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Ocular Albinism Tips

Ocular Health - 5 Ways You Can Maintain It!

Dr. Shashi Shekhar 91% (306 ratings)
DOMS(gold Medal);guru Nanak Eye Centre;University Of Delhi, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
Ocular Health - 5 Ways You Can Maintain It!

Your eyes are one of the most significant of all the sense organs since it allows you to see things around you. It is essential to take good care of your eyes. But, many lack an awareness on ocular care. Read on to know a few lifestyle habits that will help in maintaining a good ocular hygiene thus ensuring normal vision.

Ensure your ocular hygiene with these healthy lifestyle habits

  1. Balanced diet: Eating right and maintaining a healthy diet does not just go for your overall health but your eye health as well. While carrots are good for your health, eating fresh fruits and green leafy vegetables offer the minerals and nutrients necessary for maintaining healthy eyesight. Dark leafy vegetables such as spinach or kale are especially good for eye health. Moreover, eating fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as tuna or salmon is very beneficial for maintaining proper eyesight.
  2. Right body weight: Body weight is indirectly related to eye health. An individual must maintain proper body weight since being overweight leads to health problems like diabetes and blood pressure. A person with diabetes is at risk of deteriorating eye sight caused by diabetic eye disease or glaucoma. If you have problems with weight maintenance, consult a health expert and seek professional guidance.
  3. Ocular hygiene: Maintaining ocular hygiene has become very important these days. Due to the level of pollution and germs around us, certain preventive measures need to be taken to prevent eye infections. People who play sports or perform other physical activities should wear protective eyewear. Wear safety goggles while swimming and make sure you wear polycarbonate eye gear if you play sports such as squash. These lenses are 10 times stronger than usual plastic and are available in protective eyewear stores as well as sporting goods stores.
  4. Quit smoking: Never take up smoking and if you already have then you better quit it as soon as possible. Just like for the rest of your body, smoking is very harmful to your eyesight as well. Research has proven that smoking causes severe macular degeneration, cataract and optic nerve damage in aging people. Over time, this can lead to permanent blindness.
  5. Protect your eyes: Sunglasses are not just meant for style, they also protect your eyes from harmful UV rays. While purchasing sunglasses, make sure the ones you purchase block out 99-100% UV-A and UV-B rays. Moreover, it is vital to give your eyes rest. If you work on the computer or watch TV, it is advised to look away from the screen for around 20 seconds in every 20 minute time interval. It is vital to get sufficient sleep as well.

Most of these tips may sound simple, but they are highly effective and can help avoid eye problems completely. And don’t forget to get your routine eye check-up done as well. All that is required is to incorporate these basic lifestyle changes to protect the amazing part of your body, your eyes. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ophthalmologist.

2683 people found this helpful

Dr. Ram Nath 86% (212 ratings)
MD - Ophthalmology, MBBS
Ophthalmologist, Delhi
Ocular Albinism


Ocular albinism in an inherited condition in which the eyes lack melanin pigment, while the skin and hair show normal or near-normal coloration.

The lack of pigment in the eyes causes various vision problems:

Reduced visual acuity from 20/60 to 20/400 and sometimes as good as 20/25 in African-Americans, Nystagmus - involuntary back-and-forth movement of the eyes, Strabismus - crossed eyes or "lazy" eye, and Sensitivity to bright light and glare. 

The reduced visual acuity may result in difficulty in school, such as inability to read what is written on a chalkboard except when very close, and difficulty with ball sports. It may also result in inability to drive.

With ocular albinism, the color of the iris of the eye may vary from blue to green or even brown, and sometimes darkens with age. However, when an eye doctor examines the eye by shining a light from the side of the eye, the light shines back through the iris since very little pigment is present. There may be areas of the iris which have very little pigment.

The main problem with the eye in ocular albinism is in the fovea, small area of the retina which affords acute vision. With ocular albinism, the fovea does not develop completely, presumably because melanin pigment is needed for the growth processes that normally occur before birth. Therefore the eye cannot process sharp light images. Because the fovea does not develop well, it is difficult to correct vision completely with glasses.
Ocular albinism is more severe form of condition than oculo - cutaneous albinism where eyes are mildly affected.


