Common Specialities
{{speciality.keyWord}}
Common Issues
{{issue.keyWord}}
Common Treatments
{{treatment.keyWord}}

Parkinson's Disease Tips

Understanding The Motor & Non-Motor Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease!

Dr. Devesh K Singh 89% (18 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery, Mch - Neurosurgery, FLCS
Neurologist, Ghaziabad
Understanding The Motor & Non-Motor Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease!

What is Parkinson’s disease?
Parkinson’s disease is a progressive and degenerative disorder of the Central Nervous System that mostly affects older people. It is a chronic disease and the symptoms develop over a period of time. The characteristic symptoms of Parkinson’s are rigidity, shaking, bradykinesia (slowness in movement) and shuffled gait. Anxiety and depression also seem to be common in advanced stages of Parkinson’s disease. In addition to the motor symptoms, the cognitive function of the brain is also compromised.

Degeneration of the nerve cells in the substantia nigra of the brain results in the reduction in production of dopamine which is a neurotransmitter in the brain. Neurotransmitters relay impulses from one nerve to the other. This is what is mainly responsible for the motor symptoms in Parkinson’s. Although, Parkinson’s is not a curable disease, it can be controlled and the progress of the disease can be kept in check with certain medications.

What causes Parkinson’s disease?
The cause of Parkinson’s is mostly idiopathic, i.e. the cause is unknown and is not specific. However, there have been cases which show that it can be attributed to factors such as genetic and environmental factors.

What are the symptoms of Parkinson’s?

The symptoms of Parkinson’s can be classified as Motor symptoms and Non-motor symptoms:

Motor Symptoms 

  • Bradykinesia: Slow movement
  • Tremor of limbs
  • Rigidity or stiffness of trunk and limbs
  • Impaired balance and difficulty in coordination or postural instability

Non-motor Symptoms 

Parkinson’s disease is not curable, but when detected early, medicines are prescribed to give symptomatic relief. Dopamine substitutes are prescribed to the patient to relieve the motor symptoms.

Adopting Deep Brain Stimulation For Parkinson's disease

Dr. Vikas Bhardwaj 82% (10 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MCh - Neuro Surgery, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Greater Noida
Adopting Deep Brain Stimulation For Parkinson's disease

One of the common ailments in the elderly people is the Parkinson’s. A progressive disorder, when left untreated, results in worsening of the symptoms. Hence, it is essential to understand the treatment options available to manage the condition effectively. You may be suggested surgical therapies if medication is not effective enough to treat the symptoms.

Surgical treatment options can be beneficial for patients who are suffering from symptoms, but they do not help with treating the disease. In the past, surgical methods like Thalamotomy and Pallidotomy were used to destroy brain cells that contributed to the symptoms. While these methods are still used, they are very rare and situational.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), an FDA-approved procedure, has become much more popular as it is much safer and does not involve invasive surgery. Instead of destroying brain cells like traditional methods, DBS involves sending electric pulses to the affected brain cells to reduce the symptoms. It is not a treatment procedure, but a means of bringing down the severity of Parkinson’s to allow better and more comfortable treatment.

Deep Brain Simulation – Who are the right candidates?
Deep Brain Simulation is commonly used for Parkinson ’s disease, but it is not recommended for everyone. It is a preferred method of treatment for people who have had Parkinson’s for at least four years but have complications which include long periods of time where medications do not work, or symptoms return, uncontrolled and involuntary movements or the freezing/stiffness in the body.

Deep Brain Simulation is not recommended for those who have Dementia as it can lead to memory problems. The general rule of thumb that neurosurgeons follow is that Deep Brain Simulation can help with symptoms that do not get better with medication. DBS can help reduce medication requirements for patients as well as reduce the side effects that may occur due to medication.

Disorder specialists and neurosurgeons can conduct tests to determine if DBS is going to be effective for a patient before going ahead with such a procedure. An extensive assessment is necessary to understand the symptoms, the effect of Parkinson's drugs and also brain imaging is done. All of the expected benefits are then evaluated for the patients, and if the procedure can help alleviate the symptoms, DBS is given a green signal by neurosurgeons and patients can undergo the procedure.

