cells become oxygen deprived due to the stroke and eventually die. Dead brain cells result in brain dysfunction due to which patients lose control over muscle and memory.

Strokes can be mild to life threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Stroke requires advanced care and should be treated by extensively qualified and experienced medical experts. 

Neurosurgery satisfies all the required clauses for treatment of stroke and accounts for being one of the best ways for management of stroke. Renowned hospitals have a dedicated neurosurgical wing and a team of neurological specialists who know how to deal with stroke the best.

Vascular Neurology
This form of neurology focuses on patients who have undergone a stroke or have experienced symptoms of stroke. A multidisciplinary approach is taken for the prevention of recurrent cerebrovascular conditions.

Types of stroke

  1. Ischemic stroke: This kind of stroke occurs when there is a blockage in a blood vessel, which supplies blood to the brain. This form of stroke is the more common. The underlying cause of this stroke is known as atherosclerosis, which is a condition where fatty deposits occur in the walls of the blood vessels and cause blockage in them.
  2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel gets weak and ruptures into the brain. This is caused by two types of weak blood vessels known as aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation.
  3. Transient ischemic attack: This type of stroke is also known as a mini stroke. These attacks occur because of blood clots. The blockage caused is temporary or transient in nature.

Treatment of Ischemic stroke

  1. Tissue Plasminogen Activator: This is one of the best ways to treat ischemic strokes. This medicine is given to the patient intravenously. It dissolves the blood clot and improves blood flow to the area of the brain which is affected. The medicine should be given within three to four hours after stroke symptoms appear.
  2. Endovascular procedure: This is a process by which the blood clot is removed using a catheter, which gets inserted into the area of the blocked blood vessel. It helps in restoring blood flow to that area. 

Treatment of Hemorrhagic stroke

  1. Endovascular procedure: Several endovascular techniques and methods are used so that the weakening of blood vessels is reduced and less bleeding is caused.
  2. Surgical treatment: Different modes of neurosurgery may be undertaken to stop bleeding and for relieving pressure within the skull.
3495 people found this helpful

Spine Degeneration - How Neurosurgery Can Help?

Dr. Shailesh Jain 85% (13 ratings)
MBBS, MCh, MS
Neurosurgeon, Delhi
Spine Degeneration - How Neurosurgery Can Help?

The spine is one of the most delicate bones of the body. It literally supports the entire body and helps us walk upright. Any damage or degeneration of the same can lead to dire consequences ranging from pain to paralysis. Spine degeneration is something that progresses over time and does not happen overnight. The normal structure of the disc will be gradually lost in such cases, and there may even be changes in the vertebrae.

The discs may start thinning slowly, which will lead to posture and other issues like pain and weakness. These problems may happen due to old age, arthritis, accidents which may have rendered some damage to the spine, as well as neurological problems where the nerves may get pressed due to an outgrowth or a bulging disc.

Here are the facts that you need to know about spine degeneration related to neurosurgery-

Spinal Stenosis: This is a condition where the spinal canal becomes progressively narrow which may further lead to many problems. In such cases, the spinal cord and the nerves around it tend to get pressed and pinched, which causes significant pain. This may happen due to several reasons including old age which changes the structure of the spinal cord, and other issues such as spinal herniation which causes the growth from the spine. It can also happen due to problems like osteoporosis or the existence of a tumor.

Symptoms: This congenital condition can affect the entire lunar area as well as the shoulders and the neck. It can also lead to painful sensations in the legs and lower regions. Many patients also complain of the loss of bowel control in extreme conditions.


Causes: The stiffening of the invertebral joint leads to the growth of a bony structure. This is known as an osteophyte formation which can lead to spondylitis. There are chances of people as young as 35 years of age, experiencing such a problem. These kinds of issues directly affect the nerves and cause pain in various areas of the body.

Treatment: In such cases, a laminectomy procedure or a de-roofing surgery will be required so that the bony outgrowth may be sliced off, for better recovery of the patient. This will also prevent the nerves from getting affected or pressed, which in turn helps in leading a more normal existence. The success rate is quite high for this kind of surgery, as per myriad medical reports and studies. Yet, it is not entirely suitable for older patients who have other complications.

