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Osteoporosis Tips

Osteoporosis - How To Avert It?

Dr. Vimal Kumar Dakour 84% (10 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Orthopaedics (D. Ortho), DNB - Orthopedics/Orthopedic Surgery
Orthopedist, Delhi
Osteoporosis - How To Avert It?

When the density of the bone decreases, it is known as osteoporosis. The bones also start to get weak and fragile and their strength decreases. It causes the bones to become porous, more like a sponge. This can also lead to frequent fractures in the bone. Here are some of the factors that might increase your risk of getting osteoporosis:

  • Thin and small body frame
  • Family history of osteoporosis
  • Smoking
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Lack of exercise
  • Calcium deficiency
  • Poor nutrition
  • Lack of certain vitamins
  • Bowel diseases
  • Low estrogen in women
  • Low testosterone in men
  • Chemotherapy because of the toxic effect it has on the ovaries
  • Menstrual cycle complications in women
  • Chronic swelling due to rheumatoid arthritis or any liver disease.

Osteoporosis can be treated in a number of ways. The main goal is to prevent the bones from getting fractured or becoming weaker. Timely treatment can surely decrease the risk of fractures in the future. It is very difficult to completely cure or rebuild the bones however one can easily prevent it from happening further. Following are some of the treatments that can help in preventing osteoporosis and make a person fit to a certain extent:

  1. Changes in the lifestyle of a person are very important. These include, not smoking and refraining from alcohol consumption.it is very important for a person with osteoporosis to exercise regularly and take a healthy and balanced diet.
  2. A good amount of Vitamin D and calcium is required in the body. These can be consumed straight from certain foods or in the form of supplements.
  3. Medicines like alendronate, calcitonin, ibandronate and relaxofine can turn out to be extremely helpful if other conventional home cures do not pan out well.
  4. Exercising has a huge impact on the bones. It helps strengthen the muscles that support the bones in your body. Although exercise cannot bring back the bone’s density, however, it decreases your risk of falling since it improves the muscle balance.

What type of exercise might be best for osteoporosis has not been determined yet, however, your physiotherapist can help by assigning you certain exercises that can help you with your problem. Be careful of what you eat and drink and what activities you do. If you are sure that your muscles are too weak for you to be playing any kind of sport that might make it easier for you to get injured, you need to avoid them.

Consult a doctor to chalk out a good diet plan and an exercise or workout routine that is neither too exhausting nor very lenient. Other forms of therapy like yoga and stretching or even pilates if you are flexible enough, are great ways to treat osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis - Know The Factors That Cause It!

Dr. Vishnu Sharma 87% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DNB - Rheumatology
Rheumatologist, Ahmedabad
Osteoporosis - Know The Factors That Cause It!

Osteoporosis in very simple terms is a condition that causes spongy bones. The bones develop pores and become fragile with an increased susceptibility to fractures. In average, all our bones get weak after the age of 35 years which means that the bone mass decreases. Women after menopause are especially susceptible to this condition and also osteoporotic fractures. 

What are the other risk factors for osteoporosis? Knowing this is important for your bone health as it will help to prevent fractures. But before we discuss the causes of osteoporosis, it’ is important to point out that osteoporosis has no symptoms and it can only be diagnosed when you have a fracture for no reason at all, or you get a bone density test to diagnose osteoporosis.

Some of the factors that can lead to osteoporosis are:

  • Genetics
  • Lack of exercise
  • Low calcium and low vitamin D levels
  • A personal history of fracture as an adult
  • Smoking
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Low body weight
  • Family history of osteoporosis which means having a mother with an osteoporotic hip fracture doubles your risk of a hip fracture as well
  • Chemotherapy for treating cancer also increases the risk for osteoporosis as it causes early menopause.
  • In men low testosterone levels known as hypogonadism can cause this condition.
  • The absence of menstrual periods known as amenorrhea in younger women also predisposes them to osteoporosis as it causes low estrogen levels. Amenorrhea can occur in women who undergo extremely vigorous physical training or those that practice extreme dieting. As their body fat goes down they experience amenorrhoea.
  • Chronic inflammation, due to chronic inflammatory arthritis and also liver disease can cause osteoporosis.
  • Any condition that interferes with walking such as stroke can cause spongy bones.
  • Hyperthyroidism, a condition that causes an increase in production of the thyroid hormone can cause spongy bones too.

