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Low Air Pressure: How To Keep Yourself Safe?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Faridabad
Low Air Pressure: How To Keep Yourself Safe?

A Jet Airways aircraft Boeing 737, travelling from Mumbai to Jaipur with 166 passengers on board, had to return to the airport as the crew forgot to turn on the cabin pressurisation system which maintains air pressure inside an aircraft to a comfortable level.

The mistake led to several passengers suffering from nosebleed, bleeding from ear and severe headache. Some of the passengers were even admitted to the hospital with these complaints.

What does Air Pressure mean?

Air pressure, also known as Barometric pressure or atmospheric pressure, is the weight of the atmosphere pressing down on earth. It is measured by a barometer in units called millibars. The standard or average atmospheric pressure at sea level on the earth is 1013.25 millibars per square inch, which is about 14.7 pounds.

What are the causes of Air Pressure?

Air pressure is caused due to air molecules present in the atmosphere. The higher the altitude, the lower is the air pressure, which makes it tough for humans to survive without proper equipment.

The aircrafts use cabin pressure by pumping in ‘bleed air’ to maintain barometric pressure. This pressurisation becomes highly necessary when the aircraft touches altitude above 10,000 feet (3,000 meters) from sea level.

What health issues do low Air Pressure cause?

Low air pressure can cause mild as well as death threatening conditions which include:

Blood pressure: As the air pressure reduces, the blood pressure also starts falling. It can be observed if you are feeling dizziness or a blurred vision.

Severe headache: Change in barometric pressure can lead to severe headache or migraines by creating a pressure difference between the atmosphere and air-filled sinuses.

Joint pain: As per a study, the change in barometric pressure increases the severity of joint pain and arthritis.

Blood sugar: Change in air pressure bring cold fronts , which is not good for a diabetic person.

Hypoxia: The lower oxygen pressure reduces the oxygen tension in the lungs, subsequently in the brain. This can lead to dimmed vision, sluggish thinking, loss of consciousness and eventually death.

Altitude sickness: In the most common response to hypoxia, the human body starts hyperventilation. It does help in partially restoring oxygen in the blood but it also leads to carbon dioxide to out-gas which increases the blood pH level. In this condition, people may suffer fatigue, nausea, headache, sleeplessness and even pulmonary oedema.

Decompression sickness: It leads to tiredness, forgetfulness, headache, stroke, thrombosis and subcutaneous itching.

Barotrauma: As the aircraft climbs or descends, passengers may face discomfort or acute pain as gases trapped inside their bodies try to expand. The most common problems faced due to this situation include air trapped in the middle ear or paranasal sinuses by a blocked Eustachian tube. It can also cause pain in gastrointestinal tract or even the teeth.

What emergency steps should be taken in situation of low air pressure?

The effects of low air pressure may vary from person to person. Some people do not feel any health problems even while being at an altitude as high as 8,000 feet while some would start feeling restless from 5,000 feet onwards.

There may be many precautions including carrying an oxygen cylinder always while travelling to the high altitude places. In aircrafts, oxygen masks are provided to each passenger but if you are planning to go on a trek, you must know some important aspects of surviving at high altitude places. Have a look:

  • Avoid smoking and alcohol consumption
  • Avoid switching on the heater
  • Take proper sleep at night with a pillow under your head
  • Keep yourself hydrated and do not over-hydrate
  • Do not overeat
  • Never exert yourself

Emergency tips to keep yourself safe at high altitude places:

  • Ginger or ginger water
  • Garlic
  • Clove
  • Lavender oil

These things can help you keep your mind and body fit even at the reasonably high altitude places.

6 people found this helpful

Best Homeopathy Doctors in Bangalore!

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh 89% (192 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
Best Homeopathy Doctors in Bangalore!

Homeopathy is considered safe, natural and holistic approach. With so many homeopathy centers and doctors, choosing best homeopathic doctor may be difficult. Here is list of best homeopathy doctors in Bangalore.

Homeopathy is an old science, and is based on the theory that "like cures like".  The solutions and remedies provided in homeopathy are personalized, basis symptoms and diagnosis. The medicines are totally safe with no side effects, even if taken for a long run. Homeopathic solutions are very effective in allergic conditions, metabolic and chronic disorders. 

1. Dr. Jyothi Rao

DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery), M.Sc - Clinical Nutrition, MSc - Psychotherapy And Counselling

Dr. Rao is a homoeopathic Physician, with 25 years of experience. She is also a clinical nutritionist and has done her masters in psychotherapy and counselling as well. This gives her counselling and treatment a holistic approach. She is known for her treatment of allergies, female disorders & fertility problems, thyroid disorders and joint and muscle pains. You can visit her at Apoorva Diagnostic and Healthcare, Bangalore.

Consultation fees: ₹500

2.  Dr. T.Kirankumar


Dr. T.Kirankumar is amongst the best Homeopaths in, Bangalore. In 22 years of his career, he has helped many patients. You can visit him at Positive Homeopathy clinic - either at Malleshwaram or Indira Nagar, Bangalore. He is known for his treatment for kidney stone, skin allergies and diabetes management.

Consultation fees: ₹300

3. Dr. Babitha Jayapal


Dr. Jayapal is an experienced homeopathic doctor. In 25 years of her experience, she has treated many acute & chronic disease. She is known for caring and holistic approach taking care of mental, physical and emotional health of her patients. She currently practices at Garden City Homeopathic Clinic, Bangalore. 

Consultation fees: ₹200

4. Dr. Bhagyalakshmi


Dr. lakshmi is a renowned name in homeopathic doctors of Bangalore, especially for her knowledge of treating allergies and fertility problems. She has 22 years of experience and has worked with several reputed institutes. She is currently practicing at her own clinic- Ribha Homeopathy.

