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Leukemia Health Feed

Chemotherapy - How Can It Help In Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

Chemotherapy - How Can It Help In Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

There are more than hundred varieties of blood cancer, but the most common ones are leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of leukemia, is when the white blood cells in the marrow begin to grow uncontrollably. This is an acute condition and both the onset and progress are very rapid. The cause is not known, and given the rapid progress, even treatment is often difficult. A more severe form of AML is the APML which is acute promyelocytic leukemia, which leads to reduced number of white and red blood cells and plasma.

This causes the following symptoms:

  • Anemia
  • Increased incidence of infections
  • Excessive bleeding from even minor cuts
  • Bleeding from nose and gums
  • Easy bruising
  • Blood in the urine
  • Extreme paleness and tiredness

What is different about APML?

There is one distinguishing factor with APML, which is that they contain a protein which when released into the bloodstream can cause severe bleeding, which may be very difficult to control. Chemotherapy kills these cells and so releases the proteins into the bloodstream. These cells need to be managed without chemotherapy, as the patient can even die of uncontrolled bleeding. With medical advances, two non-chemotherapy agents have been identified – all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, vesanoid, or tretinoin) and arsenic trioxide (ATO or trisenox).

  1. ATRA: This is a type of vitamin A which is used either alone, in combination with chemo, in combination with arsenic trioxide, and also in combination with both chemo and arsenic trioxide. The effect is different in different people – helps control spread, helps prevent recurrence, and helps control symptoms. In many people, it has been successfully used instead of chemotherapy. ATRA is also used as a long-term maintenance agent. Side effects from ATRA include fever, dry skin, rashes, mouth sores, increased cholesterol, and swollen feet. These go away with stoppage of the drug.
  2. ATO: Arsenic is poisonous when given in large amounts. However, it was discovered that it could be used to treat APML with effects similar to ATRA. It is used alone, in combination with chemotherapy, with ATRA, or with both. It helps control the growth of cells and also helps in long-term maintenance therapy. ATO dosage needs to be monitored as it can cause heart rhythm issues.

With both these drugs, there is a significant side effect, known as differentiation syndrome. Often seen during the first cycle of treatment, this happens when the leukemia cells release a protein into the blood. Symptoms include fever, breathing, kidney damage, and severe fluid buildup. With these two drugs being widely used effectively, chemotherapy is not the only treatment option for APML.

2427 people found this helpful

Childhood Leukaemia - What's Survival Rate?

Childhood Leukaemia - What's Survival Rate?

The diagnosis of leukemia in a child is followed by a discussion regarding the treatment and tenure required for complete recovery. The way in which the doctors go through the treatment after diagnosis of leukemia is based on various factors. Such factors that influence the outlook of the child are termed as prognosis.

These prognostic factors help in taking the decision regarding what sort of treatment should be offered to the child. Treatments may either be standard or intensive based on the prognostic factors. These factors, however, are vital in treating acute lymphocytic Leukemia than the other type called the acute myelogenous Leukemia. Above all these, survival rates are discussed and these rates play an important role. Parents of the child affected may at times insist that they get to know the survival rates.

The 5-year survival rates: The 5-year survival statistics are a common method used for discussing survival rates. This is the rate that denotes the percentage of children who live for a minimum of 5 years after the diagnosis of cancer. In the case of acute leukemia, it is rare for the cancer cells to come back after five years and so, you can come to a conclusion that the child has recovered.

Prognostic factors: The survival rates are based on a number of children who are diagnosed, but this is not conclusive. The type of Leukemia also plays a vital role. There are also various other prognostic factors that affect the child's outlook such as age, gender, weight, initial blood counts, and the way the child is responding to treatments. However, the survival rates are roughly the best estimates even after taking these factors into account.

Acute lymphocytic leukemia - 5-year survival rates
The survival rate for acute lymphocytic leukemia is greater than 85? and there is a vast improvement in this percentage over a period of time.

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia -5-year survival rates
The cumulative survival rate for Acute Myelogenous Leukemia is about 60? - 70?. There was a substantial increase is this percentage over time. There are a few subtypes which have a different percentage of survival rates.

Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia - 5-year survival rates
50? is the survival rate for this type of Leukemia.

Remission
The stage where there is no sign of Leukemia after 6 weeks of treatment even after the performance of lab tests which are very sensitive, it is called as remission. The remission stage does not necessarily mean that

Leukemia has been cured completely.
In conclusion, there is a significant increase in the percentage of survival rates when it comes to cancer. It has increased from 10? to 90? in the past few years. Factually speaking, there are approximately 375000 adult survivors in the United States who were diagnosed with cancer in their childhood.

2073 people found this helpful

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia - Why Does It Happen?

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia - Why Does It Happen?

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the white blood cells. It is characterized by an increased and unregulated growth of myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood.

Epidemiology, Incidence, Prevalence

In Western countries, CML accounts for 15–25% of all adult leukemias and 14% of leukemias overall (including the pediatric population, where CML is less common).

Why Does It Happen?

