Common Specialities
{{speciality.keyWord}}
Common Issues
{{issue.keyWord}}
Common Treatments
{{treatment.keyWord}}

Organ Transplant Rejection Prophylaxis Tips

Causes of Renal Transplant Rejection

Dr. Gaurav Bansal 91% (2206 ratings)
MBBS, MS-General Surgery , FMAS, FIAGES
General Surgeon, Gurgaon
Causes of Renal Transplant Rejection

Living with a renal transplant constantly exposes you to the risk of organ rejection. Although it might sound scary, it usually happens because the medication needs to be tuned according to the requirements of your body. A change in medication usually solves the problem of a possible rejection, and a rejection becomes less likely if it doesn't happen within a year of the transplant. Some obvious signs of rejection are a pain on the region of transplant, fever, change in weight or low urine discharge.

The causes behind a renal rejection vary on the basis of the type of rejection that takes place. Here are three different types of renal rejection and their causes:

  • Hyperacute Rejection - Hyperacute rejection occurs within 24 hours of the transplant. It can have an immediate effect and occurs as the existing antibodies act against the grafted material, causing irreversible destruction. The immune system may recognize it as a foreign body and destroy it. Hyperacute rejection is common for patients who have received multiple blood transfusions or have suffered from transplant rejection earlier. The tissue must be removed immediately before it becomes fatal for the recipient. This type of rejection can generally be avoided if the doctors type or match both the receiver and the organ donor. The organ is less likely to be rejected if there are similar antigens between donor and receiver.
  • Acute Rejection - Acute rejection generally occurs after the first week of transplantation. Acute rejection is common in most recipients. Since a perfect match of antigens is rare to find, except in the case of identical twins, some amount acute rejection occurs in the case of all recipients. It can cause complications like bleeding and inflammation. The risk of acute rejection is highest in the first three months of the transplant.
  • Chronic Rejection - Chronic rejection occurs months later after the transplantation. This happens over time when the immune system of the body reacts against the transplanted tissue and slowly damages the organ. In such a case, the kidneys can suffer from scarring or fibrosis and damaged blood vessels.

Tip: 5 Benefits of Lasik Surgery?

3558 people found this helpful

Renal Transplant Rejection: Types and Causes

MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Chennai
Renal Transplant Rejection: Types and Causes

Living with a renal transplant constantly exposes you to the risk of organ rejection. Although it might sound scary, it usually happens because the medication needs to be tuned according to the requirements of your body. A change in medication usually solves the problem of a possible rejection, and a rejection becomes less likely if it doesn't happen within a year of the transplant. Some obvious signs of rejection are a pain on the region of transplant, fever, change in weight or low urine discharge.

The causes behind a renal rejection vary on the basis of the type of rejection that takes place. Here are three different types of renal rejection and their causes:

  • Hyperacute Rejection - Hyperacute rejection occurs within 24 hours of the transplant. It can have an immediate effect and occurs as the existing antibodies act against the grafted material, causing irreversible destruction. The immune system may recognize it as a foreign body and destroy it. Hyperacute rejection is common for patients who have received multiple blood transfusions or have suffered from transplant rejection earlier. The tissue must be removed immediately before it becomes fatal for the recipient. This type of rejection can generally be avoided if the doctors type or match both the receiver and the organ donor. The organ is less likely to be rejected if there are similar antigens between donor and receiver.
  • Acute Rejection - Acute rejection generally occurs after the first week of transplantation. Acute rejection is common in most recipients. Since a perfect match of antigens is rare to find, except in the case of identical twins, some amount acute rejection occurs in the case of all recipients. It can cause complications like bleeding and inflammation. The risk of acute rejection is highest in the first three months of the transplant.
  • Chronic Rejection - Chronic rejection occurs months later after the transplantation. This happens over time when the immune system of the body reacts against the transplanted tissue and slowly damages the organ. In such a case, the kidneys can suffer from scarring or fibrosis and damaged blood vessels.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3030 people found this helpful

Renal Transplant: Three Types of Renal Rejection and Their Causes

Dr. Ashok Gupta 92% (5463 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Delhi
Renal Transplant: Three Types of Renal Rejection and Their Causes

Living with a renal transplant constantly exposes you to the risk of organ rejection. Although it might sound scary, it usually happens because the medication needs to be tuned according to the requirements of your body. A change in medication usually solves the problem of a possible rejection, and a rejection becomes less likely if it doesn't happen within a year of the transplant. Some obvious signs of rejection are a pain on the region of transplant, fever, change in weight or low urine discharge.