Skin Pigmentation

Dr. Ravindra Dargainya 86% (46 ratings)
MBBS, DDV
Dermatologist, Mumbai
Skin Pigmentation

Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of skin. Others affect your entire body.

If your body makes too much melanin, your skin gets darker. Pregnancy, Addison's disease, and sun exposure all can make your skin darker. If your body makes too little melanin, your skin gets lighter. Vitiligo is a condition that causes patches of light skin. Albinism is a genetic condition affecting a person's skin. A person with albinism may have no color, lighter than normal skin color, or patchy missing skin color. Infections, blisters and burns can also cause lighter skin.

4 people found this helpful

Zika virus infection and symptoms

Dr. Aanand J 96% (23510 ratings)
Advanced Aesthetics
Ayurveda, Gulbarga
Zika virus infection and symptoms

Symptoms of zika virus infection

  •  Low-grade fever (between 37.8°c and 38.5°c)
  •  Arthralgia, notably of small joints of hands and feet, with possible swollen joints.
  •  Myalgia.
  •  Headache, retro-ocular headaches.
  •  Conjunctivitis.
  •  Cutaneous maculopapular rash.
  •  Post-infection asthenia which seems to be frequent.

Red Eyes - Common Reasons Behind Them!

Dr. Amit Solanki 88% (20 ratings)
FAECS, DNB Ophtalmology, DO Ophthalmology, Fellowship In Phacoemulsification & Refractive Surgery
Ophthalmologist, Indore
Red Eyes - Common Reasons Behind Them!

Red or bloodshot eyes occur when there is a dilation of the blood vessels on the white part of the eye, also called as sclera. One or both the eyes can experience redness which can be accompanied by itching, pain in the yes, eye-discharge, swelling in the eye and other symptoms.

Red eye is related to 

  1. Subconjunctival haemorrhage- when one or more blood vessels on the sclera burst open
  2. Blephartis- a condition of inflamed eyelids
  3. When there is a red bump on the eye lid (Stye)
  4. Sometimes, using contact lenses also causes red-eye effect

Red eye appears because of several reasons such as;

  1. Conjunctivitis
  2. Allergy to dust
  3. Tiredness of the eyes
  4. Over wearing of contact lenses

Sometimes, red eye happens because of more serious diseases such as glaucoma or uveitis.

What causes red-eye

  1. Cornea ulcerIf there is an untreated eye-wound then it might degenerate into a cornea ulcer. This medical condition is accompanied by eye pain, eye discharge and reduced vision. Corneal ulcers are life threatening so rush to a doctor if you suspect you are suffering from this disease.
  2. Ocular herpes: Caused by Type1 herpes simplex virus, this disease is viral in nature. Symptoms include sensitivity to light, eye pain, eye discharge, eye redness and swollen eyes. If left untreated, ocular herpes may lead to scarring of the cornea and partial blindness. In such cases, a corneal transplant may be needed.
  3. Uveitis: This medical condition refers to the inflammation of the middle layer of the eye. Unless treated in time, this may lead to cataract, detached retina, high ocular pressure and later a permanent loss of vision. Uveitis may be caused by eye infections, trauma or a systemic auto-immune disorder.
  4. Glaucoma: One of the main reasons behind red-eye is this medical condition. There is an increased pressure in the aqueous humor on the sclera in this condition and this leads to glaucoma. If you have a red-eye, are over 40 and have diabetes, then you must consult your doctor for treatment of glaucoma.
  5. Cold and fluOne of the most common reasons behind having a red-eye are cold and red flu. Infected and blocked sinuses are the underlying causes behind puffy and bloodshot eyes.
  6. PregnancyDuring pregnancy, there are changes in the hormonal levels and these lead to red and puffy eyes.
  7. Smoking and drinking: Did you know drinking also causes red eyes? That is so because alcohol in your bloodstream reduces the oxygen content in the blood vessels. As a result, they clump together and the eyes sport a red look for want of oxygen. Smoking also causes red eyes because the toxic smoke irritates the eyes.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2675 people found this helpful

How Homeopathy Helps Manage Hyperpigmentation And Hypopigmentation?

BHMS
Homeopath, Bangalore
How Homeopathy Helps Manage Hyperpigmentation And Hypopigmentation?