Consultation fees: ₹300

5. Dr. Amrita Dewan

BHMS, B.Sc - Botany, MSc - Counselling & Family Therapy

Dr. Amrita Dewan is a BHMS, B.Sc - Botany, MSc - Counselling & Family Therapy. She has 11 years of experience and a reputed homeopath in Bangalore. She runs her own clinic- Dewan's Homoeo Clinic in Ramamurthy Nagar, Bangalore. Her area of special interest are metabolic diseases like- diabetes, lipid management, thyroid and weight.

Consultation fees: ₹200

6. Dr. Shruti Modak


Dr. Shruti Modak has become a popular name in Bangalore, in a very short span of 7 years. She is known for her compassion and warmth as well as a holistic approach for treating her patients. She is associated with Baptist Hospital, Bangalore and also practises at Mithi Goli in Bangalore.

Consultation fees: ₹500

7. Dr. Amarjeeth Chilargikar


Dr. Amarjeeth Chilargikar has 13 years of experience and specializes in Homeopathy treatments. He is known for correct diagnosis and effective medication. You can visit him at homeosquare homeopathy. He has done his studies from Dr. Malakreddy Homeopathy Medical College & Hospital Gulbarga. He is an active member of Media Association of Karnataka. 

Consultation fees: ₹200

8. Dr. Vinod Kumar

BHMS, International Academy of Classical Homoeopathy, Alonissos (GREECE)

Dr. Kumar has completed his BHMS at  International Academy of Classical Homoeopathy, Alonissos (GREECE). He has 7 years of experience and has treated many acute and chronic diseases effectively. He is known for treatment of skin allergies and hair loss along with male disorders. You can meet him at Pavithra Clinic, Bangalore.

Consultation fees: ₹400

9. Dr. Ranga Sai


He  is a popular Homeopaths in Bangalore with 18 years of experience in this field. He currently runs his own private practice at Tristha Homeopathic Clinic in Malleswaram, Bangalore. He completed his studies from one of the most reputed college- Bharati Vidyapeeth Homeopathic College in 2000. His services include treatment for depression, psychological & neurological problems, hormonal disorder etc.

Consultation fees: ₹200

10. Dr. Aparna. J


Dr. Aparna. J, has 13 years of experience and practices at Aayush Homoeo Clinic in Wilson Garden, Bangalore. She has completed her BHMS from Nashik. Her areas of interest are acidity, acne, backaches, blood pressure (high or low), cervical spondylitis, depression and migraine

Consultation fees: ₹200

1 person found this helpful

BP (Blood Pressure) - Causes, Treatment, Prevention And More!

Internal Medicine Specialist, Delhi
BP (Blood Pressure) - Causes, Treatment, Prevention And More!

BP (Blood Pressure):

BP (Blood pressure) is the pressure created on the walls of blood vessel by circulation of blood. It is typically measured in mmHg (millimeters of mercury). It is expressed in terms of systolic pressure over diastolic pressure. Normal blood pressure in a healthy adult is considered to be 120/80 mmHg [120 mmHg (systolic) over 80 mmHg (diastolic).

Types of Blood Pressure Disorders:

There are two major types of blood pressure disorder.

  1. Low Blood Pressure
  2. High Blood Pressure

1. Low Blood Pressure - Typically, blood pressure reading in the tunes of 90/60mmHg, or lower is considered to be low blood pressure. Remember, just one of the systolic or diastolic numbers need to be lower than usual to be considered as low blood pressure. This means:

- If the systolic number is 90 or lesser, irrespective of the diastolic number, it may be low blood pressure. 

- If the diastolic number is 60 or lesser, irrespective of the systolic number, it may be low blood pressure.

Symptoms of Low Blood Pressure:

Symptoms or signs of low blood pressure are:

- Light-headedness or wooziness

- Black out (fainting)

- Blurry eyesight

- Nausea

- Exhaustion

- Lack of attentiveness

Extreme low blood pressure symptoms are:

- Mental Confusion 

- Pale, damp, cold skin

- Breathing difficulties 

- Weak pulse

Diagnosis: To diagnose low blood pressure in a patient, blood pressure and pulse rate are repeatedly checked after a patient has been lying down, soon after he or she stands, and in a few minutes of him or her standing. Doctors may also prescribe Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Echocardiogram. Some patients may also be advised blood tests, exercise stress test or, EP test (electrophysiology test).

Causes of Low Blood Pressure:

Causes of low blood pressure include:

- Pregnancy

- Hormonal disorders including hypothyroidism, diabetes, or hypoglycemia

- Medicinal side effects 

- Heart failure

- Heart arrhythmias

- Blood vessel dilation 

- Heat stroke

- Liver diseases

- Excessive bleeding

- Low/high body temperature

- Heart muscle diseases 

- Sepsis

- Acute dehydration

- Medication or alcohol reaction

- Anaphylaxis 


It is possible to prevent and treat low blood pressure. Here are some ways to prevent low blood pressure using healthy diet and lifestyle:

- Ensure higher salt intake in diet.

- Intake lots of non-alcoholic fluids.

- Don’t partake in alcohol consumption.

- Drink more water or other fluids during summers and when suffering from viral illness.

- Exercise regularly.

- When getting out of bed, sit upright for a few minutes.

- Avoid lifting heavy objects.

- Don’t strain when in toilet.

- Eat smaller, more frequent meals. 

- Don’t take drugs or medication before meals.

Treatment for Low Blood Pressure

The following medication is used to treat low blood pressure:

- Fludrocortisone It promotes sodium retention by the kidney to improve blood pressure. However, sodium retention can cause a loss of potassium. Therefore, ensure taking enough potassium daily, when taking fludrocortisone.

- Midodrine– It increases blood pressure by activating artery and vein receptors. 

Low Blood Pressure Risk Factors

Some of the most common risk factors for low blood pressure are:

- Chances of low blood pressure during pregnancy increase manifold because a woman's circulatory system expands rapidly during pregnancy.