How Does Deep Brain Simulation Work?
Deep Brain Simulation is a very complex procedure. Brain cells communicate with the rest of the body through electric signal, and these become irregular and do not work properly when affected by Parkinson's. DBS smoothens the functioning of these brain cells and reduces symptoms through electric pulses through the implantation of a medical device known as neurostimulator which is also referred as brain pacemaker.

But, as with any treatment procedure, DBS has potential risks and side effects, hence discuss with neurosurgeon thoroughly to access the suitability.

1 person found this helpful

Parkinson's Disease - Know The Risk Factors!

Dr. R.V.Anand 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Neurology
Neurologist, Chennai
Parkinson's Disease - Know The Risk Factors!

Parkinson’s disease is a disorder involving the nervous system. It can start with a mere tremor of one hand and advances to slow movement and stiffness. The face might show little no symptoms in the beginning but the speech might become slurred. With every passing day, the condition worsens. This condition has no permanent cure but the symptoms can be improved with proper medication.

What are the symptoms?
Some unmistakable symptoms include the following:

  • A grandual tremor of the hand is a very common symptom of this disease.
  • A stiffness of the muscles that can limit the range of motion and sharp pain.
  • The posture of the body might get compromised. Often balancing problems are witnessed among many patients.
  • There could be problems with speech leading to soft, slurry or quick speech. The speech in some cases can become monotonous devoid of inflexions.
  • Parkinson’s disease can lead to slow movement and makes performing of simple tasks difficult.
  • Patients often find writing very difficult

What are the possible causes of Parkinson’s disease?

  • Specific genetic mutation can lead to Parkinson’s disease in folks who have a family history of Parkinson’s disease. Certain variations of the gene increase the risk of this disease
  • Exposure to certain environmental factors or certain toxins can trigger Parkinson’s disease in an individual.
  • Certain cells in the brain known as Lewy bodies can trigger Parkinson’s disease.
  • A certain kind of protein cells within the brain known as alpha-synuclein can trigger the Parkinson’s disease in an individual

What are the risk factors?

  • Heredity: Having an immediate family member or a close relative suffering from Parkinson’s disease can increase the risk of getting this disease in an individual
  • Age: Although not a prime risk factor, but an individual over the age of over 60 have an increased risk of getting this disease
  • Toxins: Exposure to pesticide or certain herbicide increase the risk of Parkinson’s
  • Sex: Men are more likely to get Parkinson’s disease than women

What is the medication for Parkinson’s disease?

  • Carbidopa-levodopa: This is a natural chemical that gets passed to the brain and is converted to dopamine by the body. The benefits of this medication might reduce with increased symptoms.
  • Carbidopa-levodopa infusion: A popular drug in this category is known as the Duopa. It is administered directly into the small intestine in the form of gel through a feeding tube.
  • MAO-B inhibitors: Drugs from this group include rasagiline and selegiline. This is a powerful medicine. Many patient experiences hallucination during the initial days of consuming these drugs.
  • Anticholinergics: This medication is mainly used to counter tremors of the limbs in the early stage of the Parkinson’s disease.

Parkinson's Disease - 5 Myths And Facts About It!

Dr. Sumanto Chatterjee 85% (10 ratings)
DM - Neurology, MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine
Neurologist, Delhi
Parkinson's Disease - 5 Myths And Facts About It!

You might be aware that the Parkinson’s diseases is related to the nervous system and is a progressive disorder that impairs movement. The cause of the illness is still unknown, but certain factors like environmental triggers and genetics may play a part in this regard. There are several myths about this condition that are prevalent among people. Some of them are listed below along with the facts.

Myth #1: Parkinson’s disease occurs only in aged persons
This is one of the biggest misconceptions that people have about this disease. The misconception arises because the disease is usually diagnosed at an old age. But according to various researches that are conducted the disease may start developing at a younger age.

Myth #2: The disease symptoms include only impaired movement
Impaired movement maybe one of the biggest symptoms of the diseases but not the only one. There are other symptoms which affect day-to-day activities but are still unnoticed. These symptoms include constipation, sleep disorders, sweating, abnormal bladder functioning, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, cognitive symptoms, depression and even anxiety. But the symptoms that are non-motor are treatable unlike the problems with movement.

