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Zika virus infection and symptoms

Dr. Aanand J 96% (23510 ratings)
Advanced Aesthetics
Ayurveda, Gulbarga
Zika virus infection and symptoms

Symptoms of zika virus infection

  •  Low-grade fever (between 37.8°c and 38.5°c)
  •  Arthralgia, notably of small joints of hands and feet, with possible swollen joints.
  •  Myalgia.
  •  Headache, retro-ocular headaches.
  •  Conjunctivitis.
  •  Cutaneous maculopapular rash.
  •  Post-infection asthenia which seems to be frequent.

Dr. Sajeev Kumar 88% (28384 ratings)
C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
TOXIC ADDITIVES IN FAST FOODS HARMFUL

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) in Chinese food has long been purported to cause a flushing reaction as part of the "MSG syndrome"

When MSG is ingested in large doses, however, it causes an increase in an acetylcholine like substance that may result in flushing in susceptible individuals

MSG symptom complex
Perhaps the best known adverse reaction to a food additive is the MSG symptom complex. This is not an allergic reaction. The MSG symptom complex typically appears 1 to 14 hours after ingestion. Reported symptoms include headache, myalgia, backache, neck pain, nausea, diaphoresis, tingling, flushing, palpitations, and chest heaviness.

Children have been reported with shivering, chills, irritability, screaming, and delirium. It is due to an exaggerated sensitivity to this compound, which is metabolized after ingestion to glutamate, a major excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter.
Allergic and asthmatic reactions
A small number of case reports have implicated MSG in causing urticaria and angioedema.
7 people found this helpful

Dengue: Facts and prevention measures

Dr. Sajeev Kumar 88% (28384 ratings)
C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
Dengue: Facts and prevention measures
With dengue cases on the rise, here's all you need to know about the spread and prevention measures of the disease.

The number of dengue cases, caused by viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, have been on the rise, as the monsoon season is underway. Here are some important facts about dengue and a few preventive measures you need to be aware of.

Facts about the Aedes mosquitoes

The Dengue virus is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes do not lay eggs in drains, ditches, canals, wetlands, rivers or lakes. “What most people do not realise is that the dengue mosquito breeds in fresh clean water as opposed to dirty drains. Thus, people living in clean urban surroundings are more at risk of acquiring the disease,” says Dr KK Aggarwal, President HCFI & Honorary Secretary General IMA and a Padma Shri Awardee.

These mosquitoes can fly several hundred yards looking for water-filled containers, often found in a house and patio, to lay their eggs and it only takes a few mosquitoes in a household to produce a large dengue outbreak.

Humans are only bitten by the female mosquitoes who lay dozens of eggs, up to five times, during their life time. The eggs which can survive for months, hatch when submerged in water. The lifecycle of the mosquito is close to eight days - from egg to larvae, pupae and into an adult mosquito.

Tips to prevent dengue fever:
Do not let water accumulate in your house
Wear full-sleeve clothing
Use mosquito repellents, especially during the monsoon season
Since dengue is caused by a virus, it is the symptoms that are treated and the chronic phase of the illness with fever and myalgias lasts approximately one to two weeks.

The symptoms:
Severe joint and muscle pain
Swollen lymph nodes
Headache
Fever
Exhaustion - Rashes
While the risk of complications is in less than 1% of dengue cases, Dr Aggarwal has a few recommendations. The danger of dengue lies in dehydration, so it is vital to consume a lot of fluids and to only opt for a platelet transfusion if there is active bleeding or your platelet count is below 10,000.
3 people found this helpful

Dengue fever – prevention, treatment and homeopathic medicines

Dr. Princy Khandelwal 93% (16957 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Faridabad
Dengue fever – prevention, treatment and homeopathic medicines
What is Dengue Fever?

Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by any one of four closely related dengue viruses (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4). Infection with one serotype of DENV provides immunity to that serotype for life, but provides no long-term immunity to other serotypes. Thus, a person can be infected as many as four times, once with each serotype.

Dengue viruses are transmitted from person to person by Aedes mosquitoes (most often Aedes aegypti) in the domestic environment.= What are the symptoms of Dengue Fever?

Classic dengue fever, or “break bone fever,” is characterized by acute onset of high fever 3–14 days after the bite of an infected mosquito.

Symptoms include

frontal headache,
retro-orbital pain,
myalgias,
arthralgias,
hemorrhagic manifestations,
rash, and
low white blood cell count

The patient also may complain of anorexia and nausea.

Acute symptoms, when present, usually last about 1 week, but weakness, malaise, and anorexia may persist for several weeks.

Some patients with dengue fever go on to develop dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), a severe and sometimes fatal form of the disease.

= Diagnosis of Dengue Fever

The diagnosis of dengue is usually made clinically.

The classic picture is high fever with no localising source of infection, a petechial rash with thrombocytopenia and relative leukopenia – low platelet and white blood cell count.

= Laboratory Diagnosis of dengue infection

One can get DENGUE FEVER ANTIBODY, IgM & IgG. This is a costly test. From Dr Lal Path Lab, it is costing nearly Rs. 1200.

= Aim of treatment of dengue fever:

• Relieving symptoms of pain.
• Controlling fever.
• Telling patients to avoid aspirin and other nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory medications because they may increase the risk for hemorrhage.
• Reminding patients to drink more fluids, especially when they have a high fever.

= How to Treat Dengue Fever

• Drink plenty of fluids and get plenty of rest.
• Antipyretics to control temperature. Children with dengue are at risk for febrile seizures during the febrile phase of illness.
• Avoid aspirin and other nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory medications because they increase the risk of hemorrhage. People generally take Brufen or Combiflam tablets in such fever conditions, these are to be avoided.
• Get platelet counts.

= Prevention of Dengue Fever

– There is no tested and approved vaccine for the dengue.
– Primary prevention of dengue is mosquito control.