The causes behind a renal rejection vary on the basis of the type of rejection that takes place. Here are three different types of renal rejection and their causes:

  • Hyperacute Rejection - Hyperacute rejection occurs within 24 hours of the transplant. It can have an immediate effect and occurs as the existing antibodies act against the grafted material, causing irreversible destruction. The immune system may recognize it as a foreign body and destroy it. Hyperacute rejection is common for patients who have received multiple blood transfusions or have suffered from transplant rejection earlier. The tissue must be removed immediately before it becomes fatal for the recipient. This type of rejection can generally be avoided if the doctors type or match both the receiver and the organ donor. The organ is less likely to be rejected if there are similar antigens between donor and receiver.
  • Acute Rejection - Acute rejection generally occurs after the first week of transplantation. Acute rejection is common in most recipients. Since a perfect match of antigens is rare to find, except in the case of identical twins, some amount acute rejection occurs in the case of all recipients. It can cause complications like bleeding and inflammation. The risk of acute rejection is highest in the first three months of the transplant.
  • Chronic Rejection - Chronic rejection occurs months later after the transplantation. This happens over time when the immune system of the body reacts against the transplanted tissue and slowly damages the organ. In such a case, the kidneys can suffer from scarring or fibrosis and damaged blood vessels. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general surgeon.
3135 people found this helpful

What Is Post-exposure Prophylaxis?

Dr. Vinod Raina 88% (5801 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
What Is Post-exposure Prophylaxis?

What is post-exposure prophylaxis?

With PEP, an HIV-negative person who may have been exposed to HIV takes anti-HIV drugs prescribed by a doctor to prevent infection. These are the same drugs that people living with HIV take. PEP involves taking two or three of these drugs for a period of one month. To effectively reduce a person’s risk of becoming HIV-positive, PEP must be taken within 72 hours of possible exposure to HIV but ideally as early as possible.  

In the world of PEP, exposure to HIV is often divided into two categories: occupational exposure and non-occupational exposure. “Occupational” exposure refers to exposure to HIV at work, in a healthcare setting. For example, a healthcare provider could be exposed to HIV through a needlestick injury at work. “Non-occupational” exposure refers to exposure to HIV through sex or drug use, for example, when a person shares a needle or has sex without a condom.

What is the rationale for PEP?

In the first one to three days following exposure to HIV, there is a ‘window of opportunity’ when taking PEP might prevent an HIV infection from occurring.1 During this ‘window of opportunity,’ the virus is busy infecting cells at the site of exposure (such as in the anus, penis or vagina). Once the virus is inside a cell, it starts replicating to produce more HIV (also known as virions). After a few days, these new HIV virions start to spread throughout the body; once this happens, infection is permanent. The theory is that if PEP is given to a person early enough, it can stop the virus from replicating at the initial site of exposure, preventing virions from spreading throughout the body – stopping the infection from becoming permanent. The cells that initially became infected would eventually die out and the virus would not be able to replicate.   

What is the evidence on PEP?

There is some evidence that suggests that providing PEP after a potential exposure to HIV can help reduce a person’s risk of HIV infection. However, we also know that PEP is not 100% effective, meaning that it will not prevent all HIV infections.

Learn more about the evidence on PEP

What does someone need to know to access PEP?

People at risk need to know that PEP exists. If people are unaware of PEP, they won’t know that PEP is an option in the event of a high-risk behaviour that could result in being exposed to HIV. Very little research has been done to determine how many people are aware of PEP; however, based on the research that has been done, it seems that only a small proportion of gay and heterosexual men and women, even in cities with well-established PEP programs, are aware of PEP.9,10,11,12

People at risk need to know that time is of the essence. The later someone starts PEP, the less likely it is to prevent HIV infection. The best time to start PEP is immediately after exposure. However, PEP has some ability to prevent HIV infection up to 72 hours after infection.

People at risk need to know where to go. PEP must be prescribed by a doctor. Since time is of the essence, people need to be able to access services that are always open, such as emergency rooms. As a service provider, it may be important for you to know if there is a physician or healthcare facility in your area willing to prescribe PEP. If there isn’t, perhaps your organization can inform local clinicians of PEP and push for access to PEP for your clients.

