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Mental Retardation Health Feed

Stereotypic Movement Disorder - How To Get Rid Of It?

Dr. Srinivasa Sastry Malladi 91% (78 ratings)
MBBS, MRCPsych (UK), CCST (General Adult Psychiatry and Geriatric Psychiatry)
Psychiatrist, Visakhapatnam
Stereotypic Movement Disorder - How To Get Rid Of It?

We all tend to engage in some repetitive activities at various points in our lives. However, when a person continues to engage in the same activities which are rhythmic but purposeless, resulting in self-injury or injury to others, it is known as stereotypic movement disorder (SMD). In order to qualify as an SMD, the routine movements should continue for at least four weeks and should interfere with the daily functioning.

This disorder is more common in adolescent boys than in girls, and is associated with other mental conditions like autism, intellectual disability (ID), and neurological disorders. The repeated actions tend to aggravate with frustration, boredom, stress, and anger. Some of the common movements include head banging, self-biting, nail biting, rocking, handshaking, waving into the air, putting objects in the mouth, and picking one’s own skin.
There is no known cause for this disease, though head injury and cocaine are said to cause SMD.

Treatment: Suspected children are diagnosed with SMD after a thorough clinical examination and interview with the parents is done. The treatment then includes a two-pronged approach—improving function and preventing injury.

  1. The environment is usually made safer so that even if the repetitive actions are being carried out, the damage done to the child is minimised. For instance, for a child who might be banging his/her head repeatedly, a helmet may be used.
  2. Antidepressants, in mild doses, may prove to be useful for some children to control their sadness, which is a trigger for repetitive behaviour. Atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone or aripiprazole are also used for patients who might have associated autism symptoms.
  3. Another trigger is stress, which should be reduced for the child. This prevents the onset of repetitive action, which in turn prevents injury. The child is also trained on how to control his/her own emotions. For instance, children with this condition are taught to put their hands in their pocket if they get a strong urge to pick their own skin. This, when done over a period of time, can help control the habit.
  4. The child is also taught relaxation techniques, which can help in controlling the urge.
  5. Behavioural therapy approach known as differential reinforcement of other behaviours (DRO) is used where socially appropriate behaviours of the child are suitably rewarded. Over a period of time, this becomes a habit, and good behaviours are reinforced.
  6. Another behavioural approach called functional communication training (FTC) is used where the child uses alternative actions or verbal responses in place of the repetitive, harmful actions. This again is reinforced to form a habit with time.

All affected people can have a significant reduction in symptoms with a combination of medications and counselling and supportive therapy. Early detection and intervention can help in curtailing the progression of the symptoms.
 

Intellectual Disability - How To Administer It?

Dr. Indranil Saha 97% (223 ratings)
MBBS, MD Psychiatry, DPM Psychological Medicine
Psychiatrist, Kolkata
Intellectual Disability - How To Administer It?

As parents watch their children grow, they take pleasure in seeing their kids perform simple activities like crawling, rolling, talking, walking, etc. However, a child’s intellectual development could be hampered, and they could have an intellectual disability (ID). While the symptoms are obvious during infancy in some children, others show symptoms only during their schooling period. There are associated mental conditions like seizures, mood disorders, vision/hearing problems, autism, etc.

In medical terms, a child is said to be affected by ID if his/her IQ is less than 75. Normal IQ ranges between 85 and 115, with the average being 100. There are various tests that a doctor would do to test if the child’s IQ is affected. The following are some milestones that the family can observe to help in diagnosis.