- Dehydration can cause low blood pressure. It is important to keep the body hydrated at all times because dehydration can cause a life-threatening complication oflow blood pressure. 

- Excessive blood loss reduces blood in the body leading to sudden low blood pressure.

- Exposure to severe heat may cause excessive sweating which may lead to dehydration and low blood pressure.

- Intake of alcohol increases the chances of low blood pressure.

- Some antidepressants, antipsychotics, muscle relaxants, narcotics medicines and medicines to erectile dysfunction and Parkinson's disease may cause low blood pressure. 

Low Blood Pressure Complications

Low blood pressure can lead to several complications including:

- Vision Impairment 

- Constant Mental confusion 

- Constant Fainting 

- Mental Shocks 

2. High Blood Pressure - Typically, blood pressure reading equal to or more than 140/90mmHg is considered high blood pressure. Like low blood pressure, just one of the systolic or diastolic numbers need to be higher than usual in high BP. This means:

- If the systolic number is 140 or higher, irrespective of the diastolic number, it may be high blood pressure. 

- If the diastolic number is 90 or higher, irrespective of the systolic number, it may be low blood pressure.


Common symptoms of high blood pressure are:

- Severe headache

- Fatigue 

- Mental confusion

- Blurry Vision 

- Pain in chest 

- Breathing difficulty 

- Uneven pulse

- Blood in urine

- Chest pounding

Diagnosis: To determine the condition of low blood pressure in a patient, doctors may suggest ECG (electrocardiogram), and echocardiogram (an ultrasound test to visualize the heart). Patients may also be advised blood tests, stress test and/or electrophysiology test (EP test).


Some of the most common causes of high blood pressure are:

- Smoking

- Excessive weight or obesity

- Intake of excessive salt 

- Intake of excessive alcohol

- Stress

- Genetics

- Family history of high blood pressure

- Chronic kidney disease

- Adrenal and thyroid disorders

- Sleep apnea


It is possible to prevent and treat high blood pressure. Here are some ways to prevent high blood pressure using healthy diet and lifestyle:

- Weight loss in case of obesity 

- Quitting smoking

- Healthy diets with lot of fruits, vegetables, and low fat dairy products

- Reducing sodium intake in diets.

- Regular exercise 

- Limiting alcohol intake

Treatment for High Blood Pressure

Treatment of high blood pressure can be done using several types of drugs such as:

- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

- Calcium channel blockers

- Renin inhibitors

- Alpha-blockers

- Beta-blockers

- Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)

- Alpha-agonists

- Diuretics

- Combination medications

High Blood Pressure Risk Factors

Common risk factors for high blood pressure include:

- Family history of high blood pressure. 

- Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may cause high blood pressure.

- Lack of physical activity may cause high blood pressure.

- Excessive sodium intake in diets may cause high blood pressure. 

- Excessive fat or obesity may cause high blood pressure.

- Intake of too much alcohol may lead to high blood pressure.

- Obstructive sleep apnea may increase the risk of developing high blood pressure.

- High cholesterol can lead to high blood pressure.

- Patients suffering from Diabetes are more vulnerable to high blood pressure.

- Smoking and tobacco can lead to high blood pressure.

- Too much stress may lead to high blood pressure. 


Untreated high blood pressure can lead to several complications including:

- Heart attack or stroke

- Aneurysm

- Heart failure 

- Kidney failure 

- Vision Impairment 

- Metabolic syndrome 

- Mental confusion

- Dementia

Blood Pressure Myths

Myth 1: Low blood pressure is nothing to be worried about.

Reality: Low blood pressure, also referred to as hypotension, is a medical condition that can lead to several life-threatening complications.

Myth 2: Those with family history of high blood pressure can’t do anything to prevent it.

Reality: While it is true that those with family history of high blood pressure are more likely to develop it, it can be prevented by healthy diet and lifestyle.

Myth 3: High blood pressure patients show symptoms like anxiety, sweating, and sleep disorder. Those who don’t have such symptoms don’t have high blood pressure.

Reality: Sometimes, high blood pressure patients may not experience any symptoms for years. That’s why it makes sense to get your blood pressure checked regularly.

Myth 4: Blood pressure patients must drink wine heavily.

Reality: Heavy wine drinking can increase blood pressure, which may lead to heart failure or stroke. 

Myth 5: Those diagnosed with high blood pressure stop taking medicines when their blood pressure level is maintained.

Reality: High blood pressure is a lifelong medical condition and one shouldn’t stop taking medicines without recommendations of a certified medical professional. Remember, blood pressure can fluctuate leading to several complications.


Question 1: Is it good to have low blood pressure?

Answer: Blood pressure disorder is a medical condition that may lead to several life-threatening complications. Having low blood pressure may cause several problems such as light-headedness, wooziness, fainting, blurry vision, nausea, exhaustion and mental confusion.

Fortunately, you can easily keep your blood pressure level in check by embracing these healthy lifestyle choices:

- Being active

- Quitting smoking

- Limiting the intake of salt in diet 

- Ensuring healthy and balanced diet

- Not partaking in heavy alcohol drinking 

Furthermore, do well to get your blood pressure level checked at regular intervals and immediately consult your doctor if you find your blood pressure level is not in healthy range.

Question 2: Does low blood pressure affect pregnancy?

Answer: A large number of pregnant women tend to show the symptoms of low blood pressure during pregnancy. Low blood pressure doesn’t affect pregnancy or harm the unborn. However, it is important to get in touch with a certified medical professional about any symptoms you’re experiencing during pregnancy.

Question 3: Can diabetes cause low blood pressure?

Answer: Yes! Diabetes leads to nerve damages and if the part of the nervous system that regulates the blood pressure is affected, it can lead postural hypotension. In this medical condition, you may experience sudden drop in your blood pressure when standing up.

Question 4: What health issues usually follow high blood pressure?