Anyone accessing PEP will be tested for HIV. PEP is used to prevent HIV, not to treat it. People who go to a healthcare facility for PEP will be tested for HIV. They will still be prescribed PEP while the test results are pending; however, if the result is positive, PEP may either be discontinued or the anti-HIV drugs may be changed to HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) to treat the person’s HIV infection.

PEP can be costly and it may have to be paid for out of pocket. The cost of a full course of PEP is approximately $1100 to $1500. PEP may be covered by some private insurance plans and some public health insurance plans, depending on the province and the nature of the exposure. However, many at-risk individuals may not have access to any drug coverage and may not be able to afford it. There may be a need for advocacy in your area or province to fight for universal access to PEP.  

People on PEP may experience side effects. Depending on the anti-HIV drugs prescribed, people may experience side effects from PEP, such as fatigue, nausea or diarrhea. This can cause people to stop taking their PEP drugs as prescribed, which can decrease the ability of the medications to prevent HIV infection and increase the likelihood of being infected with a drug-resistant strain of HIV.

People on PEP have to be monitored by a doctor. Testing for toxicity will be required to make sure the drugs are not causing harm to the body. The type of tests may differ depending on the anti-HIV drugs that are prescribed but would likely include liver and kidney tests.

PEP can fail to prevent HIV infection if someone doesn’t take the anti-HIV drugs as prescribed. Taking the anti-HIV drugs exactly as prescribed (also known as adherence) is central to the success of PEP. If someone doesn’t take their PEP as prescribed, then HIV infection could occur. There are two issues with adherence:

Some people might start PEP but stop using it early (before the four weeks are over). In research studies 24% to 78% of people who started PEP stopped taking it early.13
Some people may not take their PEP exactly as prescribed. For example, some people may occasionally forget doses, or take only every second dose.  
Drug resistance can develop if a person doesn’t take the anti-HIV drugs as prescribed. If a person becomes HIV-positive due to non-adherence, they may develop drug resistance. When someone does not take PEP as prescribed, the amount of anti-HIV drugs in the blood can be too low to suppress the HIV, which can allow the virus to evolve and develop resistance. It is important to understand that infection with a drug-resistant strain of HIV limits a person’s future treatment options. If a person with a drug-resistant strain of HIV subsequently infects someone else with HIV, drug resistance spreads within the community.

Community agencies can provide adherence support for people on PEP by providing ongoing consultation and encouragement to help people take PEP exactly as prescribed and to complete their treatment.

PEP may fail to prevent HIV infection due to drug resistance. If a person is exposed to a drug-resistant strain of HIV and the person is prescribed the drug they are resistant to, as part of their PEP regime, then PEP may fail to prevent HIV infection. Unfortunately, there is no way to know within the first one to three days if someone has been exposed to drug-resistant HIV.
 

Pancreatic Transplantation

Dr. L.K. Jha 87% (687 ratings)
DM in Nephrology, MD in Internal Medicine, MBBS
Nephrologist, Ghaziabad
Pancreatic Transplantation

A pancreatic transplantation or pancreas transplantation refers to the surgical procedure, which involves replacing a dysfunctional pancreas with a healthy one.  The donor of the pancreas is usually a deceased person. Pancreas is an important organ of the body as it produces several important hormones, which play significant roles regulating in our body cycles. Pancreas transplantation is usually performed for the treatment of type 1 diabetes which is linked to the inability of the pancreas to produce the insulin hormone.

A pancreas transplant is considered as one of the potential cures for type 1 diabetes. However it is not considered to be a standard treatment due to complications, such as:

  1. Rejection of graft by the recipient body or similar complications
  2. The medications which are given to prevent the rejection can have serious side effects too
  3. Certain complications like blood clots or infections can occur following the procedure
  4. Failure to control the blood sugar levels and rejection of the graft or complete pancreatic failure are Common complications that occur after a pancreas transplant.

These are the primary reasons why pancreas transplant is often considered to be one of the last measures of treating diabetes. Nevertheless, there are certain conditions where a pancreas transplant is worth considering. Some of the conditions include diabetes which cannot be controlled with the usual treatment procedure, chronic poor blood sugar control, insulin reactions which turns chronic or a serious kidney disease.

Certain medications are also prescribed for anti rejection purposes. These medications need to be taken after the operation for the rest of your life to prevent rejection of the donor graft. These medications can have a few adverse side effects. Some of the side effects include hypertension, thinning of your bones, unwanted weight gain and a rise in your cholesterol levels. Swollen gums or acne are also observed in several cases.   

