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Melanocyte Transfer Tips

All About Embryo Transfer

Dr. Rita Bakshi 88% (2898 ratings)
MBBS, DGO, MD, Fellowship in Gynae Oncology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
All About Embryo Transfer

After the eggs are collected and fertilised in the laboratory, the embryo transfer takes place. Usually and this entirely depends on your situation, about one or three embryos of the best quality are selected to be transferred to the womb. After introduction to the uterus, the egg attaches itself to the wall of the uterus for the pregnancy to come into effect. Embryo transfer is the last step in the IVF cycle.

Procedure:
The procedure chosen for transferring embryos usually depends on the clinic chosen. But most of them involve the following steps:

  1. The eggs take two or three days to fertilise. When they are ready, the embryos with the best quality are selected. These are then transferred to your uterus.
  2. A speculum is inserted into your vagina by the doctor. Then using ultrasound for guidance, a catheter is passed through the cervix. This catheter is used to pass down the embryos into the uterus.
  3. Your lifestyle after the transfer should be docile and cause you minimum stress.
  4. A pregnancy blood test will be given to you two weeks after the transfer. If the test comes out as positive, an ultrasound is scheduled after another two weeks.

Risks:
In the process of transferring the embryo, there are no significant risks involved. There might be problems during passing the embryos through the catheter, if you never have had a baby before or your cervix was not assessed before the IVF cycle was initiated.

Chances of Successful Pregnancy:
With age, female fertility declines. It helps if you are younger when using your own eggs. After a survey it was found that women:

  1. aged below 35 have 40.6% chance of success
  2. aged between 36-37 have 35.5% chance of success
  3. aged between 38-39 have 28.1% chance of success
  4. aged between 40-42 have 21.2% chance of success
  5. aged between 43-44 have 11.2% chance of success
  6. aged 45 and over have 3.4% chance of success. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
3494 people found this helpful

Sequential Embryo Transfer

Dr. Richika Sahay Shukla 92% (808 ratings)
DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Sequential Embryo Transfer

Sequential embryo transfer-(SET) is an improved method of increasing pregnancy rates and implantation rates in infertile couples.  According to the  American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), the average  pregnancy rate is about 20% for patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment.  Patients undergoing SET have a pregnancy rate of over 50%!     SET is the transfer of two groups of embryos in the same menstrual cycle of a woman undergoing IVF treatment for infertility.  One group of embryos-the best looking and fastest growing embryos are transferred to the uterus 2 or 3 days after the oocytes (human eggs) are collected from the ovary.  The second, more highly developed, group of embryos are transferred to the uterus a few days later-when at least one embryo has reached the expanded blastocyst stage-an advanced stage when an embryo is about to hatch from its shell called the Zona Pellucida  and attempts to implant in the lining of the uterus called the endometrium.  SET has an increased implantation rate ( embryos implanting from the total number of embryos).

2 people found this helpful

How Successful Is Frozen Embryo Transfer?

Indira Ivf 86% (46 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
IVF Specialist, Udaipur
How Successful Is Frozen Embryo Transfer?

Women are not really sure about frozen embryos’ ability to result in pregnancy. Ironically, the success of Frozen Embryo Transfer has dramatically improved over the last few years. In the days gone by, the chance of women getting pregnant through the use of frozen embryos seemed to be on the lower side compared to that from the transfer of fresh embryos. Recent data related to this suggests that this is no longer the case.

Reasons behind the low success rate of frozen embryo transfer in the past
Previously during the frozen embryo transfer process, the embryos which had to get frozen were the ones that did not get chosen for the fresh embryo transfer initially. The reason being that the embryologist had gone ahead to choose the best possible embryos for getting them transferred initially. As far as the fresh embryo transfer is concerned, quality of embryo has got a major effect on the chance of a woman getting pregnant. On the other hand, if quality of embryos frozen is not good, the rate of survival after it gets thawed along with the rate of pregnancy would be on the lower side.

The second important reason is the amount of embryos that got transferred. Let us consider a couple who produce four very good quality embryos. Two of them are transferred during fresh In Vitro Fertilization Process and the remaining two are frozen. This leads to pregnancy and the woman gives birth to a baby. Later on, the couple once again decides to go for pregnancy by using the frozen embryos. Though only one embryo survives after getting thawed. The frozen embryo transfer is that of a single embryo. The success rate of a frozen embryo transfer through a single embryo is always going to be on the lower side than what it will be when multiple embryo transfer is involved.

Finally the method of freezing embryos has seen a sea change quite a number of years ago. Nowadays the freezing of embryos takes place by a fast method, known as vitrification. This process has got a much better survival rate when embryos get thawed along with good rates of pregnancy when those particular embryos are transferred in a much better manner.