Answer: High blood pressure can lead to several serious and life-threatening health issues. Some such health conditions are:

- Heart Issues: High blood pressure may lead to ischemic heart disease (a medical condition where the heart tissue doesn’t get enough oxygen and blood), Heart failure and hypertensive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (stiffened, atypically heart muscles).

- Kidney Issues: High blood pressure can easily damage the blood vessels and cause harm to the kidney filters. Resultantly, kidneys aren’t able to properly excrete body waste. Here it is important to remember that some kidney diseases also cause high blood pressure in case enough sodium isn’t secreted.

- Stroke: High blood pressure can cause stroke. It can either contribute to atherosclerosis leading to blockages of and/or clots in arteries, or by causing the blood vessel wall to rupture.

- Atherosclerosis: This is a medical condition where arteries are blocked and/or clotted due to plaque, or fatty material. High blood pressure contributes to this disease by adding to the blockage or clot.

- Eyesight Disorders: High blood pressure may lead to damage of blood vessels in the retina causing to vision disorders, temporary blindness or permanent vision impairment.

Question 5: Is there a way to find out if I have High Blood Pressure?

Answer: Typically, high blood pressure patients don’t really experience any symptoms. This is the reason why it is imperative to consult a certified medical professional and get your blood pressure routinely checked at regular intervals. If you have a family history of blood pressure or experience any risk factors associated with high blood pressure, it is vital to consult a certified medical professional immediately. If you’re experiencing strong headache, pounding chest, breathing difficulty, or sudden loss of stamina, it makes sense to immediately consult your doctor.

Question 6: Is there a side effect of high blood pressure medicines?

Answer: High blood pressure medicines are known to have some side effects. Some of the most common side effects are:

- Alpha-blockers: Lightheadedness, strong headaches, pounding chest, nausea, sudden fatigue, weight gain

- Beta-blockers: Lightheadedness, erectile disorder, weak pulse, slow heart rate

- Angiotensin receptor blockers: Sudden fatigue, fainting, diarrhea, lightheadedness

- Diuretics:  Strong headaches, sudden weakness

- Calcium channel blockers: Lightheadedness, swelling in feet and ankle, constant constipation and heart rhythm disorder

- ACE inhibitors: Constant dry cough, strong headaches, occasional diarrhea

Question 7: Can prescribed and over-the-counter medicines cause high blood pressure?

Answer: Some over-the-counter medicines and drugs are known to cause high blood pressure. Some such most common medicines are erythropoietin, amphetamines, certain birth control pills, methylphenidate, cyclosporine and certain medicines used for the treatment of migraine. Furthermore, medicines used for the treatment of allergy and cold, and medicines used as appetite suppressants are also known to cause high blood pressure.

Question 8: When to get in touch with your doctor about high blood pressure?

Answer: Patients diagnosed with high blood pressure must go for regular blood pressure check-ups and must routinely consult their doctors. In case you feel that your body isn’t responding to the prescribed high blood pressure medicines, you must immediately consult your doctor. If you’re experiencing side effects of blood pressure medicines, you must immediately seek medical attention.

1 person found this helpful


Dr. Indranil Dutta 85% (10 ratings)
Internal Medicine Specialist, Kolkata

Be sure before taking sublingual nitrates as it might aggravate low bp and cause blackout.Only real anginal pain will benefit from sublingual nitroglycerin or isosorbide dinitrate.

High Blood Pressure And Low Blood Pressure

Dr. Prashant K Vaidya 93% (3296 ratings)
Diploma In Gastroenterology, Diploma In Dermatology, BHMS
Homeopath, Hyderabad
High Blood Pressure And Low Blood Pressure

What is blood pressure?

When your heart beats, it pumps blood round your body to give it the energy and oxygen it needs. As the blood moves, it pushes against the sides of the blood vessels. The strength of this pushing is your blood pressure. If your blood pressure is too high, it puts extra strain on your arteries (and your heart) and this may lead to heart attacks and strokes.

What is high blood pressure?

You probably have high blood pressure (hypertension) if your blood pressure readings are consistently 140 over 90, or higher, over a number of weeks.

You may also have high blood pressure if just one of the numbers is higher than it should be over a number of weeks. 

If you have high blood pressure, this higher pressure puts extra strain on your heart and blood vessels. Over time, this extra strain increases your risk of a heart attack or stroke.

High blood pressure can also cause heart and kidney disease, and is closely linked to some forms of dementia.

What is low blood pressure?

Many people worry about low blood pressure (hypotension), but probably don't need to.

Some people have a blood pressure level that is lower than normal. In general this may be good news - because the lower your blood pressure is, the lower your risk of stroke or heart disease. However, in a few cases, having low blood pressure can cause problems, so you might need to speak to your doctor or nurse.

What are the symptoms of hypertension?

Hypertension is generally a silent condition. Many people won’t experience any symptoms. It may take years or even decades for the condition to reach levels severe enough that symptoms become obvious. Even then, these symptoms may be attributed to other issues.

Symptoms of severe hypertension can include:

shortness of breath
chest pain
visual changes
blood in the urine
These symptoms require immediate medical attention. They don’t occur in everyone with hypertension, but waiting for a symptom of this condition to appear could be fatal.

The best way to know if you have hypertension is to get regular blood pressure readings. Most doctors’ offices take a blood pressure reading at every appointment.

If you only have a yearly physical, talk to your doctor about your risks for hypertension and other readings you may need to help you watch your blood pressure.

For example, if you have a family history of heart disease or have risk factors for developing the condition, your doctor may recommend that you have your blood pressure checked twice a year. This helps you and your doctor stay on top of any possible issues before they become problematic.

What causes high blood pressure?
There are two types of hypertension. Each type has a different cause.

Primary hypertension
Primary hypertension is also called essential hypertension. This kind of hypertension develops over time with no identifiable cause. Most people have this type of high blood pressure.