Often a pancreas transplant is carried out along with a kidney transplant, especially if you have a serious kidney condition. It helps to provide a healthy kidney and a pancreas and also reduces a risk of kidney damage caused due to diabetes later in the future.

type diabetes
4613 people found this helpful

Know More About Pancreatic Transplantation!

Dr. M K Gupta 88% (135 ratings)
MBBS, MS- General Surgery
General Surgeon, Ambala
Know More About Pancreatic Transplantation!

A pancreatic transplantation or pancreas transplantation refers to the surgical procedure, which involves replacing a dysfunctional pancreas with a healthy one.  The donor of the pancreas is usually a deceased person. Pancreas is an important organ of the body as it produces several important hormones, which play a significant role of regulating our body cycles. Pancreas transplantation is usually performed for the treatment of type 1 diabetes which is linked to the inability of the pancreas to produce the insulin hormone.

A pancreatic transplant is considered as one of the potential cures for type 1 diabetes. However it is not considered to be a standard treatment due to complications, such as:

  1. Rejection of graft by the recipient body or similar complications
  2. The medications which are given to prevent the rejection can have serious side effects too
  3. Certain complications like blood clots or infections can occur following the procedure
  4. Failure to control the blood sugar levels and rejection of the graft or complete pancreatic failure are Common complications that occur after a pancreas transplant.

These are the primary reasons why pancreas transplant is often considered to be one of the last measures of treating diabetes. Nevertheless, there are certain conditions where a pancreas transplant is worth considering. Some of the conditions include diabetes which cannot be controlled with the usual treatment procedure, chronic poor blood sugar control, insulin reactions which turns chronic or a serious kidney disease.


Certain medications are also prescribed for anti rejection purposes. These medications need to be taken after the operation for the rest of your life to prevent rejection of the donor graft. These medications can have a few adverse side effects. Some of the side effects include hypertension, thinning of your bones, unwanted weight gain and a rise in your cholesterol levels. Swollen gums or acne are also observed in several cases.   

Often a pancreas transplant is carried out along with a kidney transplant, especially if you have a serious kidney condition. It helps to provide a healthy kidney and a pancreas and also reduces a risk of kidney damage caused due to diabetes later in the future. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2966 people found this helpful

Pancreatic Transplantation - What To Know?

Dr. Sunil Prakash 91% (89 ratings)
FISN, FISPD, MD - General Medicine, MBBS, DM
Nephrologist, Delhi
Pancreatic Transplantation - What To Know?

A pancreatic transplantation or pancreas transplantation refers to the surgical procedure, which involves replacing a dysfunctional pancreas with a healthy one.  The donor of the pancreas is usually a deceased person. Pancreas is an important organ of the body as it produces several important hormones, which play significant roles regulating in our body cycles. Pancreas transplantation is usually performed for the treatment of type 1 diabetes which is linked to the inability of the pancreas to produce the insulin hormone.

A pancreas transplant is considered as one of the potential cures for type 1 diabetes. However it is not considered to be a standard treatment due to complications, such as:

  1. Rejection of graft by the recipient body or similar complications
  2. The medications which are given to prevent the rejection can have serious side effects too
  3. Certain complications like blood clots or infections can occur following the procedure
  4. Failure to control the blood sugar levels and rejection of the graft or complete pancreatic failure are Common complications that occur after a pancreas transplant.

These are the primary reasons why pancreas transplant is often considered to be one of the last measures of treating diabetes. Nevertheless, there are certain conditions where a pancreas transplant is worth considering. Some of the conditions include diabetes which cannot be controlled with the usual treatment procedure, chronic poor blood sugar control, insulin reactions which turns chronic or a serious kidney disease.

Certain medications are also prescribed for anti rejection purposes. These medications need to be taken after the operation for the rest of your life to prevent rejection of the donor graft. These medications can have a few adverse side effects. Some of the side effects include hypertension, thinning of your bones, unwanted weight gain and a rise in your cholesterol levels. Swollen gums or acne are also observed in several cases.   

Often a pancreas transplant is carried out along with a kidney transplant, especially if you have a serious kidney condition. It helps to provide a healthy kidney and a pancreas and also reduces a risk of kidney damage caused due to diabetes later in the future. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2884 people found this helpful

Heart Transplant - When Is It That You Have To Go For It?