Neither you get it from your parents or infections, nor your smoking habits and diet seem to raise any chance of getting it. The only risk is if you've been in contact with high levels of radiation. Higher incidence of CML was seen in Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear bombing survivors. The rate of CML in these individuals seems to peak about 10 years after the exposure.

How would you know about it?

  • CML has three phases: Chronic, Accelerated, and Blastic
  • Chronic- It is the earliest stage. You might not even have symptoms.
  • Accelerated- The number of blood cells that don't work right increases Symptoms are as follows
  • Night sweats due to hypermetabolism
  • Dyspnea
  • Decreased appetite
  • Left upper quadrant abdominal pain from spleen infarction
  • Pain in your bones
  • Stroke
  • Changes in your vision
  • Ringing in your ear
  • Fatigue, weight loss
  • Loss of energy
  • Decreased exercise tolerance
  • Bruise

Blastic - The cells multiply and take over the healthy blood cells and platelets.

Symptoms

  1. Thrombocytopenia
  2. Basophilia
  3. Anemia
  4. Rapidly enlarging spleen in blast crisis
  5. Skin changes including bumps, tumors
  6. Swollen gland
  7. Infections
  8. Bleeding, petechiae, and ecchymosis
  9. Bone pain
  10. Fever
  11. Investigations

Complete blood count - To see how many white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets you have.

  1. FISH test (fluorescence in situ hybridization)- It is a detailed lab test of your genes to see for Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome in bone marrow cells.
  2. Polymerase chain reaction test- It is a lab test that looks for the BCR-ABL gene, which is involved in the process that tells your body to make too many of the wrong kind of white blood cells.

Ultrasonography - to see for splenomegaly

Bone marrow test. It helps you figure out how advanced your cancer is. The doctor uses a needle to take a sample, usually from your hip bone.

Treatment

  1. The goal of your treatment is to destroy the leukemia blood cells in your body and restore healthy ones to a normal level. It's usually not possible to get rid of all the bad cells.
  2. If you get treatment during the early, chronic phase of CML, it can help prevent the disease from moving to a more serious level.
  3. Doctors usually give drugs known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) first. They slow down the rate at which your body makes leukemia cells.
2951 people found this helpful

4 Tips To Prevent Kidney Angiomyolipoma!

4 Tips To Prevent Kidney Angiomyolipoma!

Kidney Angiomyolipoma is also known as AML of the kidney, renal angiomyolipoma or kidney AML. This is a benign tumor that can lead to hemorrhagic complications. A tumour can crop up in the medulla or the cortex of the kidney. A small proportion of this condition can happen in conjunction with tuberous sclerosis. The symptoms vary according to the size of a tumour. The treatment differs from case to case, for some patients, radical nephrectomy may work while for some, invasive wedge resection and partial nephrectomy may work better. The prognosis of this condition is excellent owing to its benign nature.

How is kidney angiomyolipoma medically dealt with?
The treatment option depends on the criticality of a tumour and the general health of the patient. A vast majority of the tumors that are asymptomatic in nature doesn’t require a surgical intervention. After the diagnosis is made, a doctor might want to take the wait and watch approach. If the tumor size is small, only medications can cure the condition. On the other hand, surgical intervention can cure the disease and limit any chances of recurrence. Some of the preferred surgical methods include complete or partial nephrectomy, endoscopic surgery, nephron-sparing surgery and tumor embolization. A nephrectomy is only considered when the tumor size is quite large. In case the kidney function is severely impaired, dialysis is necessary. If the tumor results in abdominal bleeding, emergency surgery should be considered.

Healthy lifestyle changes:
If a person has been diagnosed with kidney angiomyolipoma, it is important to follow a healthy lifestyle. Refraining from salt, potassium is a must. A stressed kidney, in general, is better off without foods such as potato, salt, fast food, processed food, various kind of meat etc. The dietary restriction gets waived off by the doctor once the patient is cured. Lifting heavy weight is a strict no in these circumstances. Adequate rest and enough hydration are necessary to be in shape. Timely consumption of medicine is equally important to get cured.

How can this disease be prevented?
Medical research has not fetched any result over the possible prevention method of renal AML. This condition is often connected with a genetic disorder. The following prevention method is necessary to mitigate the risk of this disease.

  • A genetic test of the expecting parents or molecular testing of the fetus can help a doctor understand whether there is a risk involving the baby.
  • If the disease runs in the family, a genetic counselling can help parents to understand to assess the risk before planning a child.
  • Frequent medical checkups are also necessary for a person who has a family history of this disease.
  • Aggressive medical research is being done to get a possible cure for this problem.
2982 people found this helpful

Done my complete blood tests hb is 13. Blood sugar on fasting 86. Thyroid Tsh t3, t4 is 11.28, normal only my eosinophilia 7.7% n platelet crit is 0.46%.I have cough last one month n it's really irritating me, AEC IS 0.62 N BASPHILOS IS 0.4. Even a throat swab was done. I was put on 2 different antibiotics and allergy tabs but only temporary relief. Is there a cause for concern?