  1. Rolling, sitting, crawling, and walking are all delayed
  2. Improper speech
  3. Slow to learn things like toilet training, dressing, feeding, etc.
  4. Tends to forget things easily
  5. Throwing tantrums to get what they want
  6. Lack of logical thinking, problem-solving, and connecting actions with results

Causes: While the exact aetiology is not established, in 2/3 affected children, ID is the result of when the brain development is affected. Some of the causes include the following:

  1. Genetic conditions like Down syndrome
  2. Alcohol or drugs or smoking abuse, malnutrition, and infections during pregnancy
  3. Issues during childbirth, including forceps delivery, reduced oxygen levels, or premature birth
  4. Illnesses during early stages of life, including whooping cough, meningitis, head injury, toxic substances exposure, severe abuse, and malnutrition

Diagnosis: In addition to IQ tests, other structural abnormalities can be diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and an electroencephalogram (EEG) to look for evidence of seizures, etc. Observing the child, interviewing the parents, and testing the child can together help in confirming the diagnosis.

Management: The family has to work together to get the child to lead a normal life. Speech therapy, occupational therapy, nutrition counselling, physical therapy, etc., are all available as support systems to work on improving various aspects. The parents play a critical role and in addition to above, they can do the following:

  1. Learn about the condition as much as possible and support the child.
  2. Allow the child to become independent, even if he/she is making mistakes. Allow them to make mistakes until they learn the right way of doing things. Coax them into taking feedback and learning new things.
  3. Get them involved in group activities like arts, sports, etc.
  4. Keep in touch with the teachers so that you are aware of their progress in school.
  5. Reinforcing learning at home is very essential.
  6. Form support groups with similar parents and caretakers.
  7. ID is definitely not easy to manage in a child, but there is definitely a lot of help available compared to what was available earlier.
2 people found this helpful

Vipasana - Know Essence Of It!

Dr. Vishal Koshiya 89% (137 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurvedic Doctor, Surat
Vipasana - Know Essence Of It!

A number of health problems are rooted in mental instability. Frequent bouts of anger and frustration can lead to stress and related problems. One of the most efficient ways of dealing with this instability and stress is meditation.

Vipasana is an ancient meditative technique that promises to allow a person to see the true nature of things. In Buddhist tradition, it literally translates to insight to the true reality of nature namely impermanence, suffering and the realization of non-self. It focuses on self-observation and the connection between mind and body and aims to eradicate mental impurities.

Vipasana meditation can be broken down into four stages.

  1. Discovering Vitakka and Vicara: The first stage of Vipasana explores the connection between body and mind. This is done by concentrating on inhaling and exhaling and the feeling of air passing over the skin in front of the nose. Vitakka and vicara refer to the concentration and thought required to feel the connection between mind and body.

  2. Disappearance of Vitakka and Vicara: In the second stage, the connection between mind and body is felt effortlessly. Thus, in this stage both vitakka and vicara fade away. This is known as anapana meditation and helps develop control over the mind.

  3. Happiness: When a person reaches the third stage of vipasana, he stops focusing on emotions like pity, sadness, exuberance and only feels happiness. This frees the mind of negativity and hence purifies it.

  4. Equanimity: The fourth and final stage is characterized by mindfulness and leads to clarity. At this stage, a person feels the desire for freedom and understands nature to be ever changing.

Vipasana is taught at a ten day residential program. Here, participants must adhere to a code of discipline that includes absolute silence and abstaining from any form of communication, sexual activity and substance abuse. Participants are taught the basics of the meditation technique and how to practice it but to benefit fully from it, regular meditation is necessary. Advanced vipasana students may attend 20, 30, 45 and 60-day courses to practice vipasana. An introduction to vipasana is also given to children in the form of short 3 day courses.

Ultimately, vipasana enables the practitioner to experience peace and harmony within oneself and with the rest of the world. It frees the mind from craving and hence also helps people abstain from social evils like stealing and killing. Thus, vipasana has the capacity to change minds and character and helps practitioners lead to fulfilling healthy lives.

2539 people found this helpful

दिमाग की कमजोरी - Dimag Ki Kamzori!

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh 90% (193 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurvedic Doctor, Lakhimpur Kheri
दिमाग की कमजोरी - Dimag Ki Kamzori!