MCH DNB (CTVS), Advanced fellowship, MS
Cardiologist, Delhi
Heart Transplant - When Is It That You Have To Go For It?

There are many people worldwide who suffer from heart problems (irrespective of their age and sex). While in most cases, the condition improves with proper treatment and medications, in few, the condition is beyond treatment. A heart transplant comes as a savior for such people. It gives them a new lease of life. The transplant involves replacing a heart that has stopped functioning normally (damaged or may be diseased) with a healthy heart (from the donor).

Over the years, heart transplant has undergone a sea of change. With the advancement of science and technology, the success rate in a heart transplant has seen an exponential rise.

People who need a heart transplant:
A heart transplant may be essential in the following cases.

  • A congenital heart disorder (a person born with a heart problem).
  • Defective or diseased heart valves.
  • Amyloidosis (a condition where amyloid fibrils get deposed in the tissues and organs of the body intracellularly or extracellularly).
  • Problems in the coronary artery.
  • Cardiomyopathy (A condition where the muscles of the heart become weak, thereby affecting the normal functioning of the heart).
  • A heart transplant that failed previously.
  • Ventricular Arrhythmias (a condition that originates in the ventricles, in ventricular arrhythmias, the heart rhythms are abnormally rapid).


However, under the following circumstances, a heart transplant may not be a wise idea

  • People with infections or chronic lung or kidney disorders.
  • A case of cancer in the past.
  • Age may be a deciding factor.The recovery from a heart transplant may not be 100% in an aged person.

The heart transplant procedure:
The first step in heart transplant is the availability of a suitable donor. In this case, a donor is a person whose brain is dead but the other organs, including the heart, is healthy and functioning properly. A surgeon performs three operations in a heart transplant.

  • The first operation is essentially the removal of the healthy heart from the donor body. The heart is kept in a cool place, preferably ice (to keep the heart alive and in good condition until the heart transplant takes place).
  • In the second operation, the recipient's damaged or diseased heart is operated out.The situation may, however, be complicated if the patient had a heart surgery in the past.
  • The third and the final surgery involves implanting the donor heart into the recipient body (the recipient's upper heart chambers and the atrial back wall are however not removed).
  • Once the implantation takes place (without any complications), the surgeons sew the heart into place.
  • The blood vessels are then connected back to the heart and the lungs. The heart starts beating again once it is warmed up.
  • To enable the patient to receive the nutrients and oxygen (during the heart transplant), the patient is put on a heart-lung machine.
  • If no complications develop after the transplant, the patient is discharged within a fortnight.

In some unfortunate cases, there may be organ rejection. The condition arises when the recipient's immune cells see the transplanted heart as non-self (foreign agents). If left unattended, it may damage the heart. Immunosuppressant drugs can help avert the rejection. However, it is important to monitor the patient closely for any infections that may arise to the administration of the immunosuppressants. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cardiologist.

2589 people found this helpful

Heart Transplant - When Is The Right Time

Dr. Amar Nath Shaw 87% (10 ratings)
MCh (CTVS)
Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery, Patna
Heart Transplant - When Is The Right Time

There are many people worldwide who suffer from heart problems (irrespective of their age and sex). While in most cases, the condition improves with proper treatment and medications, in few, the condition is beyond treatment. A heart transplant comes as a savior for such people. It gives them a new lease of life. The transplant involves replacing a heart that has stopped functioning normally (damaged or may be diseased) with a healthy heart (from the donor).

Over the years, heart transplant has undergone a sea of change. With the advancement of science and technology, the success rate in a heart transplant has seen an exponential rise.

People who need a heart transplant:
A heart transplant may be essential in the following cases.

  • A congenital heart disorder (a person born with a heart problem).
  • Defective or diseased heart valves.
  • Amyloidosis (a condition where amyloid fibrils get deposed in the tissues and organs of the body intracellularly or extracellularly).
  • Problems in the coronary artery.
  • Cardiomyopathy (A condition where the muscles of the heart become weak, thereby affecting the normal functioning of the heart).
  • A heart transplant that failed previously.
  • Ventricular Arrhythmias (a condition that originates in the ventricles, in ventricular arrhythmias, the heart rhythms are abnormally rapid).

However, under the following circumstances, a heart transplant may not be a wise idea

  • People with infections or chronic lung or kidney disorders.
  • A case of cancer in the past.
  • Age may be a deciding factor.The recovery from a heart transplant may not be 100% in an aged person.

