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Migraine Prophylaxis Tips

How to tackle Migraine

Dr. Sandeep Nayani 90% (76 ratings)
DM - Neurology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Neurologist, Hyderabad
Migraine can be tackled by a combination of medical and lifestyle measures.
Medical measures: if you have frequent episodes, you will need 2 types of medicines- one to be taken daily for a period of at least 6 months as prophylaxis and 2nd to be taken during attacks of headache for quick relief of pain. These medication should be started only after consultation with a neurologist and ruling out other rare but serious causes of headache.

Lifestyle measures:
Lifestyle measures play an equal, if not greater role in management of migraine. They include:
1) regular intake of meals. Avoid fasting, eat breakfast, lumnch and dinner at fixed timings.
2) good 7 hours of uninterrupted sleep daily
3) avoiding foods that precipitate migraine like cheese, chocolate, excess coffee/tea and sour foods

In addition, you may have to temporarily avoid excessive travel and exposure to sunlight which can precipitate headache. Yoga/ meditation and relaxation techniques will help immensely.

Dengue prophylaxis by Homoeopathy

Dr. Arpit Chopra 90% (509 ratings)
MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Indore
Dengue prophylaxis by Homoeopathy
For dengue prophylaxis take homoeopathic eupatorium perf 1 m two doses in single day as prevention is better than cure.
24 people found this helpful

PEP (Post-Exposure Prophylaxis) in HIV

Dr. Ashutosh Upadhyay 94% (477 ratings)
MBBS, PGDHIVM (HIV Medicine)
General Physician, Delhi
PEP (Post-Exposure Prophylaxis) in HIV

PEP (Post-Exposure Prophylaxis) in HIV.

First of all we should know what PEP is?

PEP stands for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis. It means things to be done if anyone gets exposed to HIV. PEP consists of a combination of ARV (Anti-Retroviral) drugs which is given for a complete duration of 28 Days.

If any person (male/female/transgender) comes in contact with a person who might be having risk of HIV infection, then in such case the former have chance of getting HIV infection too. Such person falls in the category of clients who should start PEP depending upon the risk of transmission and mode of exposure.

What Are the Modes of Exposure?

  1. Sexual contact with a Commercial Sex Worker OR with an unknown person whose HIV status is not known. Examples.-
  1. In case of unprotected sex or
  2. Condom bursts while having protected sex
  1. Needle prick injury OR injury from sharp object (blades) from unknown source. Examples.-

  1. People taking drugs by sharing same needle/syringe or
  2. People working in laboratory and getting needle prick from infected blood or
  3. Accidental needle prick from an unknown source or
  4. Cut by used Blades in barber shop.

What to “DO” in such circumstances?

Previously there were no options available for persons who by any means gets exposed to HIV.

But due to recent advances, now we have a set of medicines available which are very much beneficial in such conditions.

So any person getting into such circumstances knowingly or unknowingly SHOULD visit a HIV Specialist for management as soon as possible (it should be within 72 Hours), because the PEP is beneficial only if started early (maximum within 72 Hours).

By doing this we can PREVENT patients from getting HIV infection.

Always Remember Prevention Is Better Than Cure.

6 people found this helpful

How Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) Can Help With HIV?

Dr. Vikram Jeet Singh 89% (26 ratings)
MD - Physician, PG Diploma Diabetes, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Delhi
How Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) Can Help With HIV?

When you are potentially exposed to HIV, and if there is a way to prevent from getting infected, you will seek to perform it. One such procedure is Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) which must be initiated within 72 hours of possible exposure to HIV.

What is PEP meant for?
The Human immune deficiency virus causes HIV infection that affects the immune system and is considered to be one of the deadly forms of infections. This virus spreads through bodily fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids and breast milk. There are chances of encountering the infection under the circumstances such as having sexual intercourse or sharing needles with an infected person by accident. In such a case, PEP (Post Exposure Prophylaxis) can come to your aid in preventing the infection.

The medical term PEP refers to the intake of ARV or antiretroviral medicines after being exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus. To be more specific, PEP is a short-term antiretroviral treatment that works towards reducing the symptoms and likelihood of the HIV infection after being exposed to it.

Who should opt for PEP treatment?
PEP can be ideal for everyone who comes in contact with the HIV and is an HIV negative. Whether one is exposed to HIV through a needle stick injury during his/her work as a health care professional, or whether it’s unprotected sex that has exposed one to HIV, or the sharing of used needles or through sexual assault, opting for the PEP can be the next best step as it is particularly meant for emergency situations.