Researchers are still unclear what mechanisms cause blood pressure to slowly increase. A combination of factors may play a role. These factors include:

Genes: Some people are genetically predisposed to hypertension. This may be from gene mutations or genetic abnormalities inherited from your parents.
Physical changes: If something in your body changes, you may begin experiencing issues throughout your body. High blood pressure may be one of those issues. For example, it’s thought that changes in your kidney function due to aging may upset the body’s natural balance of salts and fluid. This change may cause your body’s blood pressure to increase.

Environment: Over time, unhealthy lifestyle choices like lack of physical activity and poor diet can take their toll on your body. Lifestyle choices can lead to weight problems. Being overweight or obese can increase your risk for hypertension.
Secondary hypertension
Secondary hypertension often occurs quickly and can become more severe than primary hypertension. Several conditions that may cause secondary hypertension include:

kidney disease
obstructive sleep apnea
congenital heart defects
problems with your thyroid
side effects of medications
use of illegal drugs
alcohol abuse or chronic use
adrenal gland problems
certain endocrine tumors

Diagnosing high blood pressure
Diagnosing hypertension is as simple as taking a blood pressure reading. Most doctors’ offices check blood pressure as part of a routine visit. If you don’t receive a blood pressure reading at your next appointment, request one.

If your blood pressure is elevated, your doctor may request you have more readings over the course of a few days or weeks. A hypertension diagnosis is rarely given after just one reading. Your doctor needs to see evidence of a sustained problem. That’s because your environment can contribute to increased blood pressure, such as the stress you may feel by being at the doctor’s office. Also, blood pressure levels change throughout the day.

If your blood pressure remains high, your doctor will likely conduct more tests to rule out underlying conditions. These tests can include:

urine test
cholesterol screening and other blood tests
test of your heart’s electrical activity with an electrocardiogram (EKG, sometimes referred to as an ECG)
ultrasound of your heart or kidneys
These tests can help your doctor identify any secondary issues causing your elevated blood pressure. They can also look at the effects high blood pressure may have had on your organs.

During this time, your doctor may begin treating your hypertension. Early treatment may reduce your risk of lasting damage.

High blood pressure: Tips for prevention

If you have risk factors for hypertension, you can take steps now to lower your risk for the condition and its complications.

Add healthy foods to your diet
Slowly work your way up to eating more servings of heart-healthy plants. Aim to eat more than seven servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Then aim to add one more serving per day for two weeks. After those two weeks, aim to add one more serving. The goal is to have ten servings of fruits and vegetables per day.
Adjust how you think of the average dinner plate
Leafy greens. Potassium helps your kidneys get rid of more sodium through your urine. ...
Berries. Berries, especially blueberries, are rich in natural compounds called flavonoids. ...
Red beets. ...
Skim milk and yogurt. ...
Oatmeal. ...
Bananas. ...
Salmon, mackerel, and fish with omega-3s. ...
Cut sugar
Set weight loss goals

1 person found this helpful

Blood Pressure Measurements: Special Cases

Dr. Arvind Kanchan 88% (149 ratings)
MD - Physiology, MBBS
General Physician, Lucknow
Blood Pressure Measurements: Special Cases

Special cases of measurements of blood pressure: 

Certain groups of people merit special consideration for the measurement of blood pressure because of age, body habitus or disturbances of blood pressure related to haemodynamic alterations in the cardiovascular system.

1. Children:

Measurement of blood pressure in children presents a number of difficulties. Variability of blood pressure is greater than in adults, and any one measurement is less likely to represent the true blood pressure. Systolic pressure is more accurate and reproducible than diastolic pressure. A cuff with proper dimensions is essential for accurate measurement. The widest cuff practicable should be used. Ideally, blood pressure should be measured after a few minutes of rest. Values obtained during sucking, crying or eating will not be representative. As with adults, a child’s blood pressure status should be decided only after it has been measured on a number of separate occasions. Ambulatory blood pressure measurement is being used increasingly in children.

2. Elderly people:

In epidemiological and interventional studies, blood pressure predicts morbidity and mortality in elderly people as effectively as in the young. Elderly people have considerable variability in blood pressure, which can lead to a number of diurnal blood pressure patterns that are identified best with ambulatory blood pressure measurement. These patterns include isolated systolic hypertension, white coat hypertension and hypotension. Elderly patients may also have pseudohypertension, a condition in which there is a large discrepancy between cuff and direct measurement of blood pressure in elderly patients. When conventional measurements seem to be out of proportion with the clinical findings, referral to a specialist cardiovascular centre for further investigation may be an appropriate option.

3. Obese people:

The association between obesity and hypertension has been confirmed in many epidemiological studies. Obesity may affect the accuracy of measurement of blood pressure in children, young and elderly people, and pregnant women. The relation of arm circumference to bladder dimensions is particularly important. If the bladder is too short for the arm as often happens with obese arms, blood pressure will be overestimated – ‘cuff hypertension’. The increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (obesity, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) makes accurate measurement of blood pressure in obese people increasingly important. In some obese patients, the arm circumference is so great that upper arm measurement is not possible and forearm measurement may be the only option. For conventional measurement, the Korotkoff sounds are auscultated over the radial artery and for devices that measure blood pressure by oscillometry (devices for self-measurement and ambulatory blood pressure measurement), the cuff is placed on the forearm.

4. Patients with arrhythmias:

Large variations in blood pressure from beat to beat make it difficult to obtain accurate measurements in patients with arrhythmias. In patients with arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation, blood pressure varies depending on the preceding pulse interval. No generally accepted method of determining auscultatory end points in patients with arrhythmias exists. Devices for measuring blood pressure with oscillometry vary in their ability to accurately record blood pressure in patients with arrhythmias. Measurements of blood pressure at best will constitute a rough estimate in those with atrial fibrillation, particularly when the ventricular rhythm is rapid or highly irregular, or both. The rate of deflation should be no faster than 2 mm Hg per heartbeat, and repeated measurements may be needed to overcome variability from beat to beat. Two potential sources of error exist when patients have bradyarrhythmia. If the rhythm is irregular, the same problems as with atrial fibrillation will apply. When the heart rate is extremely slow – for example, 40 beats/min – it is important that the rate of deflation used is less than for people with normal heart rates, as too rapid deflation will lead to underestimation of systolic blood pressure and overestimation of diastolic blood pressure.