= Dengue fever and Homeopathy medicines

In Homoeopathy, we have more than 20 medicines which can be taken based on different symptoms of fever in different stages. I would suggest you to please consult your homeopathic physician or homeopathic consultant for appropriate selection of the homeopathic drug for dengue fever.
6 people found this helpful

Dr. Vivek Kakkar 87% (113 ratings)
MPTh/MPT, MSC CVR, MANUAL THERAPIST
Physiotherapist,
Pain Between Shoulder Blades:

Pain between shoulder blades can produce that nagging type of pain that is difficult to reach. Most often it is related to muscle problems, however, a herniated disc or pinched nerve in the neck can cause pain in this area, along with neck joint irritation. These causes usually respond to neck and/or shoulder movements. Pain between the shoulders can also be referred by the heart, stomach and gallbladder or, if you have osteoporosis, a possible compression fracture.

If there has been a past injury to the area or from years of poor posture, a degenerative condition like arthritis can develop in the area between the shoulders causing upper back pain.

Muscle Pain Between Shoulders:

While there are many muscles that can cause pain between the shoulder blades, the major muscles often involved are the trapezius and the rhomboid. The trapezius is a large muscle, while the rhomboid is a smaller muscle that runs between the spine and the shoulder blades.

With typical poor postural habits, the head is forward and the back becomes rounded. As the upper back becomes rounded, the rhomboid muscles stretch out. This is typically seen with a slumped posture when sitting at a computer or desk. The muscles become overstretched and weak, placing abnormal stress on the spinal bones, altered motion and, over time, can develop scar tissues from small tears which develop.

Treatment of the muscles with moist heat therapy and massage techniques can help. A particular technique called ischemic compression can be used for tender areas often called trigger points, seen in the picture with the “X”. This technique uses a tennis ball or special neck muscle release tool. Place the ball or release tool on the floor and lay on your back with the ball or tool between the shoulder blades. You can control the pressure and when you find a tender area, hold it until the pain gradually fades – about 20 to 30 seconds, although it may take a minute.

For those with chronic problems that need more than compression due to excessive scar tissue, the help of a professional Physiotherapist should help. Considerable involvement of the trapezius can cause what is often termed trapezius myalgia and the are exercises for the trapezius muscle that have proven beneficial. Since arthritic changes and joint problems may occur, this is a common area for careful spinal adjustments.

Upper back pain pillow:

The use of lumbar support pillows, which help maintain the normal curve of the lower back when sitting, can help to correct rounded shoulder posture, especially when driving a car or working at a desk. The back of the chair should not be pushed forward and should have a slight backward angle. These tips for the best posture when sitting at a computer can be helpful.

For those who sit for long periods and get so involved in work that they forget to take breaks and change postures, a timer set for 20 to 30 minutes can be placed in a location that you must get up to turn it off and reset it can be a great solution.

For some, the use of a posture support brace can assist the muscles of the upper back and spine to assume the correct posture. A universal support will allow gradual adjustments as your posture improves, so it will be a temporary aid.

When using armrests on a chair, having them too low can stress the trapezius muscle, too high can cause tension of the neck and shoulder muscles, so try to sit close to your desk with the armrests at desk level.

Often, with rounded shoulder posture, the chest muscles (pectorals) can become tight and the in the door stretch can help with tight pectoral muscles and overstretched trapezius and rhomboid muscles.

Stretch for pain between shoulder blades:

Use of door frames or resistance bands is of great use.


Sleeping with pain between shoulder blades:

For those who like to sleep on their side and have difficulty finding a comfortable position due to pain between shoulder blades, a pillow can be placed under the affected arm to prevent it from rotating forward and stretching the trapezius and rhomboid muscles. There are body pillows that can help keep the back from twisting the lower part of the trapezius and can also fit under the arm at the same time. A compact body pillow can achieve this without being to heavy or bulky. A neck pillow designed for side sleeping can add the final touch to a comfortable night’s sleep that reduces pain between shoulder blades.


Disc & Joint Causes Of Pain Between Shoulder Blades


A facet joint problem involving the small joints in the back of the neck may cause pain between shoulder blades. The lower facet joints can radiate pain to this area. This can often be as a result of a whiplash type injury or in those who spend long periods working overhead or looking up. So, this pain might be felt more when tilting the head backward. For those who work in this position, a support for the back of the head can help.

The lower discs in the neck can become herniated, torn or degenerative changes can occur which place pressure on the nerves and this may also cause pain between shoulder blades. C7 or C8 nerve pain can radiate between the shoulder blades. Typically, there will be other symptoms like pain or tingling/numbness into the arm or hand, but sometimes neck pain and pain between shoulder blades are the only sign.

Difficult cases involving pain between shoulder blades may require medications and perhaps an orthopedic consultation, however, some home treatments using moist heat, posture changes and traction units may help.

Since these various conditions may occur together, a more comprehensive approach may be required to treat pain between shoulder blades not responding to basic postural modification and conservative therapies.

For any further assistance book an appointment with us.9820011774

Painful Intercourse Or Dyspareunia

Dr. Anoop Kumar Sonker 93% (97 ratings)
BHMS
Sexologist, Lucknow
Painful Intercourse Or Dyspareunia

Dyspareunia is pain prior to, during, or after, sexual intercourse. Dyspareunia is more common in women but can affect either sex. Dyspareunia can have several different causes. For instance, vaginismus is a ‘spasm’or contractions of the muscles surrounding the vagina.

  • Dyspareunia is pain prior to, during, or after, sexual intercourse. Dyspareunia is more common in women but can affect either sex. Many women will experience dyspareunia at some time in their life. Sometimes a medial or physical etiology may not be obvious and psychosocial factors also can play an important role. In men, dyspareunia can be related to an allergic reaction to a condom or spermicidal. An infection of the prostate or prostatitis may also cause pain. If a female partner has a vaginal infection or dryness, the male can experience discomfort during intercourse.
  • Dyspareunia can have several different causes. For instance, vaginismus is a “spasm” or contractions of the muscles surrounding the vagina. Women with vaginismus have pain with insertion of tampons as well as with penile penetration.
  • Vulvodynia and vulvar vestibullitis are both conditions that are characterized by painful intercourses. They are also characterized by vulvar burning and itching. The discomfort may not necessarily be associated with intercourse.
  • In older women vaginal dryness is a common cause of dyspareunia. This is a common problem for women that are not on hormone replacement. Dyspareunia can also be caused by abnormalities of the uterus or pelvic organs. Woman may describe the pain as feeling that something is being “pushed” or “bumped” during intercourse. An enlarged uterus or ovary can cause painful intercourse especially during deep penetration. A prolapsed or “dropped” uterus or bladder may also cause discomfort. Dyspareunia can also result from previous pelvic surgery or infection. These conditions can reduce movement of the pelvic organs resulting in pain with deep penetration.
  • Women who experience trauma such as rape or sexual assault may also experience dyspareunia. Unfortunately, many women may have difficulty sharing this information with their health care providers.
  • In order to treat dyspareunia appropriately the cause must be identified. The time at which the pain occurs during intercourse and other associated symptoms can help determine the potential etiology. For instance, pain during entry may have a different etiology than pain with deep penetration.