Hyperpigmentation and skin

Hyperpigmentation in skin is caused by an increase in melanin, the substance in the body that is responsible for color (pigment). Certain conditions, such as pregnancy or addison's disease (decreased function of the adrenal gland), may cause a greater production of melanin and hyperpigmentation. Exposure to sunlight is a major cause of hyperpigmentaion, and will darken already hyperpigmented areas.
Hypopigmentation and skin

Hypopigmentation in skin is the result of a reduction in melanin production. Examples of hypopigmentation include:

Vitiligo: vitiligo causes smooth, white patches on the skin. In some people, these patches can appear all over the body. It is an autoimmune disease in which the pigment-producing cells are damaged. There is no cure for vitiligo, but there are several treatments, including cosmetic cover-ups, corticosteroid creams, or ultraviolet light treatments.
Albinism: albinism is a rare inherited disorder caused by the absence of an enzyme that produces melanin. This results in a complete lack of pigmentation in skin, hair, and eyes albinos have an abnormal gene that restricts the body from producing melanin. There is no cure for albinism. People with albinism should use a sunscreen at all times because they are much more likely to get sun damage and skin cancer. This disorder can occur in any race, but is most common among whites. Pigmentation loss as a result of skin damage: if you've had a skin infection, blisters, burns, or other trauma to your skin, you may have a loss of pigmentation in the affected area. The good news with this type of pigment loss is that it's frequently not permanent, but it may take a long time to re-pigment. Homeopathic medicines can be used to cover the area, while the body regenerates the pigments For permanent results constitutional homeopathy is the best solution.

 

6 people found this helpful

Discolored Skin - What to Expect?

Dr. Anand Bhatia 88% (109 ratings)
Fellowship In Aesthetic Medicine |, MBBS
Dermatologist, Mumbai
Discolored Skin - What to Expect?

Injury, lingering infirmity deprives the body of the nutrients which are necessary for healthy skin, inflammatory diseases, several hours of heat and sun exposure or contact with sun can all cause discolored skin. If Melanin (whichever of the diverse black, dark brown, auburn, or yellow color of living things as skin color or hair color and eye color) is produced in abundance due to some physiological imbalances, it can result in that area of the body to get darker than the rest.

On the other hand, if there is a decrease in Melanin production then you could get lighter skin patches known as Vitiligo . While most pigmentation anomaly entails patches of skin, others affect the entire body. Depending on the two different conditions the terms hyper-pigmentation (excessive) and hypo-pigmentation (moderate) have been coined. Most women face problems of hyper-pigmentation during pregnancy and after child birth due to over secretion of hormones. 'Mask of pregnancy' is a new age term given to this condition in pregnant women. Most cases are reversible; some might last an entire lifetime, if medical attention is not available at the right time. Hypo-pigmentation should not be mistaken with Albinism, which is a genetic condition.

Albinism is characterized by almost no secretion of melanin. Staying out for very long hours in the sun may cause sunburns, when the skin turns brown or red according to one’s color, once this condition heals (after most of the burnt or dead skin peels off), the tanned portions may remain. Fungal contamination such as ringworm may set off stained skin patches. A compromised immune system can result in discolored skin as well. A frequent allergy that causes skin to get discolored is eczema. Birthmarks are also a kind of discolored skin.

It is wise for you to visit a dermatologist when you start noticing a sudden change in your skin color for no apparent reason, a patch that does not get relieved by OTC medicines or experience a burning or itching sensation on the skin etc. A dermatologist after evaluating your skin and putting you through a couple of basic questions would recommend ointments and oral medicines. He/she may also ask for blood tests to get done. Treatment would solely depend on the primary cause.

Treatment and prevention

  1. In general, most skin discoloration issues can be dealt with the help of creams containing glycolic acid, hydroquinone, lactic acid and retinoid. These are easily available in the market.
  2. But care must be taken to not expose yourself to the harmful UV rays of the sun. A sunscreen with the correct SPF count is a must before you venture outdoors. Remember that one should not skip the sunscreen even during the winters.
  3. Laser therapy and chemical peels will only be considered once topical treatment fails.
  4. Your diet should include plenty of vegetables and fruits; consume plenty of fluids to flush out toxins. Regular exercising promotes better blood circulation that helps prevent such issues concerning discoloration.