5. Pregnant women:

Clinically, relevant hypertension occurs in more than 10% of pregnant women in most populations. High blood pressure is a key factor in making medical decisions in pregnancy. Disappearance of sounds (fifth phase) is the most accurate measurement of diastolic pressure, except when sounds persist to zero, in which case the fourth phase of muffling of sounds should be used.

6. Patients who take antihypertensive drugs:

In patients who take antihypertensive drugs, the timing of measurement may have a substantial influence on the blood pressure. The time of taking antihypertensive drugs should be noted.

7. Patients who are exercising:

Systolic blood pressure increases with increasing dynamic work as a result of increasing cardiac output, whereas diastolic pressure usually remains about the same or moderately lower.

An exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise may predict development of future hypertension.

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Low Blood Sugar(Hypoglycemia): Do You Know the Symptoms?

Dr. Amar Raykantiwar 92% (223 ratings)
D ( Diabetology), AFIH, DNB (F.MEDICINE), MBBS
General Physician, Pune
Low Blood Sugar(Hypoglycemia): Do You Know the Symptoms?

There are numerous conditions that can arise when the body does not process the dietary glucose properly. Hypoglycemia, otherwise called as low blood sugar, is when the blood sugar level in a person’s body decreases than normal value. Individuals with diabetes can get hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) when their bodies do not have enough sugar to use as fuel. It can happen for a few reasons, including diet, few medications and conditions, and exercise. 

In case you get hypoglycemia, record the date and time when it happened and what you did. Give the record to your specialist, so he or she can search for a pattern and adjust your medications accordingly. The most widely recognized reason for hypoglycemia includes medicines used to treat diabetes mellitus, for example, insulin and sulfonylureas. 

The risk is more noteworthy in diabetics who have eaten very less than what is required, exercised more than expected, or have had excessive alcohol. Other reasons for hypoglycemia incorporate kidney failure, certain cancers, for example, insulinoma, liver sickness, hypothyroidism, hunger, an inherent error of digestive system, extreme diseases, receptive hypoglycemia, various medications and liquor. The vast majority feels the symptoms of hypoglycemia when their glucose is 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or lower. Every individual with diabetes may have distinctive symptoms of hypoglycemia depending on their age, stage and other factors. You will figure out how to recognize yours. 

Some of the most common symptoms are: 

Early indications include: 

  1. Confusion 
  2. Drowsiness 
  3. Shivering or shaking 
  4. Hunger 
  5. Irritation 
  6. Headaches 
  7. Pounding heart 
  8. Racing pulse 
  9. Pale skin 
  10. Sweating 
  11. Trembling 
  12. Weakness 
  13. Nervousness 

Anxiety Without treatment, you may get more serious side effects, including: 

  1. Poor coordination 
  2. Concentration issues 
  3. Numbness in mouth and tongue 
  4. Nightmares 
  5. Unconsciousness 
  6. Trouble talking, impaired speech 
  7. Ataxia, incoordination, mistaken up for being drunk 
  8. Central or general motor deficiency, loss of motion, hemiparesis 
  9. Migraine 
  10. Trance, coma like state, strange breathing 
  11. Seizures Individuals with hypoglycemia unawareness do not have any idea about their glucose level drops. 

In case you have this condition, your glucose can drop without you noticing it. Without quick treatment, you can pass out, encounter a seizure, or even go into a state of extreme coma. In case somebody is having an extreme reaction, for example, unconsciousness, it is imperative to inject a drug called glucagon and contact the hospital quickly. People who are at danger for low glucose need to speak with their specialist about getting a solution for glucagon. You should never give an unconscious individual anything by mouth, as it could make them choke. Hypoglycemia should not be ignored. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3440 people found this helpful

Healthy Diet Chart For Low Blood Pessure Patients - लो ब्लड प्यूसर रोगियों के लिए स्वस्थ आहार चार्ट

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh 89% (192 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
Healthy Diet Chart For Low Blood Pessure Patients - लो ब्लड प्यूसर रोगियों के लिए स्वस्थ आहार चार्ट