कई कारणों से दिन-प्रतिदिन हमारी जीवनशैली में लगातार बदलाव का असर हमारे दिमाग पर भी पड़ा है. पिछले कुछ वर्षों में कई लोगों में दिमागी कमजोरी की शिकायतें लगातार बढ़ रही हैं. हमारी जीवन शैली में में आने वाले बदलावों के कारण हमारे सोचने और काम करने की प्रक्रिया में भी परिवर्तन आया है. आजकल हम देखते हैं कि आधुनिक समाज में हर व्यक्ति दूसरे व्यक्ति से किसी भी कीमत पर आगे निकलना चाहता है. आप अपने चारों तरफ देखेंगे तो पता चलेगा कि हर तरफ आगे बढ़ने की होड़ लगी है. इन्हीं सब कारणों से हमारे मस्तिष्क पर अतिरिक्त भार पड़ता है. अब हालत ये है कि कम उम्र के लोग भी तनाव से ग्रसित हैं. कई बार आदमी का दिमाग कमजोर पड़ने लगता है. इसकी वजह से समस्या कई बार इतनी गंभीर हो जाती है कि व्यक्ति के मस्तिष्क में दौरे पड़ने लगते हैं. इस वजह से व्यक्ति अपने हर एक काम के लिए दूसरों पर निर्भर हो जाता है. उसे बोलने, पढ़ने, लिखने, समझने में दिक्कत आती है. साथ ही व्यक्ति की याद्दाश्त भी कमजोर होने लगती है. आइए इस लेख के माध्यम से दिमागी कमजोरी को विस्तारपूर्वक समझें.

1. क्या है दिमागी कमजोरी

दिमाग को सही ढंग से काम करने के लिए पर्याप्त ऑक्सीजन चाहिए होता है. यदि दिमाग की कोशिकाओं तक ऑक्सीजन या अन्य पोषक तत्वों की प्रयाप्त मात्रा नहीं पहुंचती है तो मस्तिष्क की कार्यक्षमता प्रभावित होती है. जो दिमागी कमजोरी के रूप में सामने आता है. यदि दिमाग के किसी प्रमुख हिस्से में रक्त पहुंचाने वाली कोशिका में थक्का जम जाए तो, इस तरह की समस्या होती है. जब भी दिमाग का दौरा पड़ता है, तो एक मिनट के भीतर ही सभी प्रभावित कोशिकाएं दम तोड़ने लगती हैं. ऐसी स्थिति मे मरीज अपनी देखभाल तक करने लायक नहीं रहता. उसमें हिलने की भी शक्ति नहीं रहती.

2. दिमागी कमजोरी के लक्षण
हाथों-पैरों या चेहरे में अचानक झुनझुनाहट महसूस होना या कमजोरी आना. शरीर के एक तरफा हिस्से में लकवा भी आ सकता है. समझने या बोलने में एकाएक रुकावट आना. एक या फिर दोनों आंखों से दिखने में दिक्कत आना. चक्कर आना, चलने में परेशानी होना. शरीर को संतुलित रखने में परेशानी आना. गंभीर मरीज का बेहोशी में जाना. बिना किसी वजह के सिर में तेज दर्द उठना. किसी व्यक्ति में अगर ऐसा कोई लक्षण दिखे तो उसे तुरंत ही किसी न्यूरोलॉजिस्ट से सलाह लेनी चाहिए. ऐसे परिस्थिति में समय की बहुत कीमत होती है. जरा सी भी लापरवाही आपको अपनी जान देकर चुकानी पड़ सकती है.

3. दिमागी कमजोरी के कारण
यह बीमारी किसी भी व्यक्ति को हो सकती है. लेकिन यह ऐसे लोगों में अधिक होती है, जिन्हें धूम्रपान या तंबाकू की आदत होती है और जिन लोग को मधुमेह, उच्च रक्तचाप, डायबिटीज आदि बिमारी होती है. इसके अलावा जो लोग व्यायाम नहीं करते, ज्यादा घी- तेल खाने वालों में, मोटे लोगो में, तली हुई व चर्बीयुक्त पदार्थ अधिक खाने वालों और ज्यादा शराब पीने वाले लोगों में भी यह परेशानी होती है. आनुवंशिकता और तनाव भी इस बिमारी के काफी बड़े कारण है.