It is also important for a health care provider to know when in a woman’s life symptoms began. For example, if a woman’s symptoms began around or shortly after menopause; her symptoms could result from atrophic vaginal tissue. She may describe her symptoms as burning or “friction” with intercourse. Vaginal lubricants or estrogen can improve dryness and decrease pain. For women with a history of endometriosis, pelvic surgery, or infection, treatment of dyspareunia is aimed at restoring pelvic organs to their normal positions and reducing scar tissue. Surgical management may also be recommended for women with symptomatic prolapsed of the uterus, rectum, or bladder.

Women with a history of sexual abuse or treatment may benefit from psychological evaluation and treating any depressive symptoms that are present.

Types of dyspareunia:

It is useful to differentiate between the different types of dyspareunia to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and eventual prognosis.

1. Superficial dyspareunia. Vaginismus is a specific type of dyspareunia that refers to spasms of the levator ani and perineal muscles, making intercourse difficult, painful. Undesirable, and often impossible. May clinicians have defined vaginismus as an almost certain psychogenic illness. However, organic disorders of the external genitalia and introital areas can cause such severe discomfort that any attempts at penetration can leas to spasm. This particular cycle, primarily caused by situational and anticipatory anxiety, can become self perpetuating often both organic and functional and can be solely a result of recognized disease entities.
2. Deep dyspareunia refers to a deeper pelvic pain that is experienced at any time during intercourse. Again, this may be secondary to pelvic abnormality, or it may be functional in origin. It also tends to overlap more with chronic pelvic pain syndrome.
Etiology of dyspareunia:

The presence of organic disease is often the cause of dyspareunia. Virtually all gynecologic disease entities list dyspareunia as a possible symptom.

Prominent in the list of diseases associated with dyspareunia are the following:

  • Chronic pelvic infection.
  • Endometriosis
  • Pelvic carcinoma
  • Extensive prolapsed or organ displacement
  • Episiotomy.
  • Acute vulvovaginitis
  • Cystitis
  • Urethral syndrome or other urinary tract disorders.
  • Introital, vaginal, and cervical scarring.
  • All space occupying lesions.
  • Levator ani myalgia.
  • Vulvar vestibulitis.

1. As with chronic pelvic pain syndromes, gastrointestinal (gi) diseases (e. G, bowel motility disorders) must be excluded.

2. Estrogen deprivation, irritating vaginal medications, sympathomimetic drugs, amphetamines, and cocaine are also causes, primarily in superficial dyspareunia and vaginismus.

3. The most common causes of superficial dyspareunia include vaginitis (atrophic or infectious) or lack of lubrication (either caused by physiologic conditions or suboptimal sexual technique.

4. Lesions in the cul-de-sac are said to correlate most often with deep penetration dyspareunia.

5. Women who have deep penetration dyspareunia and who do not have superficial pain on penetration or vaginismus usually do not have a causative external inflammatory syndrome.

6. Some individual with external dyspareunia or vaginismus have small, almost imperceptible scar tissue secondary to surgery or childbirth.

7. Two clinical syndromes not usually recognized involve broad ligament varicosities and the broad ligament tear syndrome.
8. Frequently unrecognized etiology, particularly on first, interview, is a history or sexual assault or abuse.

Diagnostic workgroup

It is extremely important to look for evidence of sexual abuse both on history and physical examination before undertaking an expensive workup. Routine studies include a cbc, sedimentation rate, urinalysis, urine culture and sensitivity, and vaginal smear and culture. A pap smear should also be done. If pregnancy is suspected, a pregnancy test should be done. If there is a pelvic mass, pelvic ultrasound may be helpful. A referral to gynecologist is usually made before ordering this study, however. If vulval dystrophy is suspected, a vaginal biopsy may be useful. If the vaginal examination is normal, perhaps a psychiatrist should be consulted.

  • Normal pelvic examination
  • Abnormal pelvic examination
  • Difficult penetration
  • Difficult during intercourse
  • With abnormal rectal examination
  • Inflamed
  • Hymeneal
  • Orifice
  • Bartholinitis
  • Vulvitis
  • Vulval
  • Dystrophy
  • Cystitis
  • Urethritis
  • Difficult during intercourse
  • Salpingooophoritis
  • Retroverted
  • Uterus
  • Endometriosis
  • Ovarian cyst.
  • With abnormal rectal examination
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Anal fissure
  • Impacted
  • Feces
  • B-normal pelvic examination

With sexual desire 2. Without sexual desire
Functional dyspareunia not true dyspareunia

Differential diagnosis

Sexual pain disorder: persistent recurrent genital pain or nonorganic cause associated with sexual stimulation.

Vaginismus: painful, involuntary spasm of the vagina, preventing intercourse

Vulvar vestibulitis: a chronic and persistent clinical syndrome characterized by severe pain with vestibular touch or attempted vaginal entry, tenderness in response to pressure within the vulvar vestibule, and physical findings confined to various degrees of vestibular erythema.

Vulvodynia: chronic vulvar discomfort (e. G. Burning, stinging, irritation, rawness).

Female sexual dysfunction (disorders of desire, arousal, or orgasm)

Homeopathic remedies.