शारीरिक निर्बलता की स्थिति में अत्यधिक मानसिक श्रम व भोजन में पौष्टिक खाद्य पदार्थों की कमी से प्रायः यह स्थिति उत्पन्न हो जाती है. कुछ लोग इसे नजरअन्दाज कर देते हैं तो कुछ लोग डॉक्टर के यहां चक्कर लगाकर परेशान हो जातें हैं. जब आपको लो ब्लड प्रेशर की शिकायत होती है तो कुछ ऐसे खाद्य पदार्थों का सेवन करें जो आपके ब्लड प्रेशर को सामान्य करे तथा आप एक स्वस्थ जीवन जी सकें. सामान्यत: यदि किसी व्यक्ति का ब्लड प्रेशर कम हो जाता है तो वह खारे या अधिक मीठे खाद्य पदार्थों का सेवन करता है ताकि इन्सुलिन का स्तर बढ़ जाए. इन उपचारों के अलावा अन्य कई खाद्य पदार्थ भी हैं जिन्हें लो ब्लडप्रेशर से ग्रस्त मरीजों को अपने आहार में शामिल करना चाहिये. लेकिन कुछ ऐसे घरेलू उपाय है जो लो ब्ल्डप्रेशर को कन्ट्रोल करने के लिए कारगर है. आइए जानें उन उपायों के बारें में.
1. पत्तेदार सब्जियां
पत्तेदार सब्जियों में आयरन होता है जो एक महत्वपूर्ण खनिज पदार्थ है. ब्लड प्रेशर के कम होने पर उसे सामान्य बनाने के लिए यह बहुत ही महत्वपूर्ण होता है. सब्जियों में प्रोटीन और विटामिन होते हैं. बल्डप्रेशर को सामान्य बनाये रखने के लिए प्रतिदिन सब्जियां खाएं. स्वस्थ रहने के लिए अपने आहार में सब्जियों को शामिल करें क्योंकि ये ब्लड प्रेशर को सामान्य रखती हैं.
2. सूखे मेवे
सूखे मेवे आपकी ऊर्जा और प्रतिरोधन क्षमता को बढ़ाने का काम करते हैं. इसके अलावा ये ब्लड प्रेशर को नियमित करने का काम भी करते हैं इसलिए आपको इन्हें अपने दैनिक आहार में अवश्य शामिल करना चाहिए.
3. ओट्स
ओट्स में मौजूद प्रचुर मात्रा में फाइबर इसे लो बीपी वाले लोगों के लिए उपयोगी बनाता है. को अपने आहार में शामिल करें क्योंकि इसमें प्रचुर मात्रा में फाइबर पाया जाता है जो आपको ऊर्जा प्रदान करता है.
4. बिना चर्बी वाला मांस
ऐसे मांस का सेवन करें जिसमें चर्बी कम मात्रा में हो. जिन लोगों को लो ब्लडप्रेशर की समस्या होती है उनके लिए टर्की, चिकन और मछली जैसे पदार्थ उपयोगी होते हैं. यह लो ब्लड प्रेशर के लिए सर्वोत्तम आहार है.
5. फल
फल खाना अक्सर हमारे स्वास्थ्य के लिए लाभदायक ही होता है. ऐसे फल खाएं जिनमें प्रोटीन प्रचुर मात्रा में हो. ये ऐसे फल हैं जो ब्लड प्रेशर के मरीजों के लिए बहुत अच्छे होते हैं इसलिए आप इन्हें भी खा सकते हैं.
6. काले खाद्य पदार्थ
काले अंगूर, काले खजूर आदि में आयरन प्रचुर मात्रा में होता है. ये सभी पदार्थ लो ब्लडप्रेशर को समान्य बनाने के लिए बहुत उपयोगी होते हैं. इन्हें आहार में शामिल करने से ब्लड प्रेशर के साथ साथ हृदय भी स्वस्थ रहता है.
7. खट्टे खाद्य पदार्थ
गर्मियों में खट्टे खाद्य पदार्थ जैसे संतरे आदि स्वास्थ्य के लिए अच्छे होते हैं क्योंकि इनमें पानी और एसिड पाया जाता है जो लो ब्लड प्रेशर के मरीजों के शरीर में ऊर्जा निर्माण में सहायक होता है.
8. साबुत अनाज
सफ़ेद खाद्य पदार्थों की तुलना में साबुत अनाज ज़्यादा अच्छा होता है. लो ब्लड प्रेशर को सामान्य बनाने के लिए इनका उपयोग करना अच्छा होता है तथा ये स्वास्थ्य के लिए भी अच्छे होते हैं. इन्हें आहार में अवश्य शामिल करना चाहिए.
9. लहसुन
लहसुन को अपने आहार में शामिल करें. यह ब्लड प्रेशर को सामान्य बनाने में सहायक होता है. अपने भोजन में कटी हुई लहसुन डालें. यह लो ब्लड प्रेशर के लिए एक अच्छा खाद्य पदार्थ है.
10. चुकंदर
चुकंदर प्रचुर मात्रा में मौजूद खनिज, आयरन इसे लो बीपी वाले लोगों के लिए काफी उपयोगी बनाता है. अच्छे स्वास्थ्य तथा सामान्य ब्लड प्रेशर के लिए यह एक अच्छा आहार है.
11. डार्क चॉकलेट
डार्क चॉकलेट न केवल आपके हृदय के लिए बल्कि लो ब्लड प्रेशर के लिए भी एक अच्छा आहार है.

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Salt - 7 Things You Must Know About It!

Dr. Rajiv Agarwal 87% (73 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Medicine, DM - Cardiology, Fellowship in Interventional Cardiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
Salt - 7 Things You Must Know About It!

Salt or more specifically Sodium plays a crucial role in BP management. Too high salt/Sodium ingestion can cause high BP while too low salt/sodium levels can cause low BP. So it is important to maintain an optimum salt intake. Studies have shown that a reduction in the amount of sodium consumed through the diet leads to a noticeable decrease of blood pressure and therefore, it is important to keep salt intake as low as possible. Salt intake is not same as Sodium intake. Salt is Sodium Chloride and is just one of the forms in which human beings consume Sodium. Here are some tips--

  1. Recommended Salt/ Sodium intake - Adults should consume <5gms of salt in a day (appx 1 teaspoon salt)/ Or <2.3 gms of sodium daily. Ideal Sodium intake should be <1.5 gms daily. 
  2. To decrease salt/sodium, AVOID processed foods like Chips, nachos, popcorns, namkeens like bhujiya, salted peanuts etc, pickles, papads, chutneys, sauces like tomato and soya sauce, ready-to-eat meals, junk and fried food like burgers, french fries, cured hams or bacon or salami, packed salty drinks like juices or buttermilk, hot chocolate etc. 
  3. Avoid adding salt from over the top in your salads, soups, curds and vegetables. 
  4. DO NOT Absolutely remove salt from your diet. Hence, Salt used while cooking the food at home is fine, but once the food is cooked do not add extra salt/chaat masala in the cooked food. 
  5. Teach healthy eating habits to your children by encouraging them to eat fruits, vegetables, drinking fresh food and home cooked meals rather than junk food. 
  6. If you are heart failure patient or kidney disease patient discuss with your Cardiologist or Nephrologist about the optimum recommended salt intake specified for you. 
  7. It is difficult to get used to low salt in terms of taste when you are used to salty taste, but it is possible. But the health benefits of controlling salt in diet can play a major role in BP reduction thus preventing the need for medicines, hence it can be worthwhile to get used to low salt taste.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3304 people found this helpful