4. दिमागी कमजोरी से बचाव
इस बिमारी को दूर करने के लिए मांसपेशियों में होने वाले खिंचाव को कम करके गतिहीनता को दूर किया जाता है. रोज़ाना एक्सरसाइज़ से भी फायदा पहुंचता है. लेकिन यह उपाय मरीज को पूरी तरह ठीक नहीं कर पाते. इसलिए डाक्टर रोगी की हालत व गतिहीनता को देखकर उपचार करते हैं. खानपान की आदतों में भी कुछ बदलाव करके इस बीमारी के जोखिम को घटाया जा सकता है. खाने में फलों और हरी सब्जियां को शामिल करें. अधिक वसा, चिकनाई वाले खाद्य पदार्थो व जंक फूड्स से दूर रहें. चीनी व नमक का कम उपयोग भी सहायता करता है. वजन कंट्रोल करने के लिए सुबह टहलने की आदत डालें.

7 people found this helpful

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome!

Dr. Radhika A (Md) 87% (13 ratings)
MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome!

What is Fetal alcohol syndrome?

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition that results from alcohol exposure during pregnancy. When a woman drinks alcohol during pregnancy, she risks giving birth to a child who will pay the price in mental and physical deficiencies for his or her entire life.

Symptoms of Fetal alcohol syndrome-

  • Deformities of joints, limbs and fingers
  • Low birth weight
  • Small head circumference
  • Slow physical growth before and after birth
  • Vision difficulties or hearing problems
  • Poor coordination
  • Lack of imagination or curiosity
  • Mental retardation and delayed development
  • Learning disorders
  • Abnormal behavior
  • Social withdrawal
  • Heart defects

Causes of Fetal alcohol syndrome-

When you’re pregnant and drink alcohol, it enters your bloodstream and reaches your developing fetus by crossing the placenta. It interferes with the delivery of oxygen and optimal nutrition to your baby’s developing tissues and organs, including the brain.

Risk factors of Fetal alcohol syndrome-

  • Alcohol consumption during pregnancy
  • Diagnosis of Fetal alcohol syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome can be diagnosed before a baby is born. Your doctor can assess the health of mother and baby during pregnancy. If you let your child’s doctor know that you drank alcoholic beverages during your pregnancy, he or she can watch for signs and symptoms of this syndrome in your child’s initial weeks, months and years of life.

Precautions & Prevention of Fetal alcohol syndrome-

The following precautions can help prevent fetal alcohol syndrome:

  • Don’t drink alcohol if you’re trying to get pregnant
  • Avoid alcohol throughout your pregnancy
  • If you have an alcohol problem, get professional help before you get pregnant

Treatment of Fetal alcohol syndrome-

  • Homeopathic Treatment of Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Psychotherapy Treatment of Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Surgical Treatment of Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Other Treatment of Fetal alcohol syndrome


Treatment of Fetal alcohol syndrome-

Homeopathic Treatment of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-

Homeopathy may play a supportive role. It can prevent as well as provides significant relief in complaints like promoting normal physical and mental development and body functions. Some of the homeopathic medicines for fetal heart syndrome are:

  • Bar C
  • Nux V
  • Ant C
  • Chel
  • Lach 

Surgical Treatment of Fetal alcohol syndrome-

Heart abnormalities may require surgery.

Other Treatment of Fetal alcohol syndrome-

  • Learning problems may be helped by special services in school.
  • Parents often benefit from counseling to help the family with a child’s behavioral problems

 

Autism - How Homeopathy Can Handle It?