Supplements of Vitamins A, C and E are also prescribed in combination with Vitamin B to improve the overall skin condition. Simple home remedies including lime juice, milk, curd and honey applied on the affected spots with homemade scrubs can help remedy the issue. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.

2670 people found this helpful

Skin Discoloration - What to Expect?

Dr. V.Sethu Raman 88% (211 ratings)
MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy, MBBS
Dermatologist, Chennai
Skin Discoloration - What to Expect?

Injury, lingering infirmity deprives the body of the nutrients which are necessary for healthy skin, inflammatory diseases, several hours of heat and sun exposure or contact with sun can all cause discolored skin. If Melanin (whichever of the diverse black, dark brown, auburn, or yellow color of living things as skin color or hair color and eye color) is produced in abundance due to some physiological imbalances, it can result in that area of the body to get darker than the rest.

On the other hand, if there is a decrease in Melanin production then you could get lighter skin patches known as Vitiligo . While most pigmentation anomaly entails patches of skin, others affect the entire body. Depending on the two different conditions the terms hyper-pigmentation (excessive) and hypo-pigmentation (moderate) have been coined. Most women face problems of hyper-pigmentation during pregnancy and after child birth due to over secretion of hormones. 'Mask of pregnancy' is a new age term given to this condition in pregnant women. Most cases are reversible; some might last an entire lifetime, if medical attention is not available at the right time. Hypo-pigmentation should not be mistaken with Albinism, which is a genetic condition.

Albinism is characterized by almost no secretion of melanin. Staying out for very long hours in the sun may cause sunburns, when the skin turns brown or red according to one’s color, once this condition heals (after most of the burnt or dead skin peels off), the tanned portions may remain. Fungal contamination such as ringworm may set off stained skin patches. A compromised immune system can result in discolored skin as well. A frequent allergy that causes skin to get discolored is eczema. Birthmarks are also a kind of discolored skin.

It is wise for you to visit a dermatologist when you start noticing a sudden change in your skin color for no apparent reason, a patch that does not get relieved by OTC medicines or experience a burning or itching sensation on the skin etc. A dermatologist after evaluating your skin and putting you through a couple of basic questions would recommend ointments and oral medicines. He/she may also ask for blood tests to get done. Treatment would solely depend on the primary cause.

Treatment and prevention

  1. In general, most skin discoloration issues can be dealt with the help of creams containing glycolic acid, hydroquinone, lactic acid and retinoid. These are easily available in the market.
  2. But care must be taken to not expose yourself to the harmful UV rays of the sun. A sunscreen with the correct SPF count is a must before you venture outdoors. Remember that one should not skip the sunscreen even during the winters.
  3. Laser therapy and chemical peels will only be considered once topical treatment fails.
  4. Your diet should include plenty of vegetables and fruits; consume plenty of fluids to flush out toxins. Regular exercising promotes better blood circulation that helps prevent such issues concerning discoloration.

Supplements of Vitamins A,C and E are also prescribed in combination with Vitamin B to improve the overall skin condition. Simple home remedies including lime juice, milk, curd and honey applied on the affected spots with homemade scrubs can help remedy the issue. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dermatologist.

2435 people found this helpful

Pre-surgery Testing - Know The Importance!

Dr. Harshavardhan Ghorpade 92% (37 ratings)
MBBS, MS
Ophthalmologist, Navi Mumbai
Pre-surgery Testing - Know The Importance!

Any patient who needs to undergo cataract surgery must be evaluated in a thorough manner so as to establish the requirement, appropriateness, expected surgical problems, expected benefits and co-morbid conditions having an influence on cataract surgery.

The preoperative assessment consists of--

A test for your existing glasses prescription:

It is useful for your cataract surgeon to know your existing glasses prescription in cases where there is a high refractive error (people who are very short or long sighted), in order to plan to correct this error after cataract surgery.

A full ocular examination: This includes looking at-

  • The eyelid anatomy and inflammation.
  • The state of the tear film, dry eye changes could make surgery difficult
  • The presence of abnormalities in the cornea that could make visualisation of the cataract difficult during surgery.
  • The amount of dilation the iris undergoes with dilating drops.

The type of cataract. Soft cataracts can be aspirated. Hard cataracts need more ultra-sound energy and surgical time to break up and remove. White cataracts may need trypan blue staining to visualize the capsule.