1. Bellis perennis
Bruised sensation in the vagina, if intercourse is interrupted.

2. Cactus grandiflora
Vagina squeezes shut when intercourse is attempted. Intercourse may be easier just before menses.

3. Coffea
Over sensitivity of the vulva and vagina. Heat and itchiness. Vaginismus with pain.

4. Cuprum
Cramping in the vagina and sometimes also in the legs, during intercourse.

5. Ferrum
Vagina feels dry, painful and raw. No feelings of arousal.

6. Gelsemium
Anxiety before intercourse. Tendency to vaginismus.

7. Lycopodium
Dry, burning vagina during and after intercourse. May have varicose veins in vulva.

8. Natrum mur
Dryness, with smarting and burning pains. Acrid discharge.

9. Platina
Strong sexual desire. May have erotic dreams. Difficult to have intercourse as vulva is extremely over-sensitive. Intercourse is painful and causes bruised sensation.

10. Rhus tox
Soreness during and after intercourse, often accompanied by physical restlessness.

11. Sepia
Dryness with bleeding after intercourse. (if you have this symptom seek medical advice.) feeling that everything will prolapse. Suits women who are exhausted and want to escape from their situation.

12. Staphisagria
Extremely useful remedy for pain after loss of virginity or in instances of rape or sexual assault.

13. Thuja
Vagina is over-sensitive making intercourse painful and difficult. Pains: burning, sore, bruised. May be helpful where there is a history of sti’s or if there are feelings of shame and self-disgust in relation to intercourse.

But before taking these medicine please consult your homoeopathic doctor.

4 people found this helpful

Cupping Therapy As A Treatment In Present Day Medication!

Dr. Izhar Hasan 92% (247 ratings)
MD (U), Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery (B.U.M.S)
Unani Specialist, Delhi
Cupping Therapy As A Treatment In Present Day Medication!

The Value of cupping therapy as a treatment in present day medication

ABSTRACT

Cupping therapy pulls toxins, pathogenic elements, blood poison, dead lymph and cell flotsam and jetsam from profound inside the tissues to the surface. These crippling operators are then more effortlessly removed from the body. The stores disseminate from a couple of hours up to a little while, contingent upon the measure of stagnation and the patients post treatment exercises. The nature of the pathogenic components changes as indicated by the seriousness of the patient's blood stasis; which associates with the nature, seriousness and sort of condition they have. It can show up from a light pink to a dim purple, yet is normally a shade of red. Regularly modest raised knocks will show up. In some cases a reasonable liquid will be attracted to the surface. These are largely consequences of sickness and toxins being expelled from profound inside the tissues. For the most part, the expert will see the best measure of stores being attracted to the surface in the initial couple of medicines. The stores will decrease in force as the more profound issues are settled and the stagnations and toxins have been dug up and flushed out by means of the bodys' own circulatory frameworks, removal from the pores and sweat.

Although the marks look painful, they are not. Patients usually feel an immediate sense of relief.

Keywords: Cupping therapy, Toxins

INTRODUCTION

Since antiquated occasions, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) have assumed a critical job in human wellbeing and welfare. Cupping treatment gets its name from the cups that are utilized to convey the treatment. Cupping has turned out to be progressively accessible to general society in the ongoing years. "Cupping Therapy is an old restorative treatment that depends after making a nearby suction to assemble blood stream with the end goal to advance mending". Cupping is a conventional idea thought to help in medicinal conditions and has turned out to be progressively more famous in specific situations. It is as yet drilled in country zones as it was rehearsed a huge number of years back, yet as of late has been recognized in the western culture. Cupping treatment is rehearsed worldwide and among various societies to oversee pain and other medical issues. Pain can be enduring and consistent with the patient inclination inconvenience, trouble and frequently anguish if the seriousness is high. Pain that can't be overseen by customary restorative consideration, is the most widely recognized explanation behind looking for remedial options in contrast to traditional medication and the more serious the torment, the more incessant is the utilization of such treatments.

DEFINITION OF CUPPING THERAPY

Cupping therapy is therapy of alternative traditional medicine. Due to utilization of cups, it is called as cupping therapy. Hijama is alternative name of cupping therapy. It is Arabic word, which means ‘to suck’.

HISTORY OF CUPPING THERAPY

There is reason to trust the practice dates from as right on time as 3000 BC. The Ebers Papyrus , composed  1550 BC and one of the most established therapeutic course readings in the Western world, portrays the Egyptians ' utilization of cupping, while at the same time making reference to comparable practices utilized by Saharan Peoples. In ancient Greece, Hippocrates (400 BC) utilized cupping for interior malady and basic issues. The method was profoundly suggested by Muhammad and henceforth very much drilled by Muslim researchers who explained and built up the technique further. Continuously, this method in its various structures spread into medication all through Asian and European human advancements. In China, the most punctual utilization of cupping that is recorded is from the popular Taoist chemist and botanist, GeHong (281-341 A.D.).

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

Cupping treatment ends up prevalent day by days. Many physicians interested to practise this therapy. But very short information they fear to practise. Keeping this fact in mind this article is written to provide basic information of cupping therapy to all research scholar and physicians.

METHODS OF CUPPING

Cupping can be wet or dry. In dry cupping cups are set on flawless skin and the point is to just expel blood and liquid from the site of aggravation to the surface of the skin. Wet cupping, otherwise called phlebotomy, is the point at which mini incisions are made with an exceptional sort of lancet on the locale of the skin where the cup is connected.

The point is to evacuate shallow blood that streams into the cup which is believed to be brimming with poisonous and harmful substances. Cupping is performed by making a vacuum in the cup set on the skin by either applying a warmed cup on the skin which devours the air inside it (fire cupping) or by utilizing a suction pump (suction cupping). In flame cupping the expert may utilize a cup made of glass, metal or wood (bamboo). The cups are then warmed by consuming liquor splashed cotton inside the cups. The cup is then set looked down level on the skin as the warmth makes suction on the skin. Suction cupping utilizes a suction pump to direct the let some circulation into of the cup after it is connected to the skin.

DURATION OF CUPPING

The cups are left in place anywhere from 10 to 15 minutes depending on the nature of the individual’s condition. However duration of cups left may vary patient to patient and severity of the disease.