When and how long PEP can be taken?

As per the research, PEP should be taken within 3 days or 72 hours from the possible time of being exposed to HIV. If taken after 72 hours, the PEP most likely cannot help in preventing the HIV infection, hence the sooner, the better in this case. The course of PEP involves 3 ARV or more per day for almost 28 days. Along with taking the ARV medications, one must visit his/her health care professional at certain intervals for HIV testing and other related tests.

Are there any side-effects of taking PEP?
When opting for PEP treatment, some people may experience a few side effects due to it, which varies from person to person, such as vomiting, nausea, headaches, diarrhea, fatigue, etc. However, none of the side effects are life-threatening and can be easily treated. Often, it is due to the reaction of the PEP medications with other drugs that one is taking at the same time that the side-effects start showing. Moreover, as PEP can potentially prevent HIV infection, this benefit certainly outweighs the inconvenience caused as side effects.

PEP is considered to be one of the most effective and promising treatments available for preventing HIV infection if taken correctly and within the certain time duration. In case one thinks he or she has been exposed to HIV somehow, talking to a health care professional regarding PEP becomes crucial.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2976 people found this helpful

Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis - How It Can Help You?

Dr. R.Pavan Kumar 88% (39 ratings)
MBBS, PGDHS,PGDHIVM
General Physician, Nalgonda
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis - How It Can Help You?

Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a treatment method for people who do not have the HIV infection but who might be facing a considerable risk of contacting the disease. It is done by taking one pill daily. The pill comprises of two medicines i.e. tenofovir and emtricitabine. These two are combined with other drugs in order to treat HIV. When a person is exposed to HIV, be it through sexual intercourse or shared needles, these drugs help in stopping the infection from reaching an advanced stage.

Dosage and use
When the drug is consumed on a regular basis, pre-exposure prophylaxis has been observed to decrease the risk of HIV infection in individuals with increased risk by up to 92%. Pre-exposure prophylaxis is not as effective when not taken on a consistent basis.

Advantages

  1. It can actually help patients: While many still consider it to be a farce, pre-exposure prophylaxis has been proven to reduce the risk of HIV infection transmitted from unprotected sex. Recording a success rate of over 90% in that field, Pre-exposure prophylaxis has been proven to show a success rate of 70% in people who inject drugs in their body. These results could be a reflection of individuals on being consistent in this treatment method. For people who are forced to limited possibilities to protect themselves from the HIV virus, pre-exposure prophylaxis permits them to control their risk of contacting HIV.
  2. Affordable: The PrEP drug costs are lesser than HIV treatment when analyzed at both per-dose and duration of use levels. Furthermore, PrEP is prescribed on a consistent basis, only when an individual is facing a heightened risk of HIV. But if an individual contracts HIV, they will be required to be a part of the Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) process for the rest of their lives in order to stay in good physical shape. A PrEP program is projected to cost less than 5% of an average HIV program’s entire budget.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

 

3370 people found this helpful

What Is Post Exposure Prophylaxis?

Dr. Vinod Raina 89% (5841 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi

Post exposure prophylaxis(PEP) is a systemic treatment in which we can save life of a patient and help him to prevent from being HIV positive. Any possible exposure which will lead to HIV infection including sexual intercourse with sex worker and during that condom get burst or having intimate massage at massage parlor, the person is exposed to direct contact that can lead to the possible exposure to HIV.

2 people found this helpful

What Is Post-exposure Prophylaxis?

Dr. Vinod Raina 89% (5841 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
What Is Post-exposure Prophylaxis?

What is post-exposure prophylaxis?

With PEP, an HIV-negative person who may have been exposed to HIV takes anti-HIV drugs prescribed by a doctor to prevent infection. These are the same drugs that people living with HIV take. PEP involves taking two or three of these drugs for a period of one month. To effectively reduce a person’s risk of becoming HIV-positive, PEP must be taken within 72 hours of possible exposure to HIV but ideally as early as possible.  

In the world of PEP, exposure to HIV is often divided into two categories: occupational exposure and non-occupational exposure. “Occupational” exposure refers to exposure to HIV at work, in a healthcare setting. For example, a healthcare provider could be exposed to HIV through a needlestick injury at work. “Non-occupational” exposure refers to exposure to HIV through sex or drug use, for example, when a person shares a needle or has sex without a condom.

What is the rationale for PEP?

