Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a potentially life-threatening condition that causes a steep drop in blood pressure, resulting in deprivation of oxygen to the organs, which in severe cases leads to death. This disease has been associated with menstruating women who use superabsorbent tampons. It was first recognized in the 1970s and 80s when women using tampons of certain brands were affected by this syndrome and those brands were immediately taken off the market. This disease primarily affects tampon wearers and harmful effects of cervical caps, diaphragms, and menstrual sponges have surfaced.
New mothers are susceptible to TSS as well as those who are recovering from a surgery, are wounded or are using prosthetics. It is important to know about its symptoms so that you can identify the disease and seek professional help at the earliest.
Warning signs of TSS include:
An overgrowth of bacteria called staphylococcus aureus (staph) causes this disease. It can be found primarily in female bodies. This is one of the many staph bacteria that lead to skin infections in burn victims and patients recovering from surgical wounds. Group a streptococcus (strep) bacteria is another cause of this syndrome.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Sodium deficiency or hyponatraemia refers to the low sodium concentration in the body of an individual. As other minerals, Sodium also plays essential roles in the human body. It is required for many of the functions of the body, including blood pressure management, fluid balance and the proper functioning of the nervous system. It may also sometimes lead to neurological impairments which affect walking and attention and could also result in bone fracture. Hyponatremia can be caused due to drinking too much of water, without enough replacement of sodium from the body. However, consuming too much of sodium can increase the volume of blood in the body, resulting in various health problems and can sometimes lead a person to coma.
The symptoms of sodium deficiency or hyponatraemia aren’t usually always specific. They can differ from person to person and depend on how rapid the fall in the sodium concentration of the body is. However, some of the common symptoms that are usually seen in the affected persons are as follows:
The severity of these symptoms depends on the speed i.e., on how fast the fall in the blood salt level is. A gradual, low-level drop can be tolerated if it lasts for a few days or weeks, but the deficiency of sodium in the body can be fatal if not treated as early as possible. It may even lead to the death of a person.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
We all know about magnesium as a mineral, but what most individuals do not know is the fact that it is a very important mineral for our bodily health. Magnesium is involved with more or less 300 complex metabolic processes in our body, thus earning the title of ‘master mineral’.
Here is a list of reasons why magnesium holds an important place in our body.
It is responsible for transportation of calcium across cell membranes. As such, it helps calcium get into the bone matter. Like we all know, magnesium is anti-inflammatory. It helps in waiving conditions mentioned below:
So magnesium deficiency can definitely cause numerous problems in the human body. This element works in our body at a cellular level. It is important to have a check up done with the doctor to ensure the magnesium level, however, a simple a blood test cannot determine the presence or absence of it. Here are a few signs that might suggest that an individual is suffering from magnesium deficiency.
Although individuals with magnesium deficiency suffer from these symptoms, it is not necessary that any individual suffering from such symptoms might have magnesium deficiency. So, the only way to improve magnesium amount in the body is by changing your diet and including magnesium rich foods or my supplementing your food with magnesium-based food products.
Magnesium overdose is close to impossible and so many would not check their magnesium intake. However, consuming too much of anything can never be a good idea. Excessive magnesium intake might end up causing the following issues:
This excess amount of magnesium in the body might be due to the fact that not all supplements can be easily absorbed by the body. So it is a better idea to eat inexpensive food to keep the magnesium levels at par with the bodily requirements.
Here is a list of items that can relieve the deficiency symptoms of low magnesium.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is characterized by periodic bouts of nausea and vomiting that happens at cyclical intervals. It affects all ages, but is more common in children. The condition is quite stereotypical in that there are paroxysms or bouts of vomiting that is recurrent and follows days of normal health.
Causes: There is no definite reason identified, but it is said to have a strong hereditary correlation. Studies have shown mitochondrial heteroplasmic (abnormal growth of mitochondria, which is a cellular component) to be one of the factors that can lead to CVS. The genetic correlation, however, is very difficult to establish, specifically because vomiting and nausea are common symptoms that occur with most conditions in children. And CVS is most commonly noted with conditions like infections and emotional excitement. Infection could be either tooth decay or sinusitis or anything else. Lack of sleep, anxiety, holidays, allergies, overeating, certain foods, menstruation - a host of factors have been shown to induce CVS. There is also a strong association with migraine and conditions that lead to excessive production of stress hormones.