Dr. Yamini Ramesh 91% (69 ratings)
BHMS, CCAH, Fellowship course in Advance Homoepath - FCAH
Homeopathy Doctor, Indore
Autism - How Homeopathy Can Handle It?

The human brain is a unique and intricate organ which performs many functions both consciously and subconsciously. However, during the formation of the brain within the mother's womb, the slightest of changes can cause damages to it which manifest in many forms after birth. One of the forms it may manifest in is Autism.

What is Autism?

Autism, sometimes also classified as part of the Autism Spectrum disorder or ASD is a disorder of brain development which will affect a child's capability to interact socially, in communicating through verbal and nonverbal means as well as exhibit repetitive behaviors. Some severe cases of these behaviors may also result in self-harm as well. 

Other than this some other characteristics may be:

1. Major to minor difficulties in motor coordination
2. Intellectual disabilities
3. Attention problems
4. Gastrointestinal problems
5. Sleep-related problems among others

How homeopathy can help?

Conventional medicine is mostly used to treat some of the symptoms but is never used to cure or provide remedies for autism. A proper professional homeopath will be able to guide you to get the best results for your child and reduce all the problems of autism, if not outright cure it. Some of the medications that could be used to treat autism are as follows:

1. Carcinosin - This is very helpful in children affected by autism who are talented but are obsessive, compulsive, stubborn and also have sleep-related issues. These children may also have addictive disorders.

2. Agaricus - This medication is very good for children who may be mentally and physically awkward and show symptoms like indifference, muttering, talking, shouting or singing but not answering to direct calls or questions. Agaricus is very effective for children who suffer from involuntary jerking when they are awake.

3. Cuprum Metallicum - This works wonders when the child is being very obsessive, angry and is inflexible, tense and is very aggressive towards their parents. Some of these children may even exhibit malicious behaviors and are usually averse to touch or being approached. 

4. Androctonus - A child or a patient who tends to swing wildly from a stable god mood to a destructive mode can be calmed down or evened out by Androctonus. These children also exhibit behaviors of suspiciousness and quickness to act on their compulsion. 

5. Helleborus - This is a very effective medication when the child is slow and underactive and seems to be depressed most of the time. Some of these children may also have muscular weakness and Helleborus is very effective in treating them.

These are only a few examples of how homeopathy can provide remedies for your autistic child and this is an effective solution. However, you may need to consult a homeopathic doctor who can tailor make doses and medications after diagnosing the specific symptoms that your child may be having.

4731 people found this helpful

I am suffering from mental illness. I am not sleep well past few days. After 4 or 5 am I am sleep what is the suggestion. please describe me.

Dr. V.P. Bansal 88% (959 ratings)
MBBS, MD, DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery)
Homeopath, Indore
I am suffering from mental illness. I am not sleep well past few days. After 4 or 5 am I am sleep what is the suggest...
For good sleep, just try out these simple ways - 1. Stick to a sleep schedule- Go to bed and get up at the same time every day. Try to limit the difference in your sleep schedule on weeknights and weekends to no more than one hour. Being consistent reinforces your body's sleep-wake cycle. If you don't fall asleep within about 20 minutes, leave your bedroom and do something relaxing. Read or listen to soothing music. Go back to bed when you're tired. Repeat as needed. 2. Pay attention to what you eat and drink - Don't go to bed hungry or stuffed. In particular, avoid heavy or large meals within a couple of hours of bedtime. Your discomfort might keep you up. Nicotine, caffeine and alcohol deserve caution, too. 3. Create a restful environment - Avoid prolonged use of light-emitting screens just before bedtime. Consider using room-darkening shades, earplugs, a fan or other devices to create an environment that suits your needs. Doing calming activities before bedtime, such as taking a bath or using relaxation techniques, might promote better sleep. 4. Limit daytime naps - Long daytime naps can interfere with nighttime sleep. If you choose to nap, limit yourself to up to 30 minutes and avoid doing so late in the day. 5. Include physical activity in your daily routine - Regular physical activity can promote better sleep 6. Manage worries - Try to resolve your worries or concerns before bedtime. Stress management might help. Start with the basics, such as getting organized, setting priorities and delegating tasks. Meditation also can ease anxiety. Identifying and treating any underlying causes can help you get the better sleep you deserve. If above things doesn't help you, then consult us for homeopathic medicines.
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My brother 28 years old facing psychological problem related to God and deities of clan. He became extra ethical. His behavior has changed. Whole family is suffering.