In the first one to three days following exposure to HIV, there is a ‘window of opportunity’ when taking PEP might prevent an HIV infection from occurring.1 During this ‘window of opportunity,’ the virus is busy infecting cells at the site of exposure (such as in the anus, penis or vagina). Once the virus is inside a cell, it starts replicating to produce more HIV (also known as virions). After a few days, these new HIV virions start to spread throughout the body; once this happens, infection is permanent. The theory is that if PEP is given to a person early enough, it can stop the virus from replicating at the initial site of exposure, preventing virions from spreading throughout the body – stopping the infection from becoming permanent. The cells that initially became infected would eventually die out and the virus would not be able to replicate.   

What is the evidence on PEP?

There is some evidence that suggests that providing PEP after a potential exposure to HIV can help reduce a person’s risk of HIV infection. However, we also know that PEP is not 100% effective, meaning that it will not prevent all HIV infections.

Learn more about the evidence on PEP

What does someone need to know to access PEP?

People at risk need to know that PEP exists. If people are unaware of PEP, they won’t know that PEP is an option in the event of a high-risk behaviour that could result in being exposed to HIV. Very little research has been done to determine how many people are aware of PEP; however, based on the research that has been done, it seems that only a small proportion of gay and heterosexual men and women, even in cities with well-established PEP programs, are aware of PEP.9,10,11,12

People at risk need to know that time is of the essence. The later someone starts PEP, the less likely it is to prevent HIV infection. The best time to start PEP is immediately after exposure. However, PEP has some ability to prevent HIV infection up to 72 hours after infection.

People at risk need to know where to go. PEP must be prescribed by a doctor. Since time is of the essence, people need to be able to access services that are always open, such as emergency rooms. As a service provider, it may be important for you to know if there is a physician or healthcare facility in your area willing to prescribe PEP. If there isn’t, perhaps your organization can inform local clinicians of PEP and push for access to PEP for your clients.

Anyone accessing PEP will be tested for HIV. PEP is used to prevent HIV, not to treat it. People who go to a healthcare facility for PEP will be tested for HIV. They will still be prescribed PEP while the test results are pending; however, if the result is positive, PEP may either be discontinued or the anti-HIV drugs may be changed to HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) to treat the person’s HIV infection.

PEP can be costly and it may have to be paid for out of pocket. The cost of a full course of PEP is approximately $1100 to $1500. PEP may be covered by some private insurance plans and some public health insurance plans, depending on the province and the nature of the exposure. However, many at-risk individuals may not have access to any drug coverage and may not be able to afford it. There may be a need for advocacy in your area or province to fight for universal access to PEP.  

People on PEP may experience side effects. Depending on the anti-HIV drugs prescribed, people may experience side effects from PEP, such as fatigue, nausea or diarrhea. This can cause people to stop taking their PEP drugs as prescribed, which can decrease the ability of the medications to prevent HIV infection and increase the likelihood of being infected with a drug-resistant strain of HIV.

People on PEP have to be monitored by a doctor. Testing for toxicity will be required to make sure the drugs are not causing harm to the body. The type of tests may differ depending on the anti-HIV drugs that are prescribed but would likely include liver and kidney tests.

PEP can fail to prevent HIV infection if someone doesn’t take the anti-HIV drugs as prescribed. Taking the anti-HIV drugs exactly as prescribed (also known as adherence) is central to the success of PEP. If someone doesn’t take their PEP as prescribed, then HIV infection could occur. There are two issues with adherence:

Some people might start PEP but stop using it early (before the four weeks are over). In research studies 24% to 78% of people who started PEP stopped taking it early.13
Some people may not take their PEP exactly as prescribed. For example, some people may occasionally forget doses, or take only every second dose.  
Drug resistance can develop if a person doesn’t take the anti-HIV drugs as prescribed. If a person becomes HIV-positive due to non-adherence, they may develop drug resistance. When someone does not take PEP as prescribed, the amount of anti-HIV drugs in the blood can be too low to suppress the HIV, which can allow the virus to evolve and develop resistance. It is important to understand that infection with a drug-resistant strain of HIV limits a person’s future treatment options. If a person with a drug-resistant strain of HIV subsequently infects someone else with HIV, drug resistance spreads within the community.

Community agencies can provide adherence support for people on PEP by providing ongoing consultation and encouragement to help people take PEP exactly as prescribed and to complete their treatment.