Symptoms: The syndrome (a group of symptoms) usually has 4 phases:
Treatment: Treatment again depends on the severity and the phase at which it is being recognized. If a child has repetitive bouts, then the parent and the doctor would have identified a pattern to it.
However, in most cases of childhood CSV, the pattern will be identified and that helps in better management, both the child/parent and the podiatrist.
At times, being pregnant may make you feel as if it is a full-time job. This causes even more problems when you actually have a full-time job, especially jobs that require you to be seated at a desk or to be pleasant with your clients even when you don’t feel like. But thankfully, there are tips on how you can handle the major issues that you may face at your workplace during your pregnancy.
When to make the announcement?
Though it is quite natural to feel tempted to spill the good news right away, advises that it is good to keep the news to yourself until you have crossed the first trimester. This is because the chance of miscarriage drop dramatically and when you finally decide to announce the news, make sure that your boss gets to know it right from you rather than any of your colleagues.
How to manage the common symptoms while on the job?
Though pregnancy causes a variety of discomforts, it doesn’t give you a ticket for slacking off at work. There are various ways of dealing with the symptoms in order to prevent them from interfering with your work. If you suffer from morning sickness (85% of women suffer from nausea during pregnancy), you can get over it by eating your favourite food. You can take in small doses of healthy snacks for keeping your blood-sugar levels within the required limit and reduce the nausea. When your symptoms are severe, you will have to consult an expert about proper medications.
When to get ready for maternity leave?
Before you decide to bid a temporary farewell to your workplace, you will have to specify the details of your leave. You should let your boss know about an approximate date from when you will be taking leave and when you will be able to rejoin. By giving them a tentative date of your return, you are allowing them to see the light at the end of that tunnel. You can help by making a small list of tasks that you were responsible for and also offer suggestions on how they can be divided and handled by your coworkers.
Though most women are into professions which will not affect the delivery of the child, there are certain kinds of jobs that may put you as well as your baby’s health at risk.
Kidney problems, although take a longer time to develop, they end up being silent killers. There are no obvious signs for months and the symptoms crop up when it's rather late.
Many younger people these days are getting diagnosed with kidney problems. This is primarily due to drinking alcohol, smoking, bad eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle. About 60% people who have diabetes or hypertension develop kidney problems eventually.
Therefore, it is advised to be aware of what harms your kidneys and take adequate care to keep them healthy.
Watch out for any of these symptoms early on.
1. Urine Color - This is probably the first symptom and unfortunately affects many people around us. With the way our lifestyles are, this is becoming an increasing concern. Urine becomes dark and there is a need to urinate yet, one is unable to do so.
2. Urine Infection - Second would be when you feel pain or difficulty while urinating. The infections in the urinary tract induce their symptoms of pain or burning during urination. If this infection spreads to the kidneys, one can feel pain in the back.
3. Blood In Urine - If there is blood in your urine, it is a sign of renal illness. While this could be happening because of various reasons, it is advisable to see your doctor soon.
4. Water Retention - The function of the kidney is to take out the extra liquid and the waste from our body. When this process is not smooth, water will stay back and cause your face, limbs and/or ankle joints to swell.
5. Weakness - Severe exhaustion would mean minimized oxygen being delivered to the cells, causing weakness in general. This is also one of the symptoms that your kidney needs medical attention.
6. Temperature Variance - If your kidney is unwell, one of the symptoms is that you will feel the chill even when the temperature is actually warm.
7. Skin Breakout - Since an unfit kidney means waste in the body is piling up, it causes the skin to break out and cause severe irritation and rashes.
8. Rise of Blood Urea Level - When the kidney is unwell, it increases the level of urea in the blood. This causes breakdown of the urea into ammonia in the spit, causes it to smell foul, like urine/metal.