Studies about high success rate of frozen embryo transfer
There have been studies performed in women, who have had quite a vigorous stimulation of their ovaries and were considered to be at high risk for Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. The physicians took the decision of skipping the process of embryo transfer and instead go ahead to freeze all the embryos for use at a later stage.

This tends to significantly decrease the risk of having serious Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome along with decrease in complications. Other cases involved, physicians deciding to move on with a fresh embryo transfer depite the risk of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. In both the scenarios the couples have quite a large number of embryos and the embryos selected for transfer were the best embryos.

The studies have shown no difference in the rates of pregnancy between fresh or frozen embryos or for that matter higher rate of pregnancy with frozen embryos. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3209 people found this helpful

Follicle Transfer - Know The Benefits!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Trichologist, Delhi
Follicle Transfer - Know The Benefits!

What is Follicular transfer (FT) is also known as follicular unit extraction (FUE).

It is a type of hair transplant procedure which is less invasive than the other types. It is performed when the person has a good hair growth at the back or side of the head which becomes the donor’s area.

How is it performed?

  1. The procedure is performed by specially designed instruments under a high powered microscope which provides precision for best and natural results. When the part gets numb the follicles are isolated with a specialized punch device which extracts the follicular units completely with necessary glands. This method is used to separate the surrounding tissue from the follicular unit which results in minimal injury and undetectable scarring.
  2. Then the follicles are removed without any damage to the area. If the scar is left behind it takes few days to heal proceeded by hair growth which takes about weeks.
  3. Then the extracted hair is prepared and sorted for treatment.
  4. Then the follicles are implanted in the scalp by making small incisions by microsurgical needles generally in a group formation of 1-4 to give a natural and recognizable look.
  5. To create a natural hairline transacted hair are used, which will start to grow within weeks naturally. The length of your hair depends upon the follicular units grafts. Approximately 12 months later you will have re-grown hair.
  6. You can get the discharge immediately after the treatment. In 5-7 days the healing takes place after which the redness and swelling disappear.

Advantages of Follicular Unit Extraction

  1. Easy recovery: As there were small incisions made in the procedure which lowers the risk of widening which generally occurs in FUT procedure. This is the reason there are fewer limitations on exercise post-procedure.
  2. Less scarring: FUE doesn’t produce linear scarring on the donor's area because it doesn’t require any sutures, scalpels; due to which you can wear your hair short too.
  3. Quick healing: As there is less scarring, the time required for healing is very less as compared to FUT where the scarring is more, therefore, the healing is slow.

Disadvantages of follicular unit extraction

  1. It’s expensive: As the cost is decided on a number of sessions required for the procedure. FUE requires more sessions than FUT, as this transplants individual follicle units which are more time-consuming.
  2. It’s temporary: In most of the cases it doesn’t last longer than FUT. because in this the follicular units are taken from a various area which leads to thinning of the donor zone and visible scarring.
  3. Shaving: The one who doesn’t like shaving can have a problem. Because FUE requires shaving of donor’s area. Only in advanced procedures like long hair FUE, shaving is not required.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4 people found this helpful

SET (Sequential Embryo Transfer)

Dr. Richika Sahay Shukla 92% (808 ratings)
DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
SET (Sequential Embryo Transfer)

SET (Sequential Embryo Transfer)

Sequential embryo transfer-(SET) is an improved method of increasing pregnancy rates and implantation rates in infertile couples.  According to the  American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), the average  pregnancy rate is about 20% for patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment.  Patients undergoing SET have a pregnancy rate of over 50%!     SET is the transfer of two groups of embryos in the same menstrual cycle of a woman undergoing IVF treatment for infertility. One group of embryos-the best looking and fastest growing embryos are transferred to the uterus 2 or 3 days after the oocytes (human eggs) are collected from the ovary.  The second, more highly developed, group of embryos are transferred to the uterus a few days later-when at least one embryo has reached the expanded blastocyst stage-an advanced stage when an embryo is about to hatch from its shell called the Zona Pellucida  and attempts to implant in the lining of the uterus called the endometrium.  SET has an increased implantation rate ( embryos implanting from the total number of embryos).

Not all patients have embryos that survive to the blastocyst stage. Embryos may have arrested development in the first few days after fertilization – some embryos just arrest-no matter what the laboratory conditions are- and some embryos just were not destined to become babies because of inherent problems-such as genetic defects. The window of implantation of  human embryos is between 7 to 10 days after ovulation.  After 10 days, if the embryo does not at least start to implant, the endometrial lining may start to fall apart and not be able to sustain the embryo. Therefore, any early stage embryos placed in the uterus on Day 2 or  3 must depend on the uterus for a few more days until they develop to the blastocyst stage. Only the blastocyst stage embryo can implant in the uterus.