A general course of treatment involves four to six sessions in intervals starting from 7 to 15 day gaps.

INDICATIONS OF CUPPING THERAPY

1. Musculoskeletal and autoimmune disorders: Cupping can eliminate pain causing substances, prostaglandins, inflammatory mediators and cytokines. 

  • Neck pain, cervical spondylosis
  • Back pain (lumbago) and lumbar disc herniation 
  • Lumbar disc prolapse unless surgery is indicated 
  • Fibromyalgia and fibrositis 
  • Neck and shoulder pain, stiffness, spasm
  • Skeletal pain, myalgia
  • Knee osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Shoulder back myofascitis 
  • Post fracture pain, sprain, traumatic strain
  • Muscles spasm
  • Tendonitis 
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Sciatica 
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Addisons disease 
  • Autoimmune anaemia

2. Cardiovascular diseases: Cupping eliminates excess intravascular fluids, excess lipids, vasoconstrictors and aetiology concerning substances. 

  • Hypertension (through removing excess serum fluids and vasoconstrictors) 
  • Edema (through removing excess fluids and clear interstitial spaces 
  • Myocardial ischemia and arrhythmia 
  • Rheumatic fever 
  • Vascular thrombosis 
  • Coronary artery diseases (narrowing of the arteries) 
  • Abnormal heart rhythms

3. Gynaecological disorders: 

  • Amenorrhoea 
  • Dysmenorrhoea
  • Leucorrhoea 
  • Infertility 
  • Haemorrhage (vaginal bleeding) 
  • To stimulate the ovaries 
  • Menstruation problems

4. Haematological disorders: Cupping clears blood from fragments of haemolysed cells, liberated Hb, excess iron 

  • Sideroblastic anaemia (to excrete excess iron) 
  • Thalassemia (to excrete excess serum iron, fragmented cells and ferritin)
  • Polycythemia

5. Dermatological disorders: Cupping clears toxic blood from fragments of abnormally high IgE and other diseases 

  • Psoriasis
  • Atopic dermatitis 
  • Acne vulgaris
  • Leucoderma/vitiligo 
  • Cellulitis 
  • Idiopathic urticaria

6. Endocrinal/metabolism disorders: Cupping eliminates accumulated substrates and metabolites from body and induces blood clearance; induce immunity boosting and pharmacological potentiation. 

  • Hypothyroidism 
  • Hyperthyroidism 
  • Obesity 
  • Prevents diabetes mellitus complications 
  • Osteoporosis 
  • Gout and gouty arthritis 
  • Hyperlipidemia 
  • Hormonal imbalance

7. Neuropsychiatric disorders: Cupping removes pain causing substances, prostaglandins and aetiological concerning fluids from the body. 

  • Headache
  • Migraine 
  • Anxiety 
  • Depression 
  • Obsessive compulsory disorders
  • Insomnia 
  • Dementia 
  • Trigeminal neuralgia 
  • Laziness, lassitude and somnolence

8. Respiratory and ENT disorders: Cupping removes pathology concerning substances and boost immunity. 

  • Allergic rhinitis 
  • Bronchial asthma 
  • Tonsillitis 
  • Motion sickness 
  • Sinusitis 
  • Otitis media
  • Bronchitis

9. Gastrointestinal disorders: 

  • Constipation 
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) 
  • Gastritis 
  • Ulcerative colitis 
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) 
  • Intoxication (toxins, food and drugs administration

10. Miscellaneous: 

  • Cellulitis
  • Diabetic foot (excrete abnormal, harmful metabolites, increase immunity, and improve local circulation in foot) 
  • Influenza, epidemic flu as cupping enhances the natural antiviral immunity 
  • Prevents parkinson disease progress 
  • Frozen shoulder 
  • Varicose veins 
  • Blockages and congestion

CONTRAINDICATION OF CUPPING THERAPY

  • Bleeding disorders such as haemophilia or who are being treated with anticoagulants
  • Active inflammation, burns, infection, and open wounds.
  • A child
  • Pregnant
  • Menstruating

SIDE EFFECTS OF CUPPING THERAPY

  • None if done by expert

SPECIAL NOTE

This particular method of wet cupping is a specialty treatment and must be performed by trained and qualified Unani physician.

CONCLUSION

Cupping therapy treatment allows the practitioner to determine with the aid of suction cups whether the position of the symptoms is the true location of the disease. Additionally, we can detect which organ is defective and in need of treatment. With the many forms of cupping therapy health care provider should review the literature and make their selection of cupping method and points based on treatment studies.

2 people found this helpful

Dengue Vaxia

Dr. A.A Khan 93% (1041 ratings)
MBBS,CCA,DCA,AASECT,FPA,AAD,F.H.R.SM.I.M.S
General Physician, Bangalore
Dengue Vaxia

Dengvaxia - first vaccine against dengue

Dengvaxia is a vaccine used to help protect adult or children against dengue disease caused by dengue virus serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4. Dengvaxia is given to adults, adolescents and children 9 through 45 years of age living in endemic areas.

Read more:

Dengue symptoms and what to do if you think you have denguedengue fever - remedies using papaya leaf juice

Full prescribing info - dengvaxia

Contents

Dengue tetravalent vaccine (live, attenuated).

Indications / uses

Dengvaxia is a vaccine used to help protect adult or children against dengue disease caused by dengue virus serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4. Dengvaxia is given to adults, adolescents and children 9 through 45 years of age living in endemic areas.

Dosage / direction for use

The patient will receive 3 injections of 0.5 ml each at 6-month intervals.

The first injection will occur at the chosen or scheduled date; the second injection, 6 months after the first injection; and the third injection, 6 months after the second injection. Dengvaxia should be used according to the local vaccination schedule.

If the patient forgot an injection of dengvaxia: if the patient missed a scheduled injection, the physician will decide when to give the missed injection.

It is important that the patient follows the instructions of the physician, pharmacist or nurse regarding return visits for the follow-up injection. If the patient forgets or is not able to go back to the physician, pharmacist or nurse at the scheduled time, ask the physician, pharmacist or nurse for advice.