Myth #3: There is no hope for patients who are diagnosed with the disease
Patients who are diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease are often told that they do not have any hope towards a cure. It is true that the disease is a progressive one, but it is not true that it cannot be controlled. Certain devices have been discovered which when used sends a signal to the brain which helps in reducing the tremors which are one of the well-known symptoms of the disease. So, no need to lose hope.

Myth #4: Medications are the only way in which you can undertake treatment for Parkinson’s disease
Some people believe that they cannot do anything except for taking medications to control the disease. But this is not true. Doing regular exercise and changing your food habits are at many times helpful in treating this particular condition. Have a balanced diet which will have enough fiber is also helpful. To increase your stability and flexibility, a daily workout routine is quite recommendable, and it will even increase your self-confidence and your feeling of independence.

Myth #5: Everything about the disease can be predicted
The disease is not at all predictable. If it were, a cure would have been in place by now. Everything from the symptoms to the treatment procedure varies from person to person. The disease may take years to develop in one individual but may develop instantly in someone else.

Don’t go by hearsay evidence about a disease. Medical science has improved a lot over the years. If you have any doubt regarding your health condition reach out to your doctor and clarify them at once.

Parkinson's Disease - Myths And Facts About It!

Dr. Debabrata Chakraborty 87% (101 ratings)
DM - Neurology, Fellowship in Stroke Neurology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Neurologist, Kolkata
Parkinson's Disease - Myths And Facts About It!

You might be aware that the Parkinson’s diseases is related to the nervous system and is a progressive disorder that impairs movement. The cause of the illness is still unknown, but certain factors like environmental triggers and genetics may play a part in this regard. There are several myths about this condition that are prevalent among people. Some of them are listed below along with the facts.

Myth #1: Parkinson’s disease occurs only in aged persons
This is one of the biggest misconceptions that people have about this disease. The misconception arises because the disease is usually diagnosed at an old age. But according to various researches that are conducted the disease may start developing at a younger age.

Myth #2: The disease symptoms include only impaired movement
Impaired movement maybe one of the biggest symptoms of the diseases but not the only one. There are other symptoms which affect day-to-day activities but are still unnoticed. These symptoms include constipation, sleep disorders, sweating, abnormal bladder functioning, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, cognitive symptoms, depression and even anxiety. But the symptoms that are non-motor are treatable unlike the problems with movement.

Myth #3: There is no hope for patients who are diagnosed with the disease
Patients who are diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease are often told that they do not have any hope towards a cure. It is true that the disease is a progressive one, but it is not true that it cannot be controlled. Certain devices have been discovered which when used sends a signal to the brain which helps in reducing the tremors which are one of the well-known symptoms of the disease. So, no need to lose hope.

Myth #4: Medications are the only way in which you can undertake treatment for Parkinson’s disease
Some people believe that they cannot do anything except for taking medications to control the disease. But this is not true. Doing regular exercise and changing your food habits are at many times helpful in treating this particular condition. Have a balanced diet which will have enough fiber is also helpful. To increase your stability and flexibility, a daily workout routine is quite recommendable, and it will even increase your self-confidence and your feeling of independence.

Myth #5: Everything about the disease can be predicted
The disease is not at all predictable. If it were, a cure would have been in place by now. Everything from the symptoms to the treatment procedure varies from person to person. The disease may take years to develop in one individual but may develop instantly in someone else.

Don’t go by hearsay evidence about a disease. Medical science has improved a lot over the years. If you have any doubt regarding your health condition reach out to your doctor and clarify them at once.

Parkinson's Disease - How To Handle The Side Effects?

Dr. Namit Gupta 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Medicine, DM - Neurology
Neurologist, Gurgaon
Parkinson's Disease - How To Handle The Side Effects?

It has been proven by researchers that there is no definite cure for Parkinson’s disease but its side effects and symptoms can be effectively managed. Medications are made available for treating the condition and ease the movement especially symptoms like stiffness and tremor. During the early stages of the disease, it is better to take the pill along with food to avoid nausea, which can be caused due to some medicines. However, in the later stages, the medication can be taken either 1 hour before a meal or 2 hours after a meal for effective treatment.

Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease
Different therapies are used to treat Parkinson’s disease and these include occupational, physical and speech therapy. The disease is known to manifest in many ways and some of the symptoms include sleep problems, fatigue, and constipation. The most common symptom patients suffer from is depression, and it is estimated that about 50% of the patients suffering from this disease experience depression. Commonly the symptoms of depression include worrying, feeling of sadness, and loss of interest. It has been found in some people that Parkinson’s disease occurs due to abnormal genes. However, the real cause of the nerve cell break down is not known.

Important tips to consider

  1. The best way to deal with the side effects of Parkinson’s disease includes building a health care team, finding the best doctor, and managing your medications.
  2. It is a progressive disease and in the initial stage, it starts with a mild tremor. However, with time it affects your speech and even your cognitive abilities. For that reason, it is important that the treatment plan is recognized and the symptoms that affect day to day life are managed properly.
  3. The disease takes a toll on the emotional and mental health of a person and it is imperative to consult a licensed psychologist for that reason. Antidepressant medications are provided by doctors to treat this condition.

How to deal with Parkinson’s disease?

  1. It is very important for people suffering from Parkinson’s disease to exercise and include a nutritious diet. The diet recommendation prescribed by the doctor should be followed and one should eat a low protein diet after consulting the doctor. The movements of the intestinal muscles are also affected with Parkinson’s disease and these can result in constipation. Hence, it is better to include whole grains, vegetables, and fruits in the diet and eat foods that are rich in fiber.
  2. It is very important that you drink lots of water so that the color of the urine is clear or light yellow. A fiber supplement like Metamucil or Citrucel can be taken every day, but the instructions provided on the label should be followed.
3621 people found this helpful

Impact Of Parkinson's Treatment - How Can It Be Managed?

Dr. Vivek Kumar 89% (51 ratings)
DM - Neurology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Medicine
Neurologist, Ghaziabad
Impact Of Parkinson's Treatment - How Can It Be Managed?

Coping with Parkinson’s disease is not an easy task. Whether you or your loved one is suffering from it, the effect of the disease takes a toll. Other than the fact that it is a degenerative disease and the neurological condition deteriorates over time, the mental trauma that Parkinson’s brings; not only to the patient but to the caregiver as well, is a whole chapter on its own. When you are taking care of someone who is suffering from

Parkinson’s disease, it is natural that the emotional upheaval that you may go through will take a huge toll on your health and your mind. It is imperative that you prepare yourself thoroughly, whether you are the patient or the caregiver, about the disease and its treatments.

There is hardly any cure and treatment for the disease. It is still in its research stage and hence, often there is a strong sense of despair that sets in the mind of the patient and their loved ones. It is for this reason you have to prepare yourself to face and fight this disease.

Here are some tips that may help you to cope with the treatments of Parkinson’s disease:

  1. Educate Yourself: Educate yourself about every detail of the disease, specific to the type of Parkinson’s that has affected you or your loved one. Ask questions, whether to your doctor or the nurses. Search through the internet, you will get plenty of genuine information. This is necessary as it will prepare you to face the future head-on. You will understand what you are dealing with and how much worse it can get.
  2. Stay Active: If you are the one who is suffering from Parkinson’s, then write it down as the golden rule – I will have to stay physically active. Staying active will keep your muscles active and there will be a steady functioning of the nervous system. Staying active gives you the benefit of keeping the muscles at work, ultimately fighting the main symptom of Parkinson’s disease. Being physically active is also essential to have a good mental health, both for the patient and the caregiver.
  3. Connect With People: Talk to people, your friends, family members, children, grandchildren and anyone you feel like. If you have any estranged relative, it could be a good time to reconnect. Have wholesome conversations that will influence happy thoughts and encourage you to think and ponder on happy memories. This is crucial as Parkinson’s invites depression and you will have to tackle it vehemently.
  4. Talk to a Mental Health Professional: If you feel that you are losing a complete hold of your life and your depression seems uncontrollable, it is time to visit a professional psychiatrist and seek his/her advice in dealing with your troubled mental condition.


 

5 people found this helpful

Parkinson's Disease - Maximise The Effect Of Levodopa!

Dr. Debabrata Chakraborty 87% (101 ratings)
DM - Neurology, Fellowship in Stroke Neurology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Neurologist, Kolkata
Parkinson's Disease - Maximise The Effect Of Levodopa!