We believe -

Embryos talk to the uterus!

SET may be better than just one transfer for many patients for many reasons: First,  embryos communicate with the uterus using hormones called cytokines.  The presence of these cytokines can help the uterus prepare for implantation.  The exact makeup of fluids in the oviduct and uterus of each patient may be impossible to determine.  Perhaps the embryo  can tell the uterus what it needs to implant and develop. The presence of one group of embryos on Day 3 may help the implantation of the second group of embryos by getting the uterus properly prepared.  SET also provides a better method of selecting the best of the extra embryos to transfer and decreases the need to cryopreserve (freeze) extra embryos that may not be survivors. Obviously, the ability to decide which embryos are the best increases the chance of implantation and pregnancy.  Blastocysts not transferred fresh can still be cryopreserved and thawed later for a frozen embryo transfer (FET).

1 person found this helpful

Frozen Embryo Transfer

Dr. Richika Sahay Shukla 92% (808 ratings)
DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Frozen Embryo Transfer

Frozen Embryo Transfer

Freezing Embryos

Any excess healthy embryos from the IVF process can be frozen, in case more than one treatment cycle is needed. Freezing embryos, also known as cryopreservation, takes place for some 60% of all patients having IVF treatment “ and frozen embryo transfers accounts for around 50% of all IVF births in our program.

Why do we freeze embryos?

Embryo freezing provides more opportunities for a pregnancy from each IVF stimulated cycle. For example, if a number of normal embryos are obtained in an IVF cycle, we might suggest transferring one or two of them and freezing the other four or five. This would generally allow further embryo transfers in later cycles without the need to undergo a full stimulated IVF cycle if pregnancy did not occur in the first cycle. If a baby is conceived in the stimulated IVF cycle then the frozen embryos can be used subsequently to try for another pregnancy without the need for further hormone stimulation

Embryo freezing gives more opportunities for a pregnancy for each hormone stimulation cycle and egg collection.

During a typical IVF cycle, we’ll be able to create more than one embryo, however there are serious risks associated with multiple pregnancies, so generally we won’t transfer more than one embryo at a time.

For example, if we manage to obtain two or three normal embryos (this does not always happen) we’ll usually recommend transferring one, and freezing the others. If you do not become pregnant in that first cycle, we can transfer another embryo.

This is called a Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET), and means you won’t have to undergo another cycle of hormone stimulation and egg collection.

Storing frozen embryos

When you go through an IVF treatment cycle any excess embryos will be stored where they will be kept frozen in cryostorage until you decide to either use, donate or discard them.

How does embryo freezing work?

Embryos can be frozen from Day 2 (four cell stage) to Day 5 (Blastocyst). They are placed in thin plastic straws, sealed at both ends, and labelled with your name and identification number.

They then go into a freezing machine, where the temperature rapidly drops to -150° Celsius. The straws are then placed in goblets, and put into tanks filled with liquid nitrogen, which keeps the temperature at -196° Celsius.

Success rates with frozen embryos

many of our births, over many years, have come from the transfer of frozen and thawed embryos. On average the success rate is about 30%, but this mainly depends on the age of the woman’s eggs when the embryos are frozen.

So, if you were to freeze your embryos in your first IVF cycle at the age of 38, and then use them when you’re 42, your fertility chance will be relative to that of a 38-year-old woman rather than a 42-year-old.

What to do with any remaining embryos?

Once you feel that your family is complete, and you have no further personal use for your frozen embryos, you may decide to donate them to another couple who are unable to conceive with their own embryos. Your specialist can discuss all your options with you

Freezing embryos for fertility preservation

If you or your partner is undergoing fertility treatment for a serious illness or cancer you might consider freezing embryos for future pregnancy attempts.

A Closer Look Into Embryo Transfer Procedure For IVF

Dr. K.D Nayar 87% (748 ratings)
MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, DGO, Dip.Obst.(Ireland), FICOG
IVF Specialist, Delhi
A Closer Look Into Embryo Transfer Procedure For IVF

Among the assisted reproductive techniques, In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is quite popular and offers hope when other infertility procedures fail to work. The procedure involves the female egg being combined with the male sperm outside the body (in vitro condition), and as a final step, the grown embryo is placed inside the uterus.

Chances of getting pregnant is dependent upon Embryo Quality and Endometrial receptivity.