9. Nausea - Waste accumulating in the blood adds up to causing nausea and vomiting.
10. Breathlessness - One can also feel the lack of breath if the condition of the kidney worsens.
11. Discomfort or Pain - Some people have been known to have bodily pains, an instant discomfort that spreads from the lower back to the groin. This usually means that there is a stone in the kidney. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The urinary tract starts from the kidneys to the urethra where urine is passed out. Given the rich concentration of minerals and toxic wastes, it is highly prone to multiple infections. UTI, as urinary tract infections are often referred to, is one of the most common infections. In women, especially, every 1 in 2 women is affected by an UTI. Whichever part of the tract is affected, the symptoms and treatment are mostly the same. Read on to know some of the most common symptoms and treatment options for these.
Most urinary tract infections are bacterial in nature, and these could find their way into the body through multiple ways.
Though most often UTI does not require specific testing, the following are useful in confirming the diagnosis.
UTIs are very common infections and though there is nothing to worry, it should be cleared completely.
Recurrent UTIs is a common problem, and the following can help prevent.
Postural tachycardia syndrome (pots) can be a life altering and debilitating chronic health condition. Simply standing up can be a challenge for people with pots as their body is unable to adjust to gravity. Pots is characterised by orthostatic intolerance (the development of symptoms when upright that are relieved by lying down). Symptoms include headaches, fatigue, palpitations, sweating, nausea, fainting and dizziness and are associated with an increase in heart rate from the lying to upright position of greater than 30 beats per minute, or a heart rate of greater than 120 beats per minute within 10 minutes of standing.
Detailed questioning of the patient is the key to accurate diagnosis. Physical examination and appropriate investigations are also important. Other causes of symptoms need to be considered and identified.
Patients are usually diagnosed by a cardiologist, neurologist or medicine for the elderly consultant.
To be given a diagnosis of pots, a person needs to have:
A sustained increase in heart rate of greater than 30 beats per minute within 10 minutes of standing those aged 12-19 years require an increase of at least 40 beats per minutethese criteria may not apply to those with a low heart rate when resting there is usually no drop in blood pressure on standing
It may be necessary for patients to have some or all of the tests below
An ecg is performed to rule out any heart problems that may cause symptoms similar to those found in pots.
The active stand test
The active stand test can be used to diagnose pots. Under careful supervision, heart rate and blood pressure are measured after resting lying down, then immediately upon standing and after 2, 5 and 10 minutes. This test may bring on symptoms of pots and some people may faint.
Head-up tilt table test
This involves lying on a table that can be tilted to an angle of 60 to 70 degrees in a quiet, dimly lit, temperature controlled room. Blood pressure and heart rate are recorded in a continuous manner. After a period of 5 to 20 minutes of lying flat, the table is tilted. Although a diagnosis of pots should be made by an increase in heart rate of 30 bpm within the first 10 minutes, this upright position can last between 10 and 45 minutes. The patient will be asked how they are feeling during the test, so symptoms can be matched with heart rate and blood pressure. The test will end if your blood pressure becomes too low, satisfactory results have been obtained, or the maximum time has elapsed.
If facilities are available, some patients are tilted after a carbohydrate drink (liquid meal challenge), exercise or heat.
24 hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate monitor
Sticky patches are applied to the chest and are linked to a little box which is attached by a belt your waist. It monitors heart rate over a 24 hour period. A blood pressure cuff on your arm will intermittently check your blood pressure. The patient is asked to go about their usual daily activities, trying to reproduce events that seem to cause the symptoms. A diary stating the time and activity performed at the moment when the symptoms started should be kept. Doctors look to see if there is a fast heart rate or drop in blood pressure at the time of symptoms.
Echocardiogram (heart ultrasound)
This test is to check if the heart’s structure is normal. In this test a technician will apply some jelly on the chest and will roll an ultrasound probe in many directions to create a 3 dimensional image of the heart. It is a painless and harmless test that similar to the ultrasound scan used routinely during pregnancy to look at the unborn baby.
24-hour urine collection
Individuals with pots often have low urinary sodium levels of less than 150 millimole per 24 hours.
Another 24 hour urine collection may be carried out to test for high levels of noradrenaline and epinephrine to rule out pheochromocytoma (a growth on the adrenal gland) as a possible cause of symptoms.
Bloods are taken to rule out other conditions. These may include:
Kidney function blood count including ferritin liver tests thyroid tests calcium levels glucose
Blood can also be taken for norepinephrine whilst lying and then standing (or when upright on the tilt table); if levels exceed 600 picogram/millilitre, it may suggest hyperadrenergic pots.
