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Laparoscopic Surgery Tips

Appendicitis - Why Is Surgery Required?

Appendicitis - Why Is Surgery Required?

A vermiform appendix is a small, blind ended hollow tube. It is closed from an end and attached at the other side to the caecum, which is a pouch shaped opening of the colon (large intestine), where the contents of the small intestine are emptied. An appendix is considered to be a vestigial organ in the human body, with no clear function or any useful purpose in humans. It is however suspected that previously in humans it served the purpose of cultivation of gut flora that could be beneficial in repopulating the intestines after being affecting by a gut flora attacking disease. It also supposedly functioned in the production of the endocrine cells during fetal life, whose function was regulation of hemostasis.

A possible function of exposing the white blood cells to antigens in the abdominal tract during the initial years of life that aided in the stimulation of production of antibody and thus regulating the immune reactions in the gastro-intestinal tract is also speculated. An evolutionary disappearance of the appendix has been proved in humans. If an appendix is present in the body and undergoes any kind of blockage, it can lead to appendicitis which is a very painful and a potentially fatal inflammation.

The appendix is around 3-5 inches in length and 0.4-0.5 inches in width. Cavity of the appendix is narrow at the end where it joins the cecum. It constitutes of muscular walls that aid in expulsion of mucous secretions of the walls of appendix into the cecum. A blockage to the opening of appendix that prevents the expulsion of the mucus secretions of the cecum cause appendicitis. A fecalith, a solidified mass of the fecal matter is a common source of blockage of the appendix. Obstruction can also be a result of enlarged lymphoid follicles, worms in the intestine, trauma or tumors. The mucus secretions get collected in the appendix causing an edema and the distension of the organ itself. With an increase in the distension of the organ, blood supply is affected. Discontinuation of the blood supply to the organ cause death due to necrosis of the appendiceal tissues.

Certain micro-organisms like the Yersinia species, Actinomyces, Mycobacteria species, Histoplasma species, viral agents like Cytomegalovirus, Adenovirus are implicated in the pathology of appendicitis. Microbial load on the necrosed organ further worsens the inflammation. Increased distension of the inflamed organ can cause it to burst and spill the contents into the abdominal cavity. The membranes that line the abdominal cavity and form the covering of the abdominal organs is known as the peritoneum. Spilling of the mucus contents from the appendix may affect the peritoneum too.

The presenting symptom of appendicitis is moderate to severe pain in the abdomen. With the progression of infection, pain becomes localized to the lower right part of abdomen called as the ‘McBurney’s point’. Other common symptoms are abdominal tenderness, a progressive worsening of pain, pain during coughing or sneezing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, difficulty or inability to pass gas, fever, acute constipation, loss of appetite and sometimes even a urinary tract infection.

Appendicitis is diagnosed on the basis of a patient's history and physical examination by the physician. For a confirmatory diagnosis white blood cell count, a urine analysis, abdominal X-ray, barium enema, ultrasonography of the abdomen, computerized tomography scan, and laparoscopy can be advised.

In patients with a mild and confined appendicitis, antibiotics treatment is sufficient to resolve inflammation. The appendix may be removed later if required. The most common treatment of appendicitis is an appendectomy, where the inflamed appendix is removed before it bursts. Surgical removal of appendix remains the most sought after treatment option by the physicians.

In an open appendectomy, an incision of two to three inches in length is made on the skin and the passed the layers of abdominal wall over the location of appendix. The appendix is freed from its mesenteric attachment to the colon and obliterating the opening on the colon with sutures. Pus is drained and the incision is closed.

Nowadays, to ensure minimum invasion, laparoscopic surgery also known as the key-hole surgery is done. It causes a minimal loss of blood, less scar tissue formation and quicker healing.

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Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal Surgery - All You Should Be Knowing!

Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal Surgery - All You Should Be Knowing!

What is Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal Surgery (Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy)?

Gallbladder removal is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Gallbladder removal surgery is usually performed with minimally invasive techniques and the medical name for this procedure is Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy or Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal.

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ that rests beneath the right side of the liver. Its main purpose is to collect and concentrate a digestive liquid (bile) produced by the liver. Bile is released from the gallbladder after eating, aiding digestion. Bile travels through narrow tubular channels (bile ducts) into the small intestine. Removal of the gallbladder is not associated with any impairment of digestion in most people.

What Causes Gallbladder Problems?

Gallbladder problems are usually caused by the presence of gallstones which are usually small and hard, consisting primarily of cholesterol and bile salts that form in the gallbladder or in the bile duct.