Some other factors that can lead to it

  • Hyperparathyroidism a disease where there is an increased parathyroidhormone production by the parathyroid gland. This hormone maintains blood calcium levels by absorbing calcium from the bones. This can cause osteoporosis.
  • Low vitamin D causes low absorption of calcium from diet and hence you are at a risk of developing osteoporosis. Conditions such as celiac sprue or biliary cirrhosis which hamper the absorption of vitamin D can also cause osteoporosis.
  • Medications such as heparin, a blood thinner, anti-seizure medicines such as Dilantin and phenobarbital, and long-term use of oral corticosteroids- can all up osteoporosis risks.

The diagnosis of osteoporosis is simple and it is advisable that older people especially women get periodic X- rays and bone density tests to rule out this bone condition.

Know The 5 Reasons Behind Osteoporosis!

Dr. Arun Gupta 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS
Orthopedist, Agra
Know The 5 Reasons Behind Osteoporosis!

Your bone is a living tissue that constantly undergoes the cycle of breakage and replacement. Osteoporosis is a condition wherein the rate at which new bones form cannot match up to the worn out bones, thus making the bones fragile and brittle. Osteoporosis mainly affects the wrist, hip or spine and can result in a stooped posture accompanied by height shrinkage and back pain caused due to a collapsed vertebra.

Reasons Behind Osteoporosis

  1. Hormones: Lowered estrogen count in women and testosterone in men as a result of ageing or other treatments can result in this condition. Excess thyroid secretion in the body, an overactive adrenalin gland or parathyroid gland can also accelerate bone loss. Women are more vulnerable to osteoporosis during menopause.

  2. Prolonged use of injected: Prolonged use of injected or oral corticosteroid medications such as cortisone or prednisone messes with the bone-building process. Medicines used to combat cancer, gastric reflux and seizures can be responsible as well.

  3. Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions such as Rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, liver or kidney disease increases the risks of acquiring osteoporosis.

  4. Sedentary Lifestyle: A sedentary lifestyle with not much physical activity along with an excessive consumption of alcohol and tobacco makes you susceptible to osteoporosis.

Treatments for Osteoporosis:

  1. Medication: Commonly prescribed medicines for remedying fractures include bisphosphonates such as Zoledronic acid, Ibandronate, Risedronate and Alendronate.However these medicines are not free of side-effects such as abdominal pain, nausea or heart burn. In case, your regular medicine doesn’t work, you can use Denosumab and Teriparatide as alternatives but only after consulting your physician.
  2. Hormone Therapy: Estrogen therapy for women after menopause helps sustain bone density. However such procedures can escalate the dangers of getting afflicted with cancer, heart diseases or conditions such as blood clotting.
  3. Alternative Medicine: Ipriflavone, a laboratory manufactured product, when combined with calcium can curb chances of bone loss and alleviate pain.

Bone Health & Osteoporosis - All You Should Know!

Dr. Urkesh Shah 87% (10 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS, Diploma In Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Navi Mumbai
Bone Health & Osteoporosis - All You Should Know!

Bones are similar to a porous framework which is filled with minerals that make it hard and strong. With age, there is gradual degradation and the mineralized portion is lost, thereby leading to thinning of the bone. The word osteoporosisliterally translates to porous bones, which is due to the gradual demineralisation. In addition to the natural ageing process, there are other diseases that can accelerate the demineralization process.

Women are more prone to demineralisation, and after the age of 40, they should take extra precaution to slow down the onset of the condition. 

The following are some ways to improve bone health and halt osteoporosis in the long run-

  1. Diet: Ensure that your diet has sufficient amounts of vitamin D and calcium. Though calcium is the essential mineral for bone formation, vitamin D is required for the absorption of calcium, and therefore both these elements play a vital role in maintaining the quality of the bones in our body. Most people require about 1,000 mg of calcium and about 500 units of vitamin D for optimal bone health. This requirement goes up slightly in postmenopausal women.

  2. Sun Exposure: In most people, exposure to the sun allows the body to make vitamin D, but careful sun protection prevents this from happening. Also, with age, the body’s ability to form intrinsic vitamin D also declines. The body, therefore, relies on supplements. Most dairy products are good sources of calcium. In addition, spinach, salmon, turnips, and broccoli are some calcium-rich foods. Supplements of calcium carbonate or calcium citrate can be taken if your diet is lacking in calcium. Vitamin D also should be included in the supplementation. The treatment for osteoporosis is incomplete without these two supplements.