The heart transplant procedure:

The first step in heart transplant is the availability of a suitable donor. In this case, a donor is a person whose brain is dead but the other organs, including the heart, is healthy and functioning properly. A surgeon performs three operations in a heart transplant.

  • The first operation is essentially the removal of the healthy heart from the donor body. The heart is kept in a cool place, preferably ice (to keep the heart alive and in good condition until the heart transplant takes place).
  • In the second operation, the recipient's damaged or diseased heart is operated out.The situation may, however, be complicated if the patient had a heart surgery in the past.
  • The third and the final surgery involves implanting the donor heart into the recipient body (the recipient's upper heart chambers and the atrial back wall are however not removed).
  • Once the implantation takes place (without any complications), the surgeons sew the heart into place.
  • The blood vessels are then connected back to the heart and the lungs. The heart starts beating again once it is warmed up.
  • To enable the patient to receive the nutrients and oxygen (during the heart transplant), the patient is put on a heart-lung machine.
  • If no complications develop after the transplant, the patient is discharged within a fortnight.

In some unfortunate cases, there may be organ rejection. The condition arises when the recipient's immune cells see the transplanted heart as non-self (foreign agents). If left unattended, it may damage the heart. Immunosuppressant drugs can help avert the rejection. However, it is important to monitor the patient closely for any infections that may arise to the administration of the immunosuppressants.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4791 people found this helpful

Why Do People Need A Heart Transplant?

Dr. Gaurav Minocha 90% (622 ratings)
DM - Cardiology, MD, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Cardiologist, Ghaziabad
Why Do People Need A Heart Transplant?

There are many people worldwide who suffer from heart problems (irrespective of their age and sex). While in most cases, the condition improves with proper treatment and medications, in few, the condition is beyond treatment. A heart transplant comes as a savior for such people. It gives them a new lease of life. The transplant involves replacing a heart that has stopped functioning normally (damaged or may be diseased) with a healthy heart (from the donor).

Over the years, heart transplant has undergone a sea of change. With the advancement of science and technology, the success rate in a heart transplant has seen an exponential rise.

People who need a heart transplant:
A heart transplant may be essential in the following cases.

  • A congenital heart disorder (a person born with a heart problem).
  • Defective or diseased heart valves.
  • Amyloidosis (a condition where amyloid fibrils get deposed in the tissues and organs of the body intracellularly or extracellularly).
  • Problems in the coronary artery.
  • Cardiomyopathy (A condition where the muscles of the heart become weak, thereby affecting the normal functioning of the heart).
  • A heart transplant that failed previously.
  • Ventricular Arrhythmias (a condition that originates in the ventricles, in ventricular arrhythmias, the heart rhythms are abnormally rapid).


However, under the following circumstances, a heart transplant may not be a wise idea

  • People with infections or chronic lung or kidney disorders.
  • A case of cancer in the past.
  • Age may be a deciding factor.The recovery from a heart transplant may not be 100% in an aged person.

The heart transplant procedure:
The first step in heart transplant is the availability of a suitable donor. In this case, a donor is a person whose brain is dead but the other organs, including the heart, is healthy and functioning properly. A surgeon performs three operations in a heart transplant.

  • The first operation is essentially the removal of the healthy heart from the donor body. The heart is kept in a cool place, preferably ice (to keep the heart alive and in good condition until the heart transplant takes place).
  • In the second operation, the recipient's damaged or diseased heart is operated out.The situation may, however, be complicated if the patient had a heart surgery in the past.
  • The third and the final surgery involves implanting the donor heart into the recipient body (the recipient's upper heart chambers and the atrial back wall are however not removed).
  • Once the implantation takes place (without any complications), the surgeons sew the heart into place.
  • The blood vessels are then connected back to the heart and the lungs. The heart starts beating again once it is warmed up.
  • To enable the patient to receive the nutrients and oxygen (during the heart transplant), the patient is put on a heart-lung machine.
  • If no complications develop after the transplant, the patient is discharged within a fortnight.

In some unfortunate cases, there may be organ rejection. The condition arises when the recipient's immune cells see the transplanted heart as non-self (foreign agents). If left unattended, it may damage the heart. Immunosuppressant drugs can help avert the rejection. However, it is important to monitor the patient closely for any infections that may arise to the administration of the immunosuppressants. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2675 people found this helpful
Icon

Book appointment with top doctors for Organ Transplant Rejection Prophylaxis treatment

View fees, clinic timings and reviews