It is uncertain why some people form gallstones but risk factors include being female, prior pregnancy, age over 40 years and being overweight. Gallstones are also more common as you get older and some people may have a family history of gallstones. There is no known means to prevent gallstones.

These stones may block the flow of bile out of the gallbladder, causing it to swell and resulting in sharp abdominal painvomitingindigestion and, occasionally, fever. If the gallstone blocks the common bile duct, jaundice (a yellowing of the skin) can occur.

Diagnosing 

  1. Ultrasound is most commonly used to find gallstones.
  2. In a few more complex cases, other X-ray test such as a CT scan or a gallbladder nuclear medicine scan may be used to evaluate gallbladder disease.

Gallstones do not go away on their own. Some can be temporarily managed by making dietary adjustments, such as reducing fat intake. This treatment has a low, short-term success rate. Symptoms will eventually continue unless the gallbladder is removed. Treatments to break up or dissolve gallstones are largely unsuccessful.

Surgical removal of the gallbladder is the time-honored and safest treatment of gallbladder disease.

What are the Advantages of Performing Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal?

  1. Rather than a five to seven inch incision, the operation requires only four small openings in the abdomen.
  2. Patients usually have minimal post-operative pain.
  3. Patients usually experience faster recovery than open gallbladder surgery patients.
  4. Most patients go home the same day of the surgery and enjoy a quicker return to normal activities.

Are you a Candidate?

Although there are many advantages to laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy), the procedure may not be appropriate for some patients who have severe complicated gallbladder disease or previous upper abdominal surgery. A thorough medical evaluation by your personal physician, in consultation with a surgeon trained in laparoscopy, can determine if laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy) is an appropriate procedure for you.

Gall Bladder Surgery - Why Is It Required?

Gall Bladder Surgery - Why Is It Required?

Surgery using a laparoscope is the most common way to remove the gallbladder. A laparoscope is a thin, lighted tube that lets the doctor see inside our belly. It is a minimally invasive surgery in which small incisions and specialized tools are used to remove a diseased or infected gallbladder.

The gall bladder is a small organ that sits right under the liver and is credited with bile storage, which can help the body in breaking down various kinds of fats that enter it. So, what all do you need to know about this operation? Read this list.

Reasons for Gall Bladder Operation: The gall bladder is not a very efficient organ. It can lead to blockages and choking as the bile it stores can become very thick and difficult to handle. Also, this bile can start to harbour deposits that are hardball like substances, usually known as gall bladder stones. The size of these stones can vary from the size of a grain to the size of a golf ball. 

Further, these gall bladder stones can cause infections which can lead to symptoms like nausea, vomiting, bloating and more. Another reason can also be the gall bladder disease known as cholelithiasis, which can cause abdominal pain. Inflammation in the pancreas, also known as pancreatitis, can lead to gall bladder open removal surgery.

Risk: While the gall bladder removal surgery is usually considered a safe one, with little or no complications, there are risks attached to this surgery too. These include sudden and excessive bleeding and the creation of blood clots, allergic reactions to the drugs used as well as anaesthesia, blood vessel damage, accelerated heart rate which leads to an increased risk of contracting a heart attack or heart disease, infections, inflammation or swelling in the pancreas, and injuries caused to the bile duct during surgery.

You might also need this type of surgery if you have the following:

1. biliary dyskinesia, which occurs when the gallbladder doesn't fill or empty correctly due to a defect
2. choledocholithiasis, which occurs when gallstones move to the bile duct and potentially cause a blockage that prevents the gallbladder from draining
3. cholecystitis, which is an inflammation of the gallbladder
4. pancreatitis, which is an inflammation of the pancreas

Laparoscopic surgery is preferred over open cholecystectomy surgery because the smaller incisions that are made reduce your risk of infection, bleeding, and recovery time.

Preparation: To prepare for your gall bladder removal surgery, the doctor may ask you to have a prescription fluid so that your bowels are flushed clean. You may also be asked to fast for at least six hours before the surgery so that there is no hindrance to the same. Also, the use of antibacterial soap to bathe is usually prescribed so that the risk of contracting infections decreases.

While this surgery can be a simple one, you will have to take due care after the surgery to ensure that the recovery is fast and virtually pain-free.

Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal - All You Need To Know!

Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal - All You Need To Know!

What is Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal Surgery (Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy)?

Gallbladder removal is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Gallbladder removal surgery is usually performed with minimally invasive techniques and the medical name for this procedure is Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy or Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal.

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ that rests beneath the right side of the liver. Its main purpose is to collect and concentrate a digestive liquid (bile) produced by the liver. Bile is released from the gallbladder after eating, aiding digestion. Bile travels through narrow tubular channels (bile ducts) into the small intestine. Removal of the gallbladder is not associated with any impairment of digestion in most people.