  3. Exercise With Weights: The constructive tension that exercise puts on the body helps in bone building, whatever the age may be, which prevents the onset of osteoporosis. Any exercise which improves muscle mass strengthens the bones, and puts stress on the bones is advisable. Since the fractured area due to osteoporosis mainly includes the spine, lower back exercises, yoga, tai chi, and abdominal exercises all work wonders. Pick any of these and do them for 30 minutes three times a week.

  4. Quit Smoking: Continuing to smoke while taking osteoporosis medications is completely useless. Nicotine negates all the effects which defeat the purpose of taking the medication and is as good as taking no medication at all. So if you want the bone thinning to stop, stop smoking.

  5. Alcohol Consumption: While a drink or two per week is permissible, more than this can harm the bones significantly.

  6. Constant Health Watch: Talk to a doctor about how other routine medications (if any) can affect your bone health. Also, identify how frequently you should check your bone mineral density and stick to the schedule.

Bone health and osteoporosis can be managed with some conscious efforts.

Osteoporosis - How Does A Healthy Diet Keep You Safe?

Dt. Seemaa J Poddar 87% (10 ratings)
Diploma in Clinical Nutrition, Sport Nutrition, Nutrition & diet Planning
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
Osteoporosis - How Does A Healthy Diet Keep You Safe?

The bones are a porous matrix which is filled with minerals like calcium and phosphorus which make them strong. Over a period of time, the mineral content is lost and therefore the matrix gets brittle. Bones are more likely to fracture in these people.

Causes/Risk factors:

  1. The bones get fragile and brittle with age in most people, and people over 60 years of age are likely to be affected
  2. Asian women about the age of 45 are prone to osteoporosis
  3. Reduced vitamin D intake (either by sun exposure or through diet) also makes bone porous and prone to fracture
  4. Sedentary lifestyle with minimal or no exercise
  5. Lower levels of estrogen, especially post menopause
  6. Cigarette smoking
  7. Reduced testosterone levels
  8. With fracture, there is severe pain, loss of mobility, and need for prolonged nursing.

Foods which can help control/prevent osteoporosis:

  1. Yoghurt: Derived from milk, it is rich in animal protein and also contains good amounts of vitamin D and B2, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. It helps in maintaining estrogen levels during menopause, thereby preventing osteoporosis. They also provide a good supply of gut bacteria, which improves immunity.
  2. Milk: Similar to yoghurt, this is also rich in various minerals that are essential for bone health. The vitamin D in it also improves calcium absorption, thereby prolonging the occurrence of osteoporosis.
  3. Fish and meat: Lean meat and fish are good sources of oils and protein and form an essential part of diet for preventing osteoporosis. Sardines and salmon are ideal as the tiny fish are rich sources of calcium.
  4. Eggs: This contains good amounts of natural protein, minerals, and vitamins essential for bone health. It also helps in estrogen formation, which has a bone-protective effect.
  5. CabbageAny form of cabbage is good for preventing osteoporosis. It promotes bone metabolism and has calcium which help in strong bone formation.
  6. Bananas: Another effective food in preventing osteoporosis, it helps improve absorption of calcium and other essential nutrients to ensure bones are formed and maintain health. It also has natural oils, potassium, and vitamins A and C in good quantity.
  7. Almonds: It forms an integral part of preventing osteoporosis by increasing bone density and promoting bone health. It also has good oil content, which is also essential for bone health.
  8. Legumes: Beans and other legumes are rich source of proteins and minerals and therefore prevent onset of osteoporosis.
  9. Bengal gram (chole): Another great source of various minerals and vitamins, it is very low in calories and sugar and is great to lose weight. It also improves bone health by increasing density.
508 people found this helpful

How To Treat Long Term Osteoporosis?

Dr. Prof Manish Khanna 89% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Lucknow
How To Treat Long Term Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a condition which usually results due to a decrease in bone density. In this condition, the bones become weak and brittle. Fractures are a common result of osteoporosis. Usually, symptoms or signs do not show up until the condition progresses to its advanced stages.

Since osteoporosis is usually irreversible and incurable, preventing the fractures is considered to be extremely important.