Embryo transfer is a crucial step of the procedure, and following is an account of the process that would give you a detailed insight into what really happens before and after embryo transfer.

The entire process involved-
Before an embryo is transferred, a series of procedures happen.

Step 1: (Ovarian Stimulation)
In the very first step of embryo transfer, the patient undergoing the IVF treatment is given injections containing medicines that are meant to boost the development of the eggs in the follicles of the ovary.

Step 2: (Egg retrieval)
As the follicles start to mature or develop completely, the eggs are removed carefully.

Step 3: (Fertilization)
In the designated environment, the collected eggs are then fused with the collected sperm to form the embryo.

Step 4: (Incubation)
After the successful fertilization is successful, the embryos are cultured in an incubator.

Step 5: (Choose the best embryo for transfer)
If the process is successful and once embryos are formed, the good quality embryo is chosen from them and then transferred into the uterine cavity to complete the procedure.

Are there any risks?
Embryo transfer is a critical step of the infertility procedure and would need an expert to handle the process. There are a few risks associated with the embryo transfer procedure. However, those risks are very minimal. One such associated risk is the embryo getting implanted in the wrong place, for example in the fallopian tube. Another issue that could occur is the loss of embryos during the procedure of transferring them from the in vitro environment to inside of the uterus.

Is it a painful process?
The embryo transfer is similar to a pap smear and would need no anaesthesia for the woman, however, some women prefer to be on sedation during the process. The entire procedure of embryo transfer is a painless one, though some women may experience mild cramping which is quite normal.

Precautions to be taken after embryo transfer-
After the embryo has successfully been transferred to the uterus, the patient must lie on her back for a while before leaving the clinic. Also, the woman is advised rest and limit physical activity.

The chances of getting pregnant increases with the quality of embryo, and hence it is imperative that your doctor chooses the best quality embryo for transfer into the uterus. Also, the position of placing the embryo is extremely important. You can discuss with your doctor regarding these aspects while you are undergoing the treatment. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1981 people found this helpful

How To Prevent HIV Transfer From Parent To Child?

Dr. R.Pavan Kumar 88% (39 ratings)
MBBS, PGDHS,PGDHIVM
General Physician, Nalgonda
How To Prevent HIV Transfer From Parent To Child?

The threat of HIV is known to almost everyone. The way it can damage the immunity of the body making it susceptible to other life-threatening diseases has become a serious concern. Adults can get HIV through sexual contact, sharing of injections and drug needles that are already infected with HIV and infected blood. A child could get the human immunodeficiency virus from its mother, during pregnancy, delivery, labor, and breastfeeding. Keep on reading to know the possible methods of preventing such HIV transmission.

Women who are pregnant
Women who are already pregnant or considering on starting a family, and have HIV, need to talk to the doctor regarding possible options to prevent their child from getting infected too. In such cases when HIV is detected during pregnancy, the HIV infected women are provided with necessary medications, both throughout pregnancy and during childbirth. Once the child is born, he or she too receives HIV preventive medications for around 4 to 6 weeks, right after birth and prevented from breastfeeding. Women who are planning a pregnancy should opt for HIV test at the earliest and start with ART right away to treat the HIV infection.

HIV negative parent with an HIV positive partner
For those would-be parents, where one of the partners is HIV negative and another is HIV positive, talking to your doctor right away is strongly advised, as planning a pregnancy without being treated first may result in the newborn having HIV too. While the HIV negative partner needs to consult a doctor about taking PrEP or pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV, the HIV positive partner too should opt for anti-retroviral therapy (ART) to reduce the chances of transmitting HIV to their partner.

Women who are lactating or nursing the child
HIV can be transmitted through breast milk. If the mother is HIV infected and still nurses the baby, there is a chance that the child will be infected. Therefore, once diagnosed with HIV, a mother should not breastfeed her child if the baby is not infected with HIV. Sometimes babies are even fed chewed food. In that case, if the parents have HIV, he or she must never feed their child pre-chewed food, as HIV may get transmitted to the child, according to studies and reports.

In poor patients or who could not maintain hygiene for top feeding, they can give breastfeeding if mother's start a.r.t as soon as possible.

In case you have HIV and you are planning on starting a family, consult a doctor before conception. As step of the process involves the risk of HIV transmission. Therefore, it is best to know about the possible preventive methods beforehand. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3433 people found this helpful

Frozen Embryo Transfer - How To Prepare Yourself For It?

Dr. Arun Muthuvel 85% (10 ratings)
MCH - Reproductive Medicine & Surgery, MS - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
IVF Specialist, Chennai
Frozen Embryo Transfer - How To Prepare Yourself For It?