What Causes Gallbladder Problems?

Gallbladder problems are usually caused by the presence of gallstones which are usually small and hard, consisting primarily of cholesterol and bile salts that form in the gallbladder or in the bile duct.

It is uncertain why some people form gallstones but risk factors include being female, prior pregnancy, age over 40 years and being overweight. Gallstones are also more common as you get older and some people may have a family history of gallstones. There are no known means to prevent gallstones.

These stones may block the flow of bile out of the gallbladder, causing it to swell and resulting in sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, indigestion and, occasionally, fever. If the gallstone blocks the common bile duct, jaundice (yellowing of the skin) can occur.

Diagnosing-

  1. Ultrasound is most commonly used to find gallstones.
  2. In a few more complex cases, another X-ray test such as a CT scan or a gallbladder nuclear medicine scan may be used to evaluate gallbladder disease.

Gallstones do not go away on their own. Some can be temporarily managed by making dietary adjustments, such as reducing fat intake. This treatment has a low, short-term success rate. Symptoms will eventually continue unless the gallbladder is removed. Treatments to break up or dissolve gallstones are largely unsuccessful.

Surgical removal of the gallbladder is the time-honored and safest treatment of gallbladder disease.

What are the Advantages of Performing Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal?

  1. Rather than a five to seven-inch incision, the operation requires only four small openings in the abdomen.
  2. Patients usually have minimal post-operative pain.
  3. Patients usually experience a faster recovery than open gallbladder surgery patients.
  4. Most patients go home the same day of the surgery and enjoy a quicker return to normal activities.

Are you a Candidate?

Although there are many advantages to laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy), the procedure may not be appropriate for some patients who have severe complicated gallbladder disease or previous upper abdominal surgery. A thorough medical evaluation by your personal physician, in consultation with a surgeon trained in laparoscopy, can determine if laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy) is an appropriate procedure for you.
 

Comparison Between Robotic Cancer Surgery & Laparoscopic Surgery!

Comparison Between Robotic Cancer Surgery & Laparoscopic Surgery!

Some time back there was a good debate about which type of surgery was the preferred between open surgery and a laparoscopic technique. The laparoscopic team won it hands down. Now an even more rigorous debate rages on amongst the medical circles – Isa robotic surgical method better than the standard laparoscopic technique? Let us look at this in simplest terms.

Robotic surgery is technically a laparoscopic procedure, but it is a procedure which is fused with advanced technology. The robotic surgeries are not entirely done by robots or artificial beings. At each and every step, they are guided by the surgeon and he/she has complete control over them.

In a standard laparoscopic procedure, once the incision is made and the camera is inserted, it is still the surgeon’s hand that does the procedure. While this works out positively in many cases, there are some restrictions as to the flexibility of the surgeon’s reach. This is where robotic surgery comes into play. Once the incisions are made, the robotic instruments are guided into them. Then through a high-end laparoscopic camera, the surgeon is able to witness the inner regions through a 3D monitor that offers him/her a complete 360-degree view. The surgeon uses the visuals to guide the robotic arms through a set of levers or joysticks and does the procedure.

The biggest advantage of such procedures is the precision and flexibility that the system offers. Even a complex area can be easily treated and the region can be taken care of. Some of the other advantages include:

  • Recovery period: It involves the shortest recovery periods and your hospital stay is minimal.
  • 3D view: Since the viewing options are further enhanced than the standard visuals, the surgeon has a better understanding of the inner regions and can take robust decisions based on the needs.
  • Surgeon control: With complete control of the instruments, a surgeon is in complete control of the surgery that he is performing. As stated earlier, the surgeon’s ability to take accurate decisions multiply when opting for these procedures.
  • Movement: In some cases, the surgeon’s hand may be limited in performing surgery. For example in an obese person, there are some restrictions on the hand movements. This is completely in control with a robotic surgery procedure, as the robotic instruments are flexible and they can be allowed inside more freely for taking care of the ailment.

Robotic surgeries are getting popular by the day and you can consult with your doctors about the treatment plans that can be done with it. It is true that there are certain limitations to such procedures, but the technology is here to stay and get advanced within a short period of time.

Appendicectomy - Know More About It!

Appendicectomy - Know More About It!

When the appendix (present at the junction of the small intestine and the large intestine) becomes swollen, it is called appendicitis. It can be acute or chronic and is a common cause of abdominal pain. It can happen at any age but it usually occurs between the ages of 10 and 30.