Who is at risk of osteoporosis?
All men and women have some risk of developing 'thinning' of the bones (osteoporosis) as they become older, particularly over the age of 60. As mentioned above, women are more at risk than men. The following situations may also lead to excessive bone loss and so increase your risk of developing osteoporosis. If you:

  1. Are a woman who had the menopause before 45 years of age
  2. Have already had a bone fracture after a minor fall or bump
  3. Have a strong family history of osteoporosis.
  4. Have a body mass index (BMI) of 19 or less (that is, you are very underweight)
  5. Have irregular periods
  6. Have taken, or are taking, a steroid medicine (such as prednisolone) for three months or more
  7. Are a smoker
  8. Have an alcohol intake of more than four units per day
  9. Lack calcium and/or vitamin D (due to a poor diet and/or little exposure to sunlight).
  10. Are mostly inactive

Ways To Treat Osteporosis

Osteoporosis in women can be treated using Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). The therapy makes use of either a combination of progestin and oestrogen or simply, oestrogen. However, it is possible that certain combinations have side-effects that might give rise to other medical conditions. Therefore, proper consultation with an orthopedist is an essential pre-requisite so that the condition of osteoporosis as well the side effects may be addressed before proceeding with Hormone Replacement Therapy.

There are a number of medications that can be used which have long-term effects on osteoporosis. However, the schedule for intake of these medicines should be followed diligently. Failing to adhere to the schedule could lead to serious complications. For example, the intake of Risedronate medications (prevent bone loss) should be scheduled once every month, failing which can cause ulcers in the food pipe. Raloxifene has effects which are similar to oestrogen but does not exhibit any serious side effects. Teriparatide can be used to treat osteoporosis in people who have a high risk of suffering from bone fractures.

Don't rely entirely on medication as the only treatment for your osteoporosis. These practices also are important:

  1. Exercise. Weight-bearing physical activity and exercises that improve balance and posture can strengthen bones and reduce the chance of a fracture. The more active and fit you are as you age, the less likely you are to fall and break a bone.
  2. Good nutrition. Eat a healthy diet and make certain that you're getting enough calcium and vitamin D. Being underweight or losing a lot of weight unintentionally is associated with poorer bone health and a higher risk of fracture — even if you're taking a bisphosphonate.
  3. Quit smoking. Smoking cigarettes speed up bone loss.
  4. Limit alcohol. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women of all ages and men older than age 65, and up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger.
2692 people found this helpful

Treating Osteoporosis With Homeopathy - How Successful Is it?

Dr. Sanjib Kumar Gupta 88% (10 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Kolkata
Treating Osteoporosis With Homeopathy - How Successful Is it?

The bones and muscles tend to get worn with age and other conditions. Osteoporosis is a condition described by a reduction in bone thickness. Bones tend to become weak and fragile in this condition. The most common consequence of osteoporosis is fractures. Osteoporosis does not cause signs or side effects until it has reached an advanced state. Certain signs and symptoms of osteoporosis include:

  1. Back pain

  2. Loss of growth after some time

  3. A stooped stance

  4. Crack of the vertebra, wrist, hip or other bone

Homeopathy has been a very beneficial modus operandi in the campaign against Osteoporosis. Homeopathic remedies will not reverse existing bone loss, but can help control pain, will slow down or stop further bone loss, can promote stability and healing.

Homeopathic remedies will allow the essential minerals and nutrients to be absorbed more efficiently, thus, further preventing bone fractures, or accelerating healing of any existing fractures by strengthening the bones.

Homeopathic constitutional approach takes into account a patient’s characteristic symptoms, their overall physical and mental condition and understands the way a person’s body reacts to Osteoporosis.

The purpose of Homeopathic approach is to vitalize the body’s natural healing and self-repair ability to create the highest state of health and well-being.

The aim and objective of Homoeopathic management can be achieved by:

  1. Dietary intake of intake of calcium required by body.

  2. Correction of intake of calcium apart forms food to regulate the daily requirement of calcium.

  3. Correction of intestinal absorption of calcium.

  4. Correction of assimilation of calcium channels in body by constitutional approach.

  5. Exercise, in the form of light exercises and/or meditation.

  6. Therapeutic correction in case the above criteria fail or partially improve the patient.

Various homeopathic prescriptions are accessible to cure bone loss and keep up bone mass. They tend to get rid of the condition from its roots and prevent it from happening in the future. These include:

  1. Symphytum Officinale: It is the best homeopathic solution for treating fractures in osteoporosis. This homeopathic cure helps in joining the cracked bone proficiently. Fractures, where patients complain of a prickling pain in the fractured area, can be significantly soothed by giving this regular homeopathic treatment. This common homeopathic medicine can likewise help in decreasing irritability of the fracture.

  2. Ruta Graveolens: It is yet another very effective homeopathic cure used for the treatment of fractures in osteoporosis. Whenever a bone gets broken, the ligaments and tendons of bones that surround it additionally get harmed. It is in this circle where homeopathic medicine Ruta Graveolans demonstrates its great impact. This regular solution helps in mending torn ligaments and tendons.