Administration: dengvaxia is given by the physician or nurse as an injection underneath the skin (subcutaneous route) in the upper arm.

Contraindications

Do not use dengvaxia if the patient is allergic (hypertensive) to the active substances or any of the other ingredients of dengvaxia listed in description (see description); has developed an allergic reaction after prior administration of dengvaxia. Signs of an allergic reaction may include an itchy rash, shortness of breath and swelling of the face and tongue; is suffering from a disease with mild to high fever or acute disease. In this case, the physician will postpone the administration of dengvaxia until the patient has recovered; has a weakened immune system, for example due to a genetic defect, hiv infection or therapies that affect the immune system (for example, high-dose corticosteroids or chemotherapy); is pregnant; is breastfeeding.

Use in pregnancy lactation: dengvaxia must not be given to pregnant or breastfeeding women.

If the patient is of child-bearing stage, the patient should take the necessary precautions to avoid pregnancy for 1 month following administration of dengvaxia; is pregnant or breastfeeding, the patient thinks may be pregnant or is planning to have a baby, ask the physician, pharmacist or nurse for advice before receiving dengvaxia.

Special precautions

Inform the physician, pharmacist or nurse before receiving dengvaxia if the patient is taking an immunosuppressive treatment (prednisone or equivalent to 20 mg or 2 mg/kg for 2 weeks or more). The physician will postpone administration of dengvaxia until 4 weeks after the treatment is discontinued; has experienced any health problems after prior administration of any vaccines. The physician will carefully consider the risks and benefits of vaccination.

As with all vaccines, dengvaxia may not protect 100% of persons who have been vaccinated. Vaccination with dengvaxia is not a substitute for protection against mosquito bites. The patient should take appropriate precautions to prevent mosquito bites, including the use of repellents, adequate clothing, and mosquito nets.

Fainting, sometimes accompanied by falling, can occur (mostly in adolescents) following, or even before, any injection with a needle. Therefore inform the physician, pharmacist or nurse if the patient fainted with a prior injection.

Adults above 45 years of age: adults above 45 years of age should not receive the vaccine.

Driving and using machines: no data are available on the effects of dengvaxia on the ability to drive or use machines.

Use in children: children less than 9 years of age should not receive the vaccine.

Side effects

Like all medicines, dengvaxia can cause side effects, although not all patients get them.

Serious allergic reactions: if any of these symptoms occur after leaving the place where the patient received an injection, consult a physician immediately: difficulty in breathing, blueness of the tongue or lips, a rash, swelling of the face or throat, low blood pressure causing dizziness or collapse.

When these signs and symptoms occur they usually develop quickly after the injection is given and while the patient is still in clinic or physician's surgery.

Serious allergic reactions are very rare (may affect up to 1 in 10, 000 people), after receiving any vaccine.

Other side effects: the following side effects were reported during clinical studies in children, adolescents and adults (from 9 to and including 60 years of age). Most of the reported side effects occurred within 3 days after the injection of the vaccine: very common (may affect more than 1 user in 10): headache, muscle pain (myalgia), generally feeling unwell (malaise), feeling of weakness (asthenia), injection site pain, fever.

Common (may affect up to 1 user in 10): injection site reactions: redness (erythema), bruising (hematoma), swelling, and itching (pruritus).

Uncommon (may affect up to 1 user in 100): infections of the upper respiratory tract, dizziness, sore throat (oropharyngeal pain), cough, runny nose (rhinorrhea), nausea, skin eruption (rash), neck pain, hardening of skin at the injection site (injection site induration).

Additional side effects in adults (from 18 to and including 60 years of age): uncommon (may affect up to 1 user in 100): swollen glands (lymphadenopathy), migraine, joint pain (arthralgia), flu-like symptoms (influenza-like illness).

Additional side effects in children and adolescents (from 9 to and including 17 years of age: uncommon (may affect up to 1 user in 100): itchy rash (urticaria).

Reporting of side effects or any suspected adverse event: if the patient experiences any side effects after vaccination, advised to seek immediate medical attention.

By reporting side effects, it can help provide more information on the safety of the vaccine.

Click to view adr monitoring form

Interactions

Using other medicines and dengvaxia: dengvaxia may not have an optimal effect if it used at the same time as medicines that suppress the immune system such as corticosteroids or chemotherapy.

Inform the physician, pharmacist or nurse if the patient is taking or has recently taken any other vaccines or any other medicines, including medicines obtained without a prescription.

Caution for usage

Before administering any biological, the person responsible for administration must take all precautions to prevent allergic or other reactions. As with all injectable vaccines, appropriate medical treatment and supervision must always be readily available in the event of an anaphylactic reaction following the administration of dengvaxia.

Epinephrine (1: 1000) and other appropriate agents used to control immediate allergic reactions must be available to treat unexpected events such as anaphylaxis.

Dengvaxia must not be mixed with other medicinal products in the same syringe.

Dengvaxia must not be administered by intravascular injection under any circumstances.

Syncope (fainting) can occur following, or even before, any vaccination as a psychogenic response to injection with a needle. Procedures should be in place to prevent injury from falling and to manage syncopal reactions.

Separate syringes and needles, separate injection sites and preferably separate limbs must be used if any other vaccine (s) or medicinal product (s) is/are concomitantly administered.

Dengvaxia is reconstituted by transferring all the solvent (0.4% sodium chloride solution) provided in the blue-labeled pre-filled syringe into the vial of freeze dried powder with a yellowish green flip off cap. The pre-filled syringe is fitted with a sterile needle for this transfer. The vial is then gently swirled. After complete dissolution, a 0.5 ml dose of reconstituted suspension is withdrawn into the same syringe. For injection, the syringe should be fitted with the new sterile needle.

The suspension should be visually inspected prior to administration. After reconstitution, dengvaxia is clear, colorless liquid with the possible presence of white to translucent particles (of endogenous nature).

After reconstitution with the solvent provided, dengvaxia must be used immediately.

Any unused dengvaxia or waste material should be disposed of, preferably by heat inactivation or incineration, in accordance with local regulations.