Done my complete blood tests hb is 13. Blood sugar on fasting 86. Thyroid Tsh t3, t4 is 11.28, normal only my eosinop...
1. Do saline gargles daily. 2. Whenever possible do steam inhalation also. 3. Cover your nose and mouth with hanky for at least 30 sec when you go in dusty areas also when you go in and out of AC. As our nose is the most sensitive part of our body, When there is temperature difference between two rooms or inside n outside, then if we not protect our nose, it gets affected. 4. Drink Hot Liquids --Hot liquids relieve nasal congestion, prevent dehydration, and soothe the uncomfortably inflamed membranes that line your nose and throat. 5. Sleep With an Extra Pillow Under Your Head-- Elevating your head will help relieve congested nasal passages. If the angle is too awkward, try placing the pillows between the mattress and the box springs to create a more gradual slope. 6. Treat That Stuffy Nose With Warm Salt Water-- Salt-water rinsing helps break nasal congestion, while also removing virus particles and bacteria from your nose. 7. Blow Your Nose Often (and the Right Way)-- It's important to blow your nose regularly when you have a cold rather than sniffling mucus back into your head. But when you blow hard, pressure can carry germ-carrying phlegm back into your ear passages, causing earache. The best way to blow your nose: Press a finger over one nostril while you blow gently to clear the other. Homeopathic treatment has very encouraging results and gives relief in long term please ask for consultation with detailed information so that I can help you better.
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How to control eosinophilia. I have a breathing problem in cold seasons. Due to excess cells of esophil. How to control them?

How to control eosinophilia. I have a breathing problem in cold seasons. Due to excess cells of esophil. How to contr...
We need to identify what is the cause It could be secondary to allergic disease like asthma and due to work infestations Deworming, treatment of filariasis and if not improving steroids help.
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Depression

Depression

Depression

The medical model is a particular way of viewing human suffering, decay, dysfunction and, ultimately, death. It is a paradigm, a lens through which physicians and others perceive certain abnormal or aberrant phenomena like leukemia, diabetes, and now, depression and many other mental disorders. But despite the immense contribution of the medical model in diagnosing and treating disease, its literal application to archetypal human experiences such as depression, psychosis, and anxiety is problematical.
There is no denying that those who suffer from severe depression are ill. 

 

I have a brain TB sir I have lost my left eye I use medicines from past 1 year but take a 3 months gap then now I use medicines. I have a doubt which medicines and how long I use please tell me sir.

Extended uninterrupted treatment for brain TB is recommended. We need to know the complete drug history and present status of brain TB along with time of interruption to decide further course of Anti tubercular treatment.
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Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia - What Should Be Done In Such A Case?

Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia - What Should Be Done In Such A Case?

There are more than hundred varieties of blood cancer, but the most common ones are leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of leukemia, is when the white blood cells in the marrow begin to grow uncontrollably. This is an acute condition and both the onset and progress are very rapid. The cause is not known, and given the rapid progress, even treatment is often difficult. A more severe form of AML is the APML which is acute promyelocytic leukemia, which leads to reduced number of white and red blood cells and plasma.

This causes the following symptoms:

  • Anemia
  • Increased incidence of infections
  • Excessive bleeding from even minor cuts
  • Bleeding from nose and gums
  • Easy bruising
  • Blood in the urine
  • Extreme paleness and tiredness

What is different about APML?

There is one distinguishing factor with APML, which is that they contain a protein which when released into the bloodstream can cause severe bleeding, which may be very difficult to control. Chemotherapy kills these cells and so releases the proteins into the bloodstream. These cells need to be managed without chemotherapy, as the patient can even die of uncontrolled bleeding. With medical advances, two non-chemotherapy agents have been identified – all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, vesanoid, or tretinoin) and arsenic trioxide (ATO or trisenox).

  1. ATRA: This is a type of vitamin A which is used either alone, in combination with chemo, in combination with arsenic trioxide, and also in combination with both chemo and arsenic trioxide. The effect is different in different people – helps control spread, helps prevent recurrence, and helps control symptoms. In many people, it has been successfully used instead of chemotherapy. ATRA is also used as a long-term maintenance agent. Side effects from ATRA include fever, dry skin, rashes, mouth sores, increased cholesterol, and swollen feet. These go away with stoppage of the drug.
  2. ATO: Arsenic is poisonous when given in large amounts. However, it was discovered that it could be used to treat APML with effects similar to ATRA. It is used alone, in combination with chemotherapy, with ATRA, or with both. It helps control the growth of cells and also helps in long-term maintenance therapy. ATO dosage needs to be monitored as it can cause heart rhythm issues.

With both these drugs, there is a significant side effect, known as differentiation syndrome - symptoms include fever, breathing difficulty. Often seen during the first cycle of treatment, this happens when the leukemia cells release a protein into the blood. Symptoms include fever, breathing, kidney damage, and severe fluid buildup. With these two drugs being widely used effectively, chemotherapy is not the only treatment option for APML. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2875 people found this helpful

I am suffering from leukaemia currently my HGB 8.8 and my platelets 4 lakhs. How to recover from leukemia?

I am suffering from leukaemia currently my HGB 8.8 and my platelets 4 lakhs. How to recover from leukemia?
Apart from taking symptomatic treatment plan for chemotherapy treatment and than plan for bone marrow transplant
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