Other Methods of Treatment: In many cases, the patient may be required to go through other forms of physiotherapy so as to deal with the issue. The patients may also be given epidural injections that have steroids so as to deal with the pain. This is also one of the most preferred methods of managing chronic lumbar area pain which is caused due to herniation and nerve pressing. Electronic stimulation methods such as a neuro modulation with the help of decompression and fusion may also be followed in such cases.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2729 people found this helpful

Paediatric psoriasis Analysis

Dr. Nitin Hundre 89% (205 ratings)
Doctor of Homeopathic Medicine (H.M.D.)
Homeopath, Belgaum
Paediatric psoriasis Analysis

Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition that occurs in children and adults. The typical appearance is of red, thickened, scaly patches on the skin (plaques). These plaques can vary in size and distribution from person to person. In some people it may affect small areas of skin while others may have large areas covering their body.
What kinds of psoriasis occur in children?
1.Each of the patterns of psoriasis described in adults can be seen in children. These include:
Flexural psoriasis (red areas between skin folds)
Scalp psoriasis (thick scales found on areas of the scalp)
Nail psoriasis (nail dystrophy related to psoriasis)
Acute guttate psoriasis (small red plaques occurring after an infection)
Chronic plaque psoriasis (red plaques with scaling occurring anywhere on the body)
Erythrodermic psoriasis (severe reddening covering most or all of the body)
Pustular psoriasis (severe pustules that arise acutely)
Photosensitive psoriasis (affecting areas of sun exposure)
Guttate, facial and flexural psoriasis are particularly common in children.
What causes psoriasis?
Psoriasis has a strong genetic component and is due to abnormal processes involved in regulation of the immune system.
Individuals may have flares in psoriasis in response to stress, injury, medications and infections (particularly streptococcal tonsillitis).
Psoriasis is not contagious, therefore, affected children do not need to be isolated from other children.
How is the diagnosis made?
The diagnosis of psoriasis is usually made clinically. This involves a doctor examining the skin and making the diagnosis based on the appearance of the affected areas.
The plaques tend to be distributed symmetrically.
They favour certain sites such as scalp, elbows and knees; or; skin folds such as behind ears, armpits and groin.
They are well circumscribed, red and scaly.
There is often a family history of psoriasis.
Occasionally, a skin biopsy may be necessary to distinguish psoriasis from other skin conditions that may appear similar.
How is the severity of psoriasis assessed?
Assessing severity of psoriasis can assist in deciding upon the most appropriate course of treatment. Severity of psoriasis can be determined in the following ways:
calculate the body surface area involved
estimate a PASI score (psoriasis area and severity index)
use a questionnaire to assess a person’s quality of life.
PASI score
A PASI score is a tool used to measure the severity and extent of psoriasis (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index). It takes a few minutes and experience to calculate it accurately.
Intensity
A representative area of psoriasis is selected for each body region. The intensity of redness, thickness and scaling of the psoriasis is assessed as none (0), mild (1), moderate (2), severe (3) or very severe (4).
7 people found this helpful

Paediatric Care a Concern

Dr. Isha Malhotra 93% (6103 ratings)
BDS
Dentist, Gurgaon

Baby Bottle Tooth Decay

 Tooth decay in infants and toddlers is often referred to as Baby Bottle Tooth Decay, or Early Childhood Caries. Children need strong, healthy teeth to chew their food, speak and have a good-looking smile. Their first teeth also help make sure their adult teeth come in correctly. It’s important to start infants off with good oral care to help protect their teeth for decades to come.

You can help prevent your baby from getting cavities or developing what is called Baby Bottle Tooth Decay or Early Childhood Caries, by beginning an oral hygiene routine within the first few days after birth. Start by cleaning your baby’s mouth by wiping the gums with a clean gauze pad. This helps removes plaque that can harm erupting teeth. When your child's teeth begin to come in, brush them gently with a child's size toothbrush and a small amount of fluoride toothpaste, about the size of a grain of rice. For bottle feedings, place only formula, milk or breast milk inside and avoid using sugary beverages such as juice or soda. Infants should finish their bedtime and naptime bottle before going to bed.

Dental Emergencies

Accidents can happen anywhere, anytime. Knowing how to handle a dental emergency can mean the difference between saving and losing your child’s permanent tooth. For all dental emergencies, it’s important to take your child to the dentist or an emergency room as soon as possible.

Here are some tips if your child experiences a common dental emergency:

  • For a knocked-out tooth, keep it moist at all times. If you can, try placing the tooth back in the socket without touching the root. If that’s not possible, place it in between your child’s cheek and gum, or in milk. Call your dentist right away.
  • For a cracked tooth, immediately rinse the mouth with warm water to clean the area. Put cold compresses on the face to keep any swelling down.
  • If your child bites his tongue or lip, clean the area gently and apply a cold compress.
  • For toothaches, rinse the mouth with warm water to clean it out. Gently use dental floss to remove any food caught between the teeth. Do not put aspirin on the aching tooth or gum tissues.
  • For objects stuck in the mouth, try to gently remove with floss but do not try to remove it with sharp or pointed instruments.

Thumbsucking

Sucking is a natural reflex and infants and young children may suck on thumbs, fingers, pacifiers and other objects. It may help them relax or make them feel safe or happy. Most children stop sucking by age 4. If your child continues to thumb suck that after the permanent teeth have come in, it can cause problems with tooth alignment and your child’s bite. The frequency, duration and intensity of a habit will determine whether or not dental problems may result. Children who rest their thumbs passively in their mouths are less likely to have difficulty than those who vigorously suck their thumbs. If you are worried about your child’s sucking habits, talk to your dentist or consult your child's pediatrician.