Do not throw away any medicines via wastewater or household waste. Ask a pharmacist on how to throw away medicines that no longer use. These measures will help to protect the environment.

Storage

Store in a refrigerator. Do not freeze. Keep the vaccine in the outer carton in order to protect it from light.

Description

After reconstitution, one dose (0.5 ml) contains 4.5-6.0 log10 ccid50* of each serotype of the cyd dengue virus** (1, 2, 3 and 4).

* ccid50: 50% cell culture infectious dose.

** produced in serum-free vero cells by recombinant dna technology.

The powder is a white, homogenous, freeze-dried powder with possible retraction at the base, and may form a ring-shaped cake.

The solvent (0.4% sodium chloride solution) is a clear, colorless liquid.

After reconstitution with the solvent provided, dengvaxia is a clear, colorless liquid with the possible presence of white to translucent particles.

Excipients/inactive ingredients: essential amino acids including l-phenylalanine, non-essential amino acids, l-arginine hydrochloride, sucrose, d-trehalose dihydrate, d-sorbitol, trometamol, urea, sodium chloride, water for injections.

Mechanism of action

Dengvaxia contains dengue virus serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 that have been weakened. Dengvaxia works by stimulating the body's natural defenses (immune system), which produces its own protection (antibodies) against the viruses that cause dengue disease.

Dengue is a viral infection transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected aedes mosquito. Dengue is not transmitted directly from person-to-person. Nevertheless the virus which replicates in an infected individual can be transmitted to other humans through mosquito bites for 4-5 days (maximum 12 days) after the first symptoms appear.

Dengue disease results in a wide range of symptoms including fever, headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, swollen glands or skin rash. Symptoms usually last for 2-7 days. Dengue disease can also be asymptomatic.

However, occasionally dengue can be severe and potentially lead to hospitalization and in rare cases to death. Severe dengue is characterized by high fever and any of the following symptoms: severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, rapid breathing, severe bleeding, bleeding in stomach, bleeding gums, fatigue, restlessness, coma, seizure and organ failure.

Source:- http://www.mims.com/philippines/drug/info/dengvaxia

More information about dengvaxia - first vaccine against dengue

Sanofi awaits govt approval to launch dengue vaccine in india

Sanofi pasteur - dengue vaccine frequently asked questions

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First Vaccine Again Dengue

Dr. A.A Khan 93% (1041 ratings)
MBBS,CCA,DCA,AASECT,FPA,AAD,F.H.R.SM.I.M.S
General Physician, Bangalore
First Vaccine Again Dengue

Dengvaxia - First vaccine against dengue:

Dengvaxia is a vaccine used to help protect adult or children against dengue disease caused by dengue virus serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4. Dengvaxia is given to adults, adolescents and children 9 through 45 years of age living in endemic areas.

 

Read more:-

Dengue symptoms and what to do if you think you have denguedengue fever - remedies using papaya leaf juice

 

Full prescribing info - dengvaxia

Contents

Dengue tetravalent vaccine (live, attenuated).

Indications / uses

Dengvaxia is a vaccine used to help protect adult or children against dengue disease caused by dengue virus serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4. Dengvaxia is given to adults, adolescents and children 9 through 45 years of age living in endemic areas.

Dosage / direction for use

The patient will receive 3 injections of 0.5 ml each at 6-month intervals.

The first injection will occur at the chosen or scheduled date; the second injection, 6 months after the first injection; and the third injection, 6 months after the second injection. Dengvaxia should be used according to the local vaccination schedule.

If the patient forgot an injection of dengvaxia: if the patient missed a scheduled injection, the physician will decide when to give the missed injection.

It is important that the patient follows the instructions of the physician, pharmacist or nurse regarding return visits for the follow-up injection. If the patient forgets or is not able to go back to the physician, pharmacist or nurse at the scheduled time, ask the physician, pharmacist or nurse for advice.

Administration: dengvaxia is given by the physician or nurse as an injection underneath the skin (subcutaneous route) in the upper arm.

Contraindications

Do not use dengvaxia if the patient is allergic (hypertensive) to the active substances or any of the other ingredients of dengvaxia listed in description (see description); has developed an allergic reaction after prior administration of dengvaxia. Signs of an allergic reaction may include an itchy rash, shortness of breath and swelling of the face and tongue; is suffering from a disease with mild to high fever or acute disease. In this case, the physician will postpone the administration of dengvaxia until the patient has recovered; has a weakened immune system, for example due to a genetic defect, hiv infection or therapies that affect the immune system (for example, high-dose corticosteroids or chemotherapy); is pregnant; is breastfeeding.

Use in pregnancy lactation: Dengvaxia must not be given to pregnant or breastfeeding women.

If the patient is of child-bearing stage, the patient should take the necessary precautions to avoid pregnancy for 1 month following administration of dengvaxia; is pregnant or breastfeeding, the patient thinks may be pregnant or is planning to have a baby, ask the physician, pharmacist or nurse for advice before receiving dengvaxia.

Special precautions

Inform the physician, pharmacist or nurse before receiving dengvaxia if the patient is taking an immunosuppressive treatment (prednisone or equivalent to 20 mg or 2 mg/kg for 2 weeks or more). The physician will postpone administration of dengvaxia until 4 weeks after the treatment is discontinued; has experienced any health problems after prior administration of any vaccines. The physician will carefully consider the risks and benefits of vaccination.

As with all vaccines, dengvaxia may not protect 100% of persons who have been vaccinated. Vaccination with dengvaxia is not a substitute for protection against mosquito bites. The patient should take appropriate precautions to prevent mosquito bites, including the use of repellents, adequate clothing, and mosquito nets.

Fainting, sometimes accompanied by falling, can occur (mostly in adolescents) following, or even before, any injection with a needle. Therefore inform the physician, pharmacist or nurse if the patient fainted with a prior injection.

Adults above 45 years of age: adults above 45 years of age should not receive the vaccine.

Driving and using machines: no data are available on the effects of dengvaxia on the ability to drive or use machines.

Use in children: Children less than 9 years of age should not receive the vaccine.

 

Side effects:

Like all medicines, dengvaxia can cause side effects, although not all patients get them.