  3. Hypericum Perforatum: It is yet another helpful natural homeopathic solution that can be used with certainty for the excruciating pain in the back because of crushed nerves in the middle of harmed vertebral bones.

  4. Calcarea Phosphorica: Calcarea phosphorica is a very effective medication used in homeopathic treatment of the curvature of the spine and flow of blood in patients of osteoporosis. It is mostly given to those patients who have a weak spine and delicate bones, which cause the curvature and stop the flow of blood.

  5. Phosphorus: Phosphorus can also give the best results in curing the curvature and flow of blood in patients of osteoporosis. If blazing sensation in spine remains along with the curvature, this treatment is the most effective. This regular homeopathic cure is also valuable for pain and weakness in the spine.

  6. Calcarea Fluorica: It is a brilliant solution for osteoporosis patients who complain of pain in the back, which is more painful while resting and better when walking or doing some physical exercise.

  7. Syphilinum and Fluoric Acid: These are homeopathic prescriptions that can be used as a part of homeopathic treatment of osteoporosis where the pain occurs in the long bones and is more painful during the night.

  8. Sulfur: It is used for those patients of osteoporosis who have an arch in the spine and walk and sit in a stooping position.  

3611 people found this helpful

How Can Osteoporosis Be Prevented?

Dr. Rahul Nerlikar 85% (10 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics, M.Ch - Orthopaedics, FRCS, MBBS
Orthopedist, Pune
How Can Osteoporosis Be Prevented?

What is osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a disease concerning the bones. Decreased strength of the bones poses a risk for them to break. Osteoporosis is very common among older people, whose bones become brittle with age. The most common bones affected by this disease include the backbone, forearm bones and the hip bone. There are no such symptoms until a broken bone occurs. The bones weaken to such an extent that a break may happen in case of very minor stress. Usually, a broken bone is followed by chronic pain and the disability to perform daily activities. Surveys show that 15% of white people in their 50s and 70% of white people in their 80s are affected by osteoporosis.

What are the common causes and symptoms of osteoporosis?
- May occur due to the lowering of the "peak bone mass index".
- In women, bone loss increases after menopause stage due to lowering down of estrogen level.
- Also occurs because of another disease or previous treatments. This includes alcoholism, surgical ovary removal, hyperthyroidism, anorexia or any form of kidney disorder.
- Anti-seizure medicines, chemotherapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and taking of performance-enhancing drugs like steroid increase the bone loss rate.
- Lack of regular exercise may lead to osteoporosis.
- Osteoporosis is defined as a "bone density of 2.5 standard deviations below than that of a young adult".
- Osteoporosis is hereditary in nature. People having a family history of osteoporosis are at a high risk of getting the disease.
- More than thirty genes are linked with osteoporosis development.
- If you have had a fracture before, you are at a risk of a repeat.
- Early menopause in women is also responsible for osteoporosis.
- People with a small structure and body build are at a risk of getting osteoporosis.
- Protein and vitamin deficiency makes your bones weak and makes you vulnerable to osteoporosis.
- Phosphoric acid present in soft drinks is another threat, which may cause the disease.
- People suffering from malnutrition are likely to get osteoporosis.
- Over replacement of L-Thyroxine may lead to osteoporosis.
- Use of heparin and warfarin for a long time decreases the bone density.

How can Osteoporosis be prevented?
The best way to avoid getting osteoporosis in the future is to maintain a preventive lifestyle.
- Exercise regularly.
- Indulge in natural calcium sources.
- Maintain intake of Vitamin D and Vitamin K.
- Do not smoke and consume alcohol.
- Don't undertake stressful physical activities.
- Go for regular health checkups.
- Stay fit and stay away from obesity.

Osteoporosis is a disease you must stay away from. It leaves you physically incapable and unfit. Comment here for other questions on osteoporosis.

2510 people found this helpful

What Is Parathyroid Hormone And How Is It Beneficial For Osteoporosis?

Dr. Arindam Majumdar 88% (20 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Kolkata
What Is Parathyroid Hormone And How Is It Beneficial For Osteoporosis?

What is Osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a medical condition wherein the bone becomes fragile and breaks easily even with a minor fall. The bones of spine, wrists and hips get affected the most. These fractured bones lead to severe pain and can force a person to become immobile. A spine fracture can even lead to a loss of height.