Space Maintainers

Space maintainers help “hold space” for permanent teeth. Your child may need one if he or she loses a baby tooth prematurely, before the permanent tooth is ready to erupt. If a primary tooth is lost too early, adult teeth can erupt into the empty space instead of where they should be. When more adult teeth are ready to come into the mouth, there may not be enough room for them because of the lost space. To prevent this from happening, the dentist may recommend a space maintainer to hold open the space left by the missing tooth.

Sealants

Sealants are a fast and easy way of protecting your child’s teeth that act as barriers to cavity-prone areas. They are usually applied to the chewing surfaces of back teeth and sometimes used to cover deep pits and grooves. Sealing a tooth is fast and there is virtually no discomfort. As long as the sealant remains intact, the tooth surface will be protected from decay. Sealants hold up well under the force of normal chewing but may have to be reapplied if needed. Both primary and permanent teeth can benefit from sealants. Ask your dentist if sealants will help your child.

Mouthguards

Mouthguards can help protect your child from a dental emergency. They should be worn whenever your child is participating in sports and recreational activities. Mouthguards cushion blows that would otherwise cause broken teeth, injuries to the lips and face and sometimes even jaw fractures. If your child participates in such pastimes, ask your dentist about custom-fitted mouth protectors.

Malocclusion

Malocclusion, or bad bite, is a condition in which the teeth are crowded, crooked or out of alignment, or the jaws don’t meet properly. This may become particularly noticeable between the ages of 6 and 12, when a child’s permanent teeth are coming in. If not treated early, a bad bite can make it difficult to keep teeth and gums clean where teeth are crooked or crowded, increasing the risk for cavities and gum disease.

Bad bites can also:

  • Affect proper development of the jaws.
  • Make the protruding teeth at risk for chips and fractures.
  • Affect eating and speaking.
  • Make some teeth more likely to wear abnormally or faster than those that are properly aligned.

Anesthesia and Sedation

Your dentist might recommend that your child be administered anesthesia or sedation to relax them in order to safely complete some dental procedure.    

  • CONCLUSION : When your child’s first tooth appears, talk to your dentist about scheduling the first dental visit. Treat the first dental visit as you would a well-baby checkup with the child’s physician. Remember: starting early is the key to a lifetime of good dental health. Encourage healthy eating habits.
1 person found this helpful

Pediatric Dentistry!

Dr. Shashank Shekhar 87% (19 ratings)
BDS, MDS Endodontist
Dentist, Ghaziabad
Pediatric Dentistry!

PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY:- Pediatric dentists are dedicated to the oral health of children from infancy through the teen years. They have the experience and qualifications to care for a child’s teeth, gums, and mouth throughout the various stages of childhood.

Children begin to get their baby teeth during the first 6 months of life. By age 6 or 7 years, they start to lose their first set of teeth, which eventually are replaced by secondary, permanent teeth.
Without proper dental care, children face possible oral decay and disease that can cause a lifetime of pain and complications. Today, early childhood dental caries—an infectious disease—is 5 times more common in children.

Treatments Provided for pediatric patient:  

Provide comprehensive oral health care that includes the following:

• Preventive dental care including cleaning and fluoride treatments, as well as nutrition and diet recommendations
• Habit counseling (for example, pacifier use and thumb sucking)
• Early assessment and treatment for straightening teeth and correcting an improper bite (orthodontics)
• Repair of tooth cavities or defects
• Diagnosis of oral conditions associated with several diseases.
• Management of gum diseases and conditions including ulcers, short frenulae, mucoceles, and pediatric periodontal disease
• Care for dental injuries (for example, fractured, displaced, or knocked-out teeth)

3 people found this helpful

Paediatric & pace maker

Dr. P Nagaraj 90% (3801 ratings)
FRHS, Ph.D Neuro , MPT - Neurology Physiotherapy, D.Sp.Med, DPHM (Health Management ), BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Chennai
Paediatric & pace maker
Paediatric & pace maker

Children with pacemaker can lead healthy and full lives. Heart blocks can be detected even in the foetal stage
43 people found this helpful

IMPORTANCE OF PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY

Dr. Gauri Pasricha 87% (27 ratings)
BDS
Dentist, Pune
Pediatric dentists provide comprehensive oral health care that includes:
1. Infant oral health exam, which includes risk assessment for caries in mother and child.
2. Preventive dental care including cleaning and flouride application as well as nutrition and diet recommendations.
3. Habit counselling like pacifier use and thumb sucking.
4. Early assessment and treatment for straightening teeth and correcting an improper bite.
5. Repair of tooth cavities or defects.
6. Management of gum diseases.
7. Care of dental injuries for examle-fractured, displaced or knocked out teeth.
2 people found this helpful
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