Serious allergic reactions: If any of these symptoms occur after leaving the place where the patient received an injection, consult a physician immediately: difficulty in breathing, blueness of the tongue or lips, a rash, swelling of the face or throat, low blood pressure causing dizziness or collapse.

When these signs and symptoms occur they usually develop quickly after the injection is given and while the patient is still in clinic or physician's surgery.

Serious allergic reactions are very rare (may affect up to 1 in 10,000 people), after receiving any vaccine.

Other side effects: The following side effects were reported during clinical studies in children, adolescents and adults (from 9 to and including 60 years of age). Most of the reported side effects occurred within 3 days after the injection of the vaccine: very common (may affect more than 1 user in 10): headache, muscle pain (myalgia), generally feeling unwell (malaise), feeling of weakness (asthenia), injection site pain, fever.

Common (may affect up to 1 user in 10): Injection site reactions: redness (erythema), bruising (hematoma), swelling, and itching (pruritus).

Uncommon (may affect up to 1 user in 100): Infections of the upper respiratory tract, dizziness, sore throat (oropharyngeal pain), cough, runny nose (rhinorrhea), nausea, skin eruption (rash), neck pain, hardening of skin at the injection site (injection site induration).

Additional side effects in adults (from 18 to and including 60 years of age): Uncommon (may affect up to 1 user in 100): swollen glands (lymphadenopathy), migraine, joint pain (arthralgia), flu-like symptoms (influenza-like illness).

Additional side effects in children and adolescents (from 9 to and including 17 years of age: Uncommon (may affect up to 1 user in 100), Itchy rash (urticaria).

Reporting of side effects or any suspected adverse event: If the patient experiences any side effects after vaccination, advised to seek immediate medical attention.

By reporting side effects, it can help provide more information on the safety of the vaccine.

 

Interactions:

Using other medicines and dengvaxia: Dengvaxia may not have an optimal effect if it used at the same time as medicines that suppress the immune system such as corticosteroids or chemotherapy.

Inform the physician, pharmacist or nurse if the patient is taking or has recently taken any other vaccines or any other medicines, including medicines obtained without a prescription.

 

Caution for usage:

Before administering any biological, the person responsible for administration must take all precautions to prevent allergic or other reactions. As with all injectable vaccines, appropriate medical treatment and supervision must always be readily available in the event of an anaphylactic reaction following the administration of dengvaxia.

Epinephrine (1:1000) and other appropriate agents used to control immediate allergic reactions must be available to treat unexpected events such as anaphylaxis.

Dengvaxia must not be mixed with other medicinal products in the same syringe.

Dengvaxia must not be administered by intravascular injection under any circumstances.

Syncope (fainting) can occur following, or even before, any vaccination as a psychogenic response to injection with a needle. Procedures should be in place to prevent injury from falling and to manage syncopal reactions.

Separate syringes and needles, separate injection sites and preferably separate limbs must be used if any other vaccine (s) or medicinal product (s) is/are concomitantly administered.

Dengvaxia is reconstituted by transferring all the solvent (0.4% sodium chloride solution) provided in the blue-labeled pre-filled syringe into the vial of freeze dried powder with a yellowish green flip off cap. The pre-filled syringe is fitted with a sterile needle for this transfer. The vial is then gently swirled. After complete dissolution, a 0.5 ml dose of reconstituted suspension is withdrawn into the same syringe. For injection, the syringe should be fitted with the new sterile needle.

The suspension should be visually inspected prior to administration. After reconstitution, dengvaxia is clear, colorless liquid with the possible presence of white to translucent particles (of endogenous nature).

After reconstitution with the solvent provided, dengvaxia must be used immediately.

Any unused dengvaxia or waste material should be disposed of, preferably by heat inactivation or incineration, in accordance with local regulations.

Do not throw away any medicines via wastewater or household waste. Ask a pharmacist on how to throw away medicines that no longer use. These measures will help to protect the environment.

 

Storage

Store in a refrigerator (2°c-8°c). Do not freeze. Keep the vaccine in the outer carton in order to protect it from light.

 

Description

After reconstitution, one dose (0.5 ml) contains 4.5-6.0 log10 ccid50* of each serotype of the cyd dengue virus** (1, 2, 3 and 4).

* ccid50: 50% cell culture infectious dose.

** produced in serum-free vero cells by recombinant dna technology.

The powder is a white, homogenous, freeze-dried powder with possible retraction at the base, and may form a ring-shaped cake.

The solvent (0.4% sodium chloride solution) is a clear, colorless liquid.

After reconstitution with the solvent provided, dengvaxia is a clear, colorless liquid with the possible presence of white to translucent particles.

Excipients/inactive ingredients: essential amino acids including l-phenylalanine, non-essential amino acids, l-arginine hydrochloride, sucrose, d-trehalose dihydrate, d-sorbitol, trometamol, urea, sodium chloride, water for injections.

 

Mechanism of action:

Dengvaxia contains dengue virus serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 that have been weakened. Dengvaxia works by stimulating the body's natural defenses (immune system), which produces its own protection (antibodies) against the viruses that cause dengue disease.

Dengue is a viral infection transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected aedes mosquito. Dengue is not transmitted directly from person-to-person. Nevertheless the virus which replicates in an infected individual can be transmitted to other humans through mosquito bites for 4-5 days (maximum 12 days) after the first symptoms appear.

Dengue disease results in a wide range of symptoms including fever, headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, swollen glands or skin rash. Symptoms usually last for 2-7 days. Dengue disease can also be asymptomatic.

However, occasionally dengue can be severe and potentially lead to hospitalization and in rare cases to death. Severe dengue is characterized by high fever and any of the following symptoms: severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, rapid breathing, severe bleeding, bleeding in stomach, bleeding gums, fatigue, restlessness, coma, seizure and organ failure.

Source:- http://www.mims.com/philippines/drug/info/dengvaxia

More information about dengvaxia - First vaccine against dengue

Sanofi awaits govt approval to launch dengue vaccine in india

 

Sanofi pasteur - Dengue vaccine frequently asked questions

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