Other tests which may be carried out
While pregnancy is not a pathological condition, it is a happy time that can be marred by various conditions. Debilitating morning or all day sickness, which is usually characterised by nausea, reflux in the gastro esophageal band, heartburn and acidity. This can also turn into vomiting and lead to complications if it does not stop. Persistent, almost daily vomiting can be termed as excessive vomiting in pregnancy, and this is known as Hyperemesis Gravidarum in medical terms. Let us find out more about this condition.
Routine: Hyperemesis Gravidarum usually strikes as a matter of routine at a set time everyday where the patient will either be in unappetising company of acute and painful acidity and nausea, or will also be vomiting.
Severity: The severity of the condition usually decreases as the patient's pregnancy progresses. Usually, this condition strikes around the fourth or fifth week of pregnancy, before becoming better towards the middle of the second trimester. There are cases, though, where it continues to be just as severe till the very end of the pregnancy.
When to take Action: The patient may have to be hospitalised in case too much vomiting takes place, so as to prevent excess loss of water and salt from the body, and resultant weakness which may affect the growth of the foetus. Also, it is best to call the doctor when you have experienced fainting and dizzy spells.
Causes: Hyperemesis Gravidarum or excessive vomiting during pregnancy cannot be attributed to any specific or single cause. Usually, it is known to be a genetic condition passed down by mothers to their daughters. But in most cases, doctors believe that the condition is due to hormonal changes where an increase in the HCG hormone, or Human Chronic Gonadotropin hormone level during pregnancy may lead to a variety of symptoms such as morning sickness or excessive vomiting. This hormone is known to be at its peak during pregnancy.
Risk Factors: It has mostly been seen that women who are carrying twins are at risk of suffering from this condition. Also, women who have suffered from chronic motion sickness in the past report excessive vomiting during pregnancy.
Treatment: The best way to treat this issue is to prevent too much of nausea and vomiting with the help of a bland diet that does not have heavy to digest ingredients. Also, it is best to take small and frequent meals.
Working your way around excessive vomiting during pregnancy is a matter of ensuring that you take rest, fluids and other precautions. Speak with us in a private consultation to know more. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
In most cases, pain anywhere in the body can be explained as a symptom of some other problem, but sometimes, there is no reason for abdominal pain. This type of pain is known as chronic functional abdominal pain. This is a gastrointestinal disorder that cannot be explained through X-ray or laboratory findings. It can be triggered by altered sensitivity to nerve impulses in the brain and gut. People suffering from this condition are often so debilitated by the pain that it becomes the central focus of their life.
This condition cannot be cured, but with proper treatment, it can be managed so that it does not affect the quality of your life. The aim of treatment for this condition is to control the symptoms and improve functioning. When it comes to treating this condition, the patient’s relationship with his or her doctor plays an important role as the condition cannot be proven through any form of testing and it has a great psychological effect on the person. Regular checkups are also a key to managing this condition effectively.
The first step towards achieving this is to identify possible emotional and situational triggers. Maintaining a journal that records these experiences can help with this. Further treatment is usually either through psychological treatment or antidepressants.
Psychological treatment is based on the understanding that the brain can block pain by diverting attention elsewhere. Nerve impulses that travel from the abdomen to the brain must pass through a type of ‘gate’ that is controlled by nerve impulses generated by the brain. When these impulses close the gates, pain is blocked while when these gates are open, the pain can be magnified. Psychological treatment for chronic functional abdominal pain can be in the form of relaxation techniques, imagery, hypnosis and cognitive behavioral therapy. While relaxation techniques such as meditation and hypnosis help a person shift focus from the pain, cognitive behavioral therapy teaches a person how to change thoughts and perceptions in order to control the pain.
Antidepressants can also act as pain relievers. This form of medication stimulates the production of brain signals that close the ‘gates’ of nerve transmissions. This blocks the pain but can take several weeks to be effective. Some people may experience side effects such as drowsiness and nausea and hence should never be taken without a doctor’s supervision. In some cases, antidepressants may also be combined with cognitive behavioral therapy or medication to regulate bowels.