The appendix is an organ whose function is not yet known. It is believed that the appendix helps in recovering from diarrhoea and infections of the small or large intestine. However, the body can function normally without the appendix.

Symptoms of appendicitis

When the appendix inflames, bacteria start to multiply and this leads to the formation of pus inside the appendix. The build-up bacteria are accompanied by the following symptoms-

• Pain in the abdomen
Nausea and vomiting
• Diarrhoea

Appendicitis requires immediate medical intervention. If it bursts, it expels poisonous pus into the abdominal cavity and it can be life-threatening.

Surgery for appendicitis (Appendicectomy)-

In most cases, surgery is the only permanent cure for appendicitis. Appendicitis often causes an abscess. Your doctor will recommend a course of antibiotics and then drain the abscess through your skin. After the treatment for infection, the doctor will prepare you for surgery.

Appendicectomy can be a laparoscopic surgery or an open surgery. If you are already taking some over-the-counter medicines, or are pregnant or if you are allergic to some medicines, you must inform your doctor before the surgery. On the day of the surgery, the doctor will ask you to not drink any water for seven or eight hours prior to the operation.

• If the surgery is laparoscopic, the surgeon makes three minute incisions in the abdomen. Then a camera (which displays images of the inside of the abdomen) and surgical instruments are inserted through the three holes into the abdomen. With the help of these, the surgeon extracts the appendix. A laparoscopic surgery is more advantageous than an open surgery because laparoscopic surgery reduces the risk of infection, causes less pain after surgery.

• When an appendix bursts, you will need immediate surgery. And for this, a surgeon will opt for an open surgery. In case of an open surgery, an incision is made in the lower right side of the abdomen. Then the appendix is removed and the wound is closed with stitches. Since it is an open surgery, the surgeon gets the opportunity to clear up your abdominal cavity if the appendix had burst. An open surgery is the most preferred type of surgery when it comes to a ruptured appendix.

The benefit of the surgery lies in the fact that you will never again get appendicitis. Moreover, a surgery can prevent the complications that arise from appendicitis.

Recovery after an appendicectomy-

• If the surgery is laparoscopic, you will be discharged from the hospital within a day.

• If the surgery followed a burst appendix, you may be required to stay in the hospital for around a week. The doctor will recommend bed rest for at least three weeks and you will be able to get back to work in a month.

If you have appendicitis, you will continuously have to endure pain in your abdomen. The situation becomes grave when your inflamed appendix bursts. Doctors advise people with appendicitis to undergo surgery so that the eventuality of a burst appendix does not arise.

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Gallstone Surgery - Everything You Should Know About It!

Gallstone Surgery - Everything You Should Know About It!

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ that rests beneath the right side of the liver. Its main purpose is to collect and concentrate a digestive liquid (bile) produced by the liver. Bile is released from the gallbladder after eating, aiding digestion. Bile travels through narrow tubular channels (bile ducts) into the small intestine. Removal of the gallbladder is not associated with any impairment of digestion in most people.

What Causes Gallbladder Problems?
Gallbladder problems are usually caused by the presence of gallstones which are usually small and hard, consisting primarily of cholesterol and bile salts that form in the gallbladder or in the bile duct.
It is uncertain why some people form gallstones but risk factors include being female, prior pregnancy, age over 40 years and being overweight. Gallstones are also more common as you get older and some people may have a family history of gallstones.many fectres are thought to be associated with increased chances of gall stone formation but there is no definite known means to prevent gallstones.

These stones may block the flow of bile out of the gallbladder, causing it to swell and resulting in sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, indigestion and, occasionally, fever. If the gallstone blocks the common bile duct, jaundice (a yellowing of the skin) can occur.

Diagnosing
1) 
Ultrasound is most commonly used to find gallstones.
2) In a few more complex cases, other X-ray, CT scan or a gallbladder nuclear medicine scan may be used to evaluate gallbladder disease

Types of gallstones:
There are three main types of gallstones. They are
1.Mixed stones:
They are made up of cholesterol and salts. They tend to develop in batches.
2.Cholesterol stones: Mainly made of cholesterol, which is crucial to many metabolic processes. They can grow large enough to block the bile ducts.
3.Pigment stones: The colour of bile is greenish-brown, due to some particular pigments.

These Gallstones don’t cause any problems in most cases. But prompt treatment is required if stones block ducts and cause life-threatening complications like infections and inflammation in the pancreas liver, gall bladder intestine and other organs nearby. This may require for removal of the gallbladder through a surgery, known as cholecystectomy, which further includes techniques such as laparoscopic (keyhole) cholecystectomy robotic or open surgery.

The gall bladder is a less vital organ, and the body can cope up normally even after its removal.