If you are being treated for Parkinson's disease. How can you maximize the effect of Levodopa? The effect of levodopa can be maximized by increasing its absorption from the digestive system. In particular, taking levodopa on an empty stomach is very important. 

  1. Take on an empty stomach: Do not eat anything 1 hour before taking levodopa. Do not eat anything for at least 30 minutes and if possible 1 hour after taking it. Take the pill with 2 glasses of water so that it can dissolve. If taking the levodopa on an empty stomach makes you nauseous, confirm that your medication has the right amount of carbidopa in relation to the levodopa (25%). If you continue to feel nauseous, you can eat a piece of white bread around the time that you take levodopa. Do not apply any butter, yogurt, cheese or similar high protein spreads. Protein can drastically decrease the absorption of levodopa. 
  2. Get your constipation treated: This is critically important too. Being constipated can slow down the passage of levodopa through the digestive system. In most patients, drinking adequate water and taking stool softeners is helpful. 
  3. Get your ulcer treated: It can be difficult to recognize that you have a gastric ulcer. However, if you have a burning sensation in your stomach at any time, or belch frequently, you may have a gastric ulcer. If you think you have an ulcer you should get tested (there is a simple breath test now) and treated with antibiotics (not antacids!) 
  4. Do not take levodopa with iron tablets: The iron binds to levodopa and prevents its absorption. Keep a gap of at least two hours between these two medications. 
  5. Try taking levodopa with orange juice and carbonated water (soda): Mix equal quantities of orange juice and carbonated water (soda). Take your regular levodopa with a glass of this preparation instead of water. The carbonated water hastens disintegration of the tablet, and the acidity of both things helps in levodopa absorption. There are special tablets of levodopa (dispersible levodopa, Madopar) which can be dissolved in this preparation. Talk to your doctor about it.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2612 people found this helpful

Parkinson's Disease - What Causes It?

Dr. Sambhaji S Garje 91% (10 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), Fellowship In Ano-Rectal-Surgery
Ayurveda, Thane
Parkinson's Disease - What Causes It?

Parkinsonism is often mistaken for Parkinson's Disease. Though similar in quite a few aspects, yet Parkinsonism is not the same as Parkinson's Disease. Parkinsonism is a medical condition whereby the affected individual exhibits some symptoms identical to those observed in the case of a Parkinson's disease.

Factors that lead to Parkinsonism
Parkinsonism can result from a host of factors and health condition such as

  1. Increased and repeated exposure to toxic gases and substances, namely organic solvents, cyanide, manganese, or carbon monoxide.
  2. People suffering from the repeated head injury (as in the case of boxing or wrestling).
  3. The medications used in the treatment of psychiatric problems (antipsychotic medicines) or those used in treating nausea (Prochlorperazine or even Metoclopramide). Some of the antipsychotic drugs have the potential to interfere (block) with the activity of the neurotransmitter Dopamine resulting in parkinsonism.
  4. The use of MPTP (1-Methyl-4-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-Tetrahydropyridine), especially the oxidized product MPP+ (1-methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium) can wreck havoc resulting in parkinsonism and the associated symptoms.

Some of the medical conditions that can contribute towards Parkinsonism include

  1. Viral Encephalitis (resulting in acute brain inflammation).
  2. Alzheimer's Disease (a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that triggers cognitive and behavioral problems often accompanied with dementia).
  3. Multiple system atrophy (a progressive neurodegenerative disorder resulting in dysfunctioning of the autonomic nervous system and the voluntary movements).
  4. Progressive supranuclear palsy or Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome (a rare disorder of the brain that interferes with the balancing, walking, and the eye movements of the affected person.
  5. Stroke or a brain tumor.
  6. Lewy body dementia (a condition triggered by the unusual accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein in the brain with the person exhibiting symptoms associated with both Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease).
  7. Wilson Disease (an autosomal recessive condition whereby copper starts accumulating in the vital organs including the liver and the brain).