The measurement of intra-ocular pressure. With this test, we aim to exclude glaucoma and ensure optimal control of immediate pre-operative and intra-operative eye pressures often with extra eye drops that temporarily lower eye pressure.

Biometry Tests

This is a simple pre-operative measurement. It calculates the correct power of artificial intra-ocular lens. They will be implanted into your eye once your cataract is removed.

Corneal Topography

This is a test to map out the corneal curvature in greater detail. It is used prior to premium IOL Implantation like Toric IOLS either monofocal or multifocal , to ensure avoid postoperative refractive errors. This extra test is only required if the biometry readings show larger than normal differences in keratometry readings.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

This test allows detailed visualisation of the macula (the central sensitive part of the retina used for fine vision). If the ophthalmologist suspects any macula changes that may prevent a patient from visual improvement after cataract surgery, he always suggest optical coherence tomography.

Blood Pressure Measurements

It is very important to know your blood pressure measurements before your cataract operation. The risk of having a bleed at the back of your eye during cataract surgery (supra-choroidal haemorrhage) is very small (1 in 10000). But is higher if you have uncontrolled blood pressure.

Blood Sugar Measurements in Diabetic Patients

Cataract surgery itself does not affect your blood sugar measurements if you are diabetic. A routine checkup of blood sugars in diabetics before cataract surgery is done and the surgery if often delayed if the levels were greater than 20mmol/L as the risk of post-operative infection is higher. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4340 people found this helpful

The Importance of Pre-Surgery Testing

Dr. Minal Kaur 89% (358 ratings)
DNB Ophtalmology, MS - Ophthalmology, MBBS, Fellowship in Medical Retina, Fellowship in IOL & Cataract Microsurgery
Ophthalmologist, Faridabad
The Importance of Pre-Surgery Testing

Any patient who needs to undergo cataract surgery must be evaluated in a thorough manner so as to establish the requirement, appropriateness, expected surgical problems, expected benefits and co-morbid conditions having an influence on cataract surgery.

The preoperative assessment consists of -

A test for your existing glasses prescription:

It is useful for your cataract surgeon to know your existing glasses prescription in cases where there is a high refractive error (people who are very short or long sighted), in order to plan to correct this error after cataract surgery.

A full ocular examination: This includes looking at:

  • The eyelid anatomy and inflammation.
  • The state of the tear film, dry eye changes could make surgery difficult
  • The presence of abnormalities in the cornea that could make visualisation of the cataract difficult during surgery.
  • The amount of dilation the iris undergoes with dilating drops.
  • The type of cataract. Soft cataracts can be aspirated. Hard cataracts need more ultra-sound energy and surgical time to break up and remove. White cataracts may need trypan blue staining to visualize the capsule
  • The measurement of intra-ocular pressure. With this test, we aim to exclude glaucoma and ensure optimal control of immediate pre-operative and intra-operative eye pressures often with extra eye drops that temporarily lower eye pressure.

Biometry Tests: This is a simple pre-operative measurement. It calculates the correct power of artificial intra-ocular lens. They will be implanted into your eye once your cataract is removed.

Corneal Topography: This is a test to map out the corneal curvature in greater detail. It is used prior to premium IOL Implantation like Toric IOLS either monofocal or multifocal , to ensure avoid postoperative refractive errors. This extra test is only required if the biometry readings show larger than normal differences in keratometry readings.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): This test allows detailed visualisation of the macula (the central sensitive part of the retina used for fine vision). If the ophthalmologist suspects any macula changes that may prevent a patient from visual improvement after cataract surgery, he always suggest optical coherence tomography.

Blood Pressure Measurements: It is very important to know your blood pressure measurements before your cataract operation. The risk of having a bleed at the back of your eye during cataract surgery (supra-choroidal haemorrhage) is very small (1 in 10000). But is higher if you have uncontrolled blood pressure.

Blood Sugar Measurements in Diabetic Patients: Cataract surgery itself does not affect your blood sugar measurements if you are diabetic. A routine checkup of blood sugars in diabetics before cataract surgery is done and the surgery if often delayed if the levels were greater than 20mmol/L as the risk of post-operative infection is higher.

2590 people found this helpful
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