PEP may fail to prevent HIV infection due to drug resistance. If a person is exposed to a drug-resistant strain of HIV and the person is prescribed the drug they are resistant to, as part of their PEP regime, then PEP may fail to prevent HIV infection. Unfortunately, there is no way to know within the first one to three days if someone has been exposed to drug-resistant HIV.
 

Scaling/oral prophylaxis does not make your tooth weak

Dr. Shahnawaz Ismail 90% (270 ratings)
BDS
Dentist, Jaunpur
Scaling/oral prophylaxis does not make your tooth weak
Scaling/oral prophylaxis does not make your tooth weak.
96 people found this helpful

Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) - How It Can Help With HIV?

Dr. R.Pavan Kumar 88% (39 ratings)
MBBS, PGDHS,PGDHIVM
General Physician, Nalgonda
Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) - How It Can Help With HIV?

When you are potentially exposed to HIV, and if there is a way to prevent from getting infected, you will seek to perform it. One such procedure is Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) which must be initiated within 72 hours of possible exposure to HIV.

What is PEP meant for?
The Human immune deficiency virus causes HIV infection that affects the immune system and is considered to be one of the deadly forms of infections. This virus spreads through bodily fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids and breast milk. There are chances of encountering the infection under the circumstances such as having sexual intercourse or sharing needles with an infected person by accident. In such a case, PEP (Post Exposure Prophylaxis) can come to your aid in preventing the infection.

The medical term PEP refers to the intake of ARV or antiretroviral medicines after being exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus. To be more specific, PEP is a short-term antiretroviral treatment that works towards reducing the symptoms and likelihood of the HIV infection after being exposed to it.

Who should opt for PEP treatment?
PEP can be ideal for everyone who comes in contact with the HIV and is an HIV negative. Whether one is exposed to HIV through a needle stick injury during his/her work as a health care professional, or whether it’s unprotected sex that has exposed one to HIV, or the sharing of used needles or through sexual assault, opting for the PEP can be the next best step as it is particularly meant for emergency situations.

When and how long PEP can be taken?

As per the research, PEP should be taken within 3 days or 72 hours from the possible time of being exposed to HIV. If taken after 72 hours, the PEP most likely cannot help in preventing the HIV infection, hence the sooner, the better in this case. The course of PEP involves 3 ARV or more per day for almost 28 days. Along with taking the ARV medications, one must visit his/her health care professional at certain intervals for HIV testing and other related tests.

Are there any side-effects of taking PEP?
When opting for PEP treatment, some people may experience a few side effects due to it, which varies from person to person, such as vomiting, nausea, headaches, diarrhea, fatigue, etc. However, none of the side effects are life-threatening and can be easily treated. Often, it is due to the reaction of the PEP medications with other drugs that one is taking at the same time that the side-effects start showing. Moreover, as PEP can potentially prevent HIV infection, this benefit certainly outweighs the inconvenience caused as side effects.

PEP is considered to be one of the most effective and promising treatments available for preventing HIV infection if taken correctly and within the certain time duration. In case one thinks he or she has been exposed to HIV somehow, talking to a health care professional regarding PEP becomes crucial. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Physician.

3084 people found this helpful

Migraine

Dr. Vishram Rajhans 90% (1298 ratings)
LCPS, BAM&S
Integrated Medicine Specialist, Pune
Migraine
Migraine is a mysterious disease. It presents with most common symptom, headache. It gets relieved by simple treatment like aspirin and paracetamol. But when it gets again and again then people start visiting doctors. Unfortunately most doctors prescribe similar drugs or more specific vaso-constrictor drugs. But result is same, there is temporary relief but the headache recurs. It usually is once or twice a month. It may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, flashing before eyes, aura etc. The migraine is the most important disease which cause frustration on either side i. E. Patients and doctors.
Migraine is a symptom of stress i. E. Physical and mental. Most of the doctors don't know how to deal with stress. So they advise only rest, or tranquillizers. But these are again temporary measures. What is required is exploration of the patient's history, find out stressors i. E. The causes of stress, provide short term and long term remedial measures to deal with stress, monitor the stress level, modify the treatment from time to time and finally educate the patient how to live a stress free life. When this is done, most of the patients get a permanent cure from migraine. Since most doctors have no time for this, the new branch of medicine i. E. Holistic medicine and lifestyle therapy takes care of such patients. Holistic branch also involves herbal treatment which is a better solution than a chemical one.

Migraine patients also have to understand that there is no simple cure. But if they follow the advise and adjust their lives with new therapeutic advise, surely there is a new hope in their lives. Only you must find a good holistic and lifestyle consultant around.
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