Infertility is becoming an increasingly common problem. With maternal ages advancing and lifestyle turning unhealthy, infertility is affecting many couples. The problem is that it is not just a physical issue but a hugely emotional one too. For many couples, failure to conceive is devastating news. With recent advances in medicine and technology, in-vitro fertilization or IVF is becoming a highly recommended procedure to treat infertility. Frozen Embryo Transfer or FET is the step where the retrieved frozen eggs are implanted in the uterus. This could be done as a part of regular IVF or when the previously transferred egg ends up with a miscarriage.

This requires some amount of preparation, though not as much as IVF, as there are not too many medications to take to boost egg production. However, preparing for FET about a couple of months ahead of the transfer can up your success rates to a great degree.

  1. Eat well and leave out junk, processed, oily, and packaged foods. Switch over to multiple grains, cereals, dairy products, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals so that your body turns healthy. Drink a lot of clear water and herbal drinks. Avoid alcohol and quit smoking. This will help it go through the rigors of IVF or FET.
  2. Fertility cleansing is aimed at cleaning up the toxins and ensure there is an adequate hormonal balance that is so essential for a healthy pregnancy. This takes about a month and so talk to your doctor about timing it. There are various natural options available for this, castor oil being an example.
  3. Taking about 500 mg of L-arginine is another way to create a healthy environment for the fetus. This also improves blood flow and creates a thick uterine lining.
  4. A fertility massage also helps to improve the uterine lining, so it is better prepared to receive and sustain the embryo throughout pregnancy. The massage improves circulation to the uterus and other reproductive organs and improves the ability of the uterus to hold the fetus. This should be done 2 to 3 months ahead of the FET and stopped after transfer.
  5. Surgically, the uterus could be scratched to clear it of debris and enhance its ability to receive and sustain a pregnancy.
  6. FET is an emotionally tense moment for a couple going through it. There is anxiety about the procedure per se and the results. So keep calm and be there for each other. Having a close family or friend also helps whom you can openly express your concerns to. Meet up with people who are also into IVF or FET so you don’t feel alone.
3030 people found this helpful

Frozen Embryo Transfer - Complications Associated With It!

Indira Ivf 86% (46 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
IVF Specialist, Udaipur
Frozen Embryo Transfer - Complications Associated With It!

Frozen Embryo Transfer or FET is an extremely effective method to conceive a pregnancy. Recent studies have proved that there is a increased chance for pregnancy when the embryos, which get used are frozen and get placed inside the uterus at a time right after the ovaries are stimulated. Still, certain issues can arise with the transfer of frozen embryo, such as:

A Thin Lining of the Uterus
Research has shown that there are not many women who get pregnant if the lining in their uterine does not tend to thicken enough. It is not clear exactly why this problem occurs in most women and moreover there is no sure shot treatment to make the lining of the uterine thick. The experts on fertility would try out different methods like increasing the amount of estrogen or change the way how estrogen is given. There are other instances when women might be given supplemental medicines, while for some, the problem will continue to exist.

What Should Be Done In Case The Problem Persists?

  • In case the problem continues for some women, then there are certain approaches which experts might look to adopt. The first one is to cancel the transfer of embryo and try once again at any later stage, that too with a different treatment method.
  • The second option which they could think of is to go ahead with the transfer, wherein they might feel that a thin lining does not necessarily mean that it is impossible for a woman to get pregnant but definitely the efficiency would be reduced.
  • One last option is to make use of the opportunity for undergoing additional tests which would help them to assess the ability of the uterus to allow implantation of the embryos.

Unexpected Ovulation
For enabling the embryos to get implanted into uterus, placing them very precisely and at the appropriate time is important. This is regarded as the window of implantation. The time taken, is based on the time frame since progesterone reaches the lining of the uterine.

Doctor knows the exact time to place the embryos, right from the time he or she instructs a woman to start having progesterone supplements. In case a woman was to ovulate, the production of progesterone would begin earlier than the normal time and would lead to the shift of the window of implantation. As identifying the correct time of ovulation is almost impossible, so that would lead to some sort of uncertainty into the timing.

Due to this reason, there are doctors who would use medication in order to prevent unexpected ovulation from occurring. Generally an injection called Lupron is usually used as medication.

Timing for the Embryo Transfer is Inappropriate
This is a problem related to early ovulation. There are case when the implantation window is shifted, still the timing of the transfer becomes accurate. Recent studies have shown that quite a nominal percentage of women might have a window of implantation, which could be either earlier or later than normal time. A test called the Endometrial Receptivity Array can help determine at what time is the window of implantation open. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3161 people found this helpful
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