What is parathyroid hormone?
Parathyroid is a naturally occurring hormone that regulates the amount of calcium present in the body. They mitigate the risk of bone breakage in the body for a patient suffering with osteoporosis. These hormones are injected into the body on a daily basis to maintain the normal flow of calcium in the body. Before initiating the procedure, one should check renal blood profile for safety of the patient.

How does the treatment work?
Treatments are available in the form of drugs and injections. A doctor can prescribe drugs, if the patient is at an increased rate of bone breakage. The parathyroid hormone helps to protect the bone from breaking, but have no role when the bone actually breaks. The body has a natural process of breaking a bone and rebuilding it by itself. Osteoporosis sets in motion when this process of bone formation is disturbed.

When does a doctor prescribe hormonal treatment?
If a patient has undergone a number of vertebral compression fractures and the condition has not improved, a doctor might suggest to undergo parathyroid hormone treatment. The treatment requires nursing support due to a patient’s delicate bone condition. A maximum dosage of 20 micro grams of parathyroid can be injected for a time duration not exceeding 2 years.

Things to know about the treatment:

  1. Be informed: It is good to be well informed about the course of the treatment, treatment duration, plausible problems etc. This will help a patient to be on top of the decision making process. The helpline of the 'National Osteoporosis Society' can be reached to understand the preparation required for a patient to undergo the treatment.
  2. Take the right dosage at the right time: Parathyroid injections should be injected on a daily basis for a maximum time period of 2 years. These injections are taken daily at the same time. It should be ensured that none of the injections are skipped without the prior approval of a doctor. The injection, which lasts for 28 days, needs to be stored in a refrigerator. In case a patient is travelling, special bags are available that has space for storing gel packs.
  3. Side effects: Most patients do not report any side effects, but they do exist. Possible side effects include dizziness, arthralgia, depression and headache. These symptoms often suggest that your body is reacting to the parathyroid hormone treatment. A doctor may or may not prescribe any further drugs to address these symptoms.
2266 people found this helpful

Know Risk Factors Of Osteopenia Or Osteoporosis!

Dr. Deepak Dalmia 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Kanpur
Know Risk Factors Of Osteopenia Or Osteoporosis!

Osteopenia is a medical condition that gradually causes thinning of bone mass. While the thinning mass is not considered as severe, the real danger looms when osteopenia aggravates to osteoporosis, resulting in a bone fracture. Osteopenia is mostly witnessed in people above the age of 50. The difference between the diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis lies in the measure of bone density.

Osteoporosis, on the other hand, is the loss of bone mass due to the deficiency of calcium, magnesium, vitamin D and other minerals and vitamins. Osteoporosis can lead to broken bones, height loss, acute pain and humpback. It is estimated that over 54 million people in the US suffer from osteoporosis.

Bone mineral density (BMD):
The calcium deposit in the bone is measured by the bone mineral density (BMD) test. This test rightly estimates the chances of bone fracture in a person. Furthermore, it helps a doctor to distinguish between osteopenia and osteoporosis. Being non-invasive in nature, this test can be performed anytime on areas such as hip, shin bone, spine etc. BMD can either be measured by plain radiographs or DEXA. The latter is a form of X-ray that has lesser exposure to radiation. Post the test, a score is given based on the calcium availability of the bones.

How is a BMD comprehended?
Every BMD result is evaluated in the form of T-score. The T-score is derived by comparing the result of the BMD with a normal person in the 30’s having the same race and sex. The difference of score between a healthy individual and a patient affected with osteoporosis or osteopenia is referred to as Standard Deviation. A patient with a T-score in the range of (-1SD) to (-2.5SD) is considered a prime candidate for osteopenia. A patient having a T-score lesser than -2.5SD is diagnosed with osteoporosis.

Risk factor for osteopenia or osteoporosis:
While not everyone runs the risk of getting either osteopenia or osteoporosis, there are certain risk factors attached to it:

  1. Gender: Women run a higher risk of getting affected with osteopenia or osteoporosis.
  2. Race: Women who belong from the Caucasian or Asian origin run a higher risk of getting these diseases.
  3. Age: Most people tend to get these diseases above the age of 50. Humans have a tendency of losing close to 0.5 percent of bone every year after a certain age.
  4. Family history: A person with a family history of osteopenia or osteoporosis has more than 50% chance of getting either osteopenia or osteoporosis.
  5. Lifestyle: Poor diet, excessive smoking, alcohol, lack of exercising etc. goes a long way in contributing towards these diseases.
4398 people found this helpful
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