Home Remedies for Low Blood Pressure in Hindi - लो ब्लड प्रेशर का घरेलू इलाज

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh 89% (192 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
Home Remedies for Low Blood Pressure in Hindi - लो ब्लड प्रेशर का घरेलू इलाज

निम्न रक्त चाप की समस्या आजकल धीरे-धीरे बढती ही जा रही है. दरअसल इस समस्या के बारे में जानकारी का अभाव भी इसके गंभीर होने का एक कारण है. निम्न रक्त चाप से निपटने के लिए आपको अपने घर पर ही कई तरह की सुविधायें और आहार मिल जाएंगे जिससे आपकी परेशानी काफी हद तक कम हो सकती है. शारीरिक कमजोरी के दौरान अत्यधिक मानसिक श्रम व भोजन में पौष्टिक खाद्य पदार्थों की कमी से प्रायः यह स्थिति उत्पन्न हो जाती है. कुछ लोग इसे नजरअन्दाज करने की गलती करते हैं तो कुछ लोग डॉक्टर के यहां चक्कर लगाकर परेशान हो जातें हैं. आइए निम्न रक्त चाप से बचने के लिए कुछ घरेलु उपायों पर प्रकाश डालते हैं.
1. देसी चना और किशमिश
देसी चना और किशमिश के इस्तेमाल से आप निम्न रक्त चाप को दूर कर सकते हैं. 50 ग्राम देशी चने व 10 ग्राम किशमिश को रात में 100 ग्राम पानी में किसी भी कांच के बर्तन में भीगने के लिए रख दें. सुबह चनों को किशमिश के साथ अच्छी तरह से चबा-चबाकर खाने के बाद पानी को पी लें.
2. बादाम
बादाम का इस्तेमाल हमें कई तरह की परेशानियों को दूर करने में मदद करता है. रात में बादाम की 3-4 गिरी पानी में भिगों दें. सुबह उनका छिलका उतारकर कर 15 ग्राम मक्खन और मिश्री के साथ इसे मिलाकर बादाम-गिरी को खाने से लो ब्लड प्रेशर खत्म होता है.
3. आंवला
प्रतिदिन आंवले या सेब के मुरब्बे का सेवन निम्न रक्त चाप में बहुत उपयोगी होता है. आंवले के 2 ग्राम रस में 10 ग्राम शहद मिलाकर कुछ दिन प्रातःकाल सेवन करने से निम्न रक्त चाप दूर करने में मदद मिलती है.
4. चुकंदर का रस
निम्न रक्त चाप को दूर करने में आप चुकंदर की भी सहायता ले सकते हैं. क्योंकि इसे सामान्य बनाये रखने में चुकंदर रस काफी मददगार होता है. रोजाना यह जूस सुबह-शाम पीना चाहिए. इससे हफ्ते भर में आप अपने ब्लड प्रेशर में सुधार पाएंगे.
5. जटामानसी, कपूर और दालचीनी
जटामानसी, कपूर और दालचीनी को समान मात्रा में लेकर मिश्रण बना लेँ और तीन-तीन ग्राम की मात्रा मेँ सुबह-शाम गर्म पानी से सेवन करें. कुछ ही दिन मेँ आपके ब्लड प्रेशर में सुधार हो जायेगा.
6. आंवले का रस
जिसको भी निम्न रक्त चाप की शिकायत हो और अक्सर चक्कर आते हों तो आवलें के रस में शहद मिलाकर चाटने से जल्दी आराम मिलता है. इसकी सहायता से आप अपनी परेशानी कम कर सकते हैं.
7. छुहारे और दूध
निम्न रक्त चाप के लिए आप चाहें तो छुहारे और दूध का इस्तेमाल कर सकते हैं. इसके लिए रात्रि में 2-3 छुहारे दूध में उबालकर पीने या खजूर खाकर दूध पीते रहने से निम्न रक्तचाप में सुधार होता है.
8. अदरक
के बारीक कटे हुए टुकडों में नींबू का रस व सेंधा नमक मिलाकर रख लें. इसे भोजन से पहले थोडी-थोडी मात्रा में दिन में कई बार खाते रहने से यह रोग दूर होता है. निंबू को पानी के साथ या सलाद आदि के साछ रोज खाने से इस समस्या से रात मिलती है.
9. जीरा व हींग
इसकी सहयाता से भी आप निम्न रक्त चाप का इलाज कर सकते हैं. 200 ग्राम मट्ठे मे नमक, भुना हुआ जीरा व थोडी सी भुनी हुई हींग मिलाकर प्रतिदिन पीते रहने से इस समस्या के निदान में पर्याप्त मदद मिलती है.
10. टमाटर काली मिर्च
200 ग्राम टमाटर के रस में थोडी सी काली मिर्च व नमक मिलाकर पीना काफी फायदेमंद साबित होता है. ये भी अजीब है कि उच्च रक्तचाप में जहां नमक के सेवन से रोगी को हानि होती है, वहीं निम्न रक्तचाप के रोगियों को नमक के सेवन से लाभ होता है.
11. गाजर
इससे निपटने के घरेलु नुस्खों में एक ये भी है कि गाजर के 200 ग्राम रस में पालक का 50 ग्राम रस मिलाकर इसका मिश्रण बना लें. फिर इसे पीना भी निम्न रक्तचाप के रोगियों के लिये लाभदायक रहता है.
12. लहसुन
लहसुन ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में कई औषधियों के रूप में प्रयोग में लाया जाता है. निम्न रक्तचाप के रोगियों के लिये बहुत ही लाभदायक होता है इसका नियमित सेवन करने से भी लो ब्लड प्रेशर की समस्या में आराम होता है.

2 people found this helpful

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