Dr. Venkatraman Ravi 92% (1490 ratings)
B.Sc(Hons) Mumbai Univ., ND, MD - Alternate Medicine, Aroma Therap., Bach Flower Rem, Mental Health Cert.
Alternative Medicine Specialist, Mumbai
My brother 28 years old facing psychological problem related to God and deities of clan. He became extra ethical. His...
Hi, I will prescribe some harmless but effective flower remedy. Mix 2 drops of Aspen+ 2 drops of Mimulus +Cherry Plum 2 drops + 2 drops of White chestnut Mix these with 100 ml water and tell your mother to drink it every morning and night.(same dose) on empty stomach. If problem continues consult me online. These flower remedies are available in Homoeopathy pharmacy.
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Sir I Went to mental hospital the doctor wrote flutix 20 mg loracto-2 when I am using this I am getting side effects like lack of sleep change of behaviour head ache should I continue or stop please tell me sir.

Dr. Gauttam Prajapati 91% (93 ratings)
D.P.M
Psychiatrist, Mehsana
Sir I Went to mental hospital the doctor wrote flutix 20 mg loracto-2 when I am using this I am getting side effects ...
Hi and thanks for question. Start of treatment you feel such kind of symptoms due to medication. But continue the medicine. If symptoms persist more than after 15 days than change of medicine needed.
2 people found this helpful
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My sister was suffering from some kind of mental illness, she is hearing things. She thinks that she is good but 'someone' is trying to make her bad (spoil her) but she choose to be in the right path. But other people may listen to that 'someone' and start criticizing her. So, she is afraid. She keeps telling that her mind is divided into three parts-part1 is telling her to make herself educated, part-2 is telling her to control her body language and part 3 is that part which is telling her the things that someone has told her earlier to spoil her but she never allowed them to enter her mind. It started before four days (though she keeps saying things like some people are bad, she always had a doubtful kind of attitude but it became very serious now. Before three days from now, she became out of control, she suddenly starts crying and then laugh at the same time, she was behaving and acting like she was afraid of something. We took her to a consultant (Psychiatrist probably), he told that she is having extreme depression and prescribed medicines (*i don't know everything what he said because I was not allowed to enter the chamber, my father and mother went inside with her)*.That day she wasn't talking with us but from the next she started making some progress but she keeps telling the same things again and again. We are trying to help her and telling her to forget all those things but after sometimes she starts to tell the same things. Though she can read and write very well like normal (I asked her to make me understand a chapter of my book, she did it like she usually does). Medicines prescribed by doctor are: combitone plus oltha 7.5 tremnil zolford From yesterday she became a bit normal but she keeps asking us about the real sounds, if they are real or not. I want to know it is Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or just depression? And will she ever become normal without any future trouble? PLEASE HELP!

Ms. Sunita Panday 91% (551 ratings)
M. S. in Psychotherapy and Counselling
Psychologist, Jaipur
My sister was suffering from some kind of mental illness, she is hearing things. She thinks that she is good but 'som...
By your description I think your sister is having schizoaffective disorder. With regular medication and psychotherapy she may become near normal. I would suggest you to see a counseling psychologist along with the psychiatrist. Family therapy is also needed to keep your sister normal. please don't get panic. Mental disorders are like other disease. If you need my help then I'm available here on Lybrate on text counseling.
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