Symptoms
In patients with parkinsonism,

  1. The muscles appear stiff. A person experiences a resting tremor (tremor that mainly affects one hand even when the muscles are relaxed), along with difficulty while walking or balancing their body. (These symptoms are also characteristic of a Parkinson's disease).
  2. Further, there may be early signs of dementia (loss of memory or forgetfulness). There may be Agnosia, Aphasia, or Apraxia
  3. Constipation, a dip in the blood pressure, difficulties in eating or swallowing of food.
  4. Hallucinations and loss of judgment (such as failing to locate the kitchen or bathroom at home).
  5. Unusual eye movements.

Ayurvedic Treatment
According to Ayurveda, Parkinsonism is a manifestation of the vitiation of the Vata Dosha (Wind energy) that takes place in the cranial nerves. Thus, corrective measures are followed to restore the balance between the Vata, Kapha, and Pitta Dosha.

  1. Panchakarma can bring about a visible improvement in patients with Parkinsonism. Oil massages using Ashwagandha and Bala can work wonders.
  2. Brahmi is another wonder herb used to treat Parkinsonism.
  3. Meditation, exercise (light to moderate), yoga can be helpful in the case of Parkinsonism.
  4. Try and make the diet as nutritious and healthy as possible.
  5. A Warm Ayurvedic Oil Application is very effective in relieving these kinds of aches and pain if done on regular basis.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4532 people found this helpful

Physiotherapy For Parkinson's Disease

Dr. Gaurav Tyagi 89% (146 ratings)
BPT, MPT- Ortho
Physiotherapist, Gurgaon
Physiotherapy For Parkinson's Disease

Physiotherapy for "Parkinson's Disease": 

Parkinsons Disease Physical Therapy, emphasizing gait retraining and motor control relearning, may help overcome postural instability. The individual can be trained to focus on foot positioning to provide a more stable base for posture and gait. Other helpful techniques include teaching the individual to turn around in a wide arc, rather that pivoting, in order to avoid the risk for loss of balance and postural stability, thus decreasing the risk for falls. Instructing the individual to consciously take longer steps with the help of verbal and visual (object) cues may help overcome the effects of freezing and festination. With the help of a neurologic music therapist, the physical therapist can provide parkinson's disease physical therapy exercises in a rhythmic fashion, that is, movements coupled with musical or drum-beating rhythm. Other specific exercises should include aerobic conditioning to improve endurance, strengthening of back extensor and abdominal muscles in order to promote a more upright posture, and stretching of trunk flexor muscles. 

Impairments Resulting from Parkinson's Disease

1.Motor 
2.Gait 
3.Movement initiation and execution 
4.Bradykinesia 
5.Tremor 
6.Rigidity 
7.Sensory/pain 
8.Autonomic dysfunction: 
9.Orthostatic hypotension 
10.Constipation 
11.Cognitive 
12.Behavioral and affective 
13.Depression 
14.Anxiety 

15.Psychotic features, such as hallucination 
16.Gastrointestinal 
17.Swallowing and nutrition 
18.Constipation 
19.Bladder dysfunction 
20.Sexual dysfunction 

Physiotherapy treatment for Parkinson's disease will include

1.Relaxation techniques to decrease rigidity 
2.Slow rhythmic rotational movements 
3.Gentle range-of-motion and stretching exercises to prevent contractures, quadriceps and hip extensor 
4.isometric exercises 
5.Neck and trunk rotation exercises 
6.Back extension exercises and pelvic tilt 
7.Proper sitting and postural control (static and dynamic); emphasis whole body movements 
8.Breathing exercises stressing both the inspiratory and expiratory phase 
9.Functional mobility training, including bed mobility, transfer training, and learning to rise out of a chair by rocking; may require a chair lift 
10.Stationary bicycle to help train reciprocal movements 
11.Training in rhythmic pattern to music or with auditory cues such as clapping may help in alternating movements. Standing or balancing in parallel bars (static and dynamic) with weight shifting, ball throwing 
Slowly progressive ambulation training (large steps using blocks to have patients lift legs, teaching proper heel-to-toe gait patterns, feet 12-15 inches apart, arm swing; use inverted walking stick, colored squares, or stripes as visual aids) 
12.Use of assistive devices (may need a weighted walker) 
13.Aerobic conditioning (swimming, walking, cycling) 
14.Frequent rest periods 
15.Family training and home exercise program 

1 person found this helpful
Icon

Book appointment with top doctors for Parkinson's Disease treatment

View fees, clinic timings and reviews