The procedure of surgery: Laparoscopic removed of the gall bladder is now the recommended standard of care/gold standard for gallstone disease.

1)The surgery involves the removal of gallbladder and gallstones through several incisions in the abdomen. In order to see clearly, the surgeon inflates the abdomen with air or carbon dioxide.
2)A lighted scope attached to a video camera is inserted into one incision near the belly button. The video monitor is used as a guide for inserting other surgical instruments into the other incisions to remove the gallbladder.
3)Intraoperative cholangiography is the X-ray procedure which shows the anatomy of bile ducts. This may be needed sometimes before the surgeon removes the gallbladder.
4)Bile flows from the liver through the common bile duct after the surgery into the small intestine. As the gallbladder has been removed, the gallbladder can no longer store bile between meals but this has little effect on digestion.
5)In case of open surgery, the surgeon reaches the gallbladder through a large, single incision in the abdominal wall, to perform the removal of gall bladder
4.FAQ: can gall stone treated with Medicines

The answer is both yes or no.

Yes: if gall stone are not symptomatic or have not started causing complications then  certain medicines, diet and lifestyle changes can help in preventing complications

No: gall stone keep on dissolving and new stones keep on forming. there is no medicine proven to have resulted in complete dissolution of gallstones, also new stone from within months so there is actually no actual/definite benefit of removal of stones alone by medicines or even by surgery.

Are you a Candidate?
Although there are many advantages to laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy), the procedure may not be appropriate for some patients who have severe complicated gallbladder disease or previous upper abdominal surgery. A thorough medical evaluation by your personal physician, in consultation with a surgeon trained in laparoscopy, can determine if laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy) is an appropriate procedure for you.

Medical factors to consider before cholecystectomy:
The most important factor is the consideration of your medical history. This is because the pre-existing conditions influence decisions on surgery and anesthetic and information about any bad reactions or side effects from any medications would be helpful for surgery.

Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal Surgery - What Should You Know?
What is Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal Surgery (Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy)?

Gallbladder removal is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Gallbladder removal surgery is usually performed with minimally invasive techniques and the medical name for this procedure is Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy or Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal.

Gallstones do not go away on their own. Some can be temporarily managed by making dietary adjustments, such as reducing fat intake. This treatment has a low, short-term success rate. Symptoms will eventually continue unless the gallbladder is removed. Treatments to break up or dissolve gallstones are largely unsuccessful. Surgical removal of the gallbladder is the time-honored and safest treatment of gallbladder disease.

What are the Advantages of Performing Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal?
1.
Rather than a five to seven-inch incision, the operation requires only four small openings in the abdomen.
2. Patients usually have minimal post-operative pain.
3. Patients usually experience faster recovery than open gallbladder surgery patients.
4. Most patients go home the same day of the surgery and enjoy a quicker return to normal activities.

Complications after gallbladder surgery:
This surgery carries some degree of risk like any other surgery. Complications such as internal bleeding, infection, injury to nearby digestive organs, injury to the bile duct and injury to blood vessels.

Self-care after the surgery:
Taking rest is the most important thing after surgery. Personal hygiene special care to avoid wound infection. Avoid things such as heavy lifting and physical exertion. Early mobility brings early recovery and return to work. The usual recovery period after the surgery is one week. Bathing can be done with waterproof dressing.

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Laparoscopic Surgery - How Can You Keep The Complications At Bay?

Laparoscopic Surgery - How Can You Keep The Complications At Bay?

Laparoscopic surgery is also known as minimally invasive surgery. It leads to a lesser amount of pain after the surgery, and therefore requires less medication also. It reduces the possibility of hemorrhage, thereby, lowering the possibility of requiring blood transfusion. The smaller length and depth of the incision also means that the patient recovers from the surgery faster than usual.

There is also a lesser chance of contracting infections because a larger number of organs remain unexposed and therefore uncontaminated. Laparoscopic surgeries also cause smaller, lighter scars once the surgery wound heals completely.

However, as with any surgery, complications may occur during the course of laparoscopic surgery:

  1. Wound infection: Even though laparoscopic surgery is minimally invasive and the possibility of contracting infections is considerably less, the wound is capable of getting infected. Hence, it is essential to maintain the cleanliness and hygiene recommendations provided by the concerned medical staff. It is also assumed that the surgeons would prevent this possibility by maintaining strict protocols regarding this issue on their part.
  2. Bruising: After surgery, depending on the type and duration of the procedure, the patient is always advised to follow certain restrictions regarding mobility and restriction of normal day to day functioning. These rules must be followed in order to prevent the possibility of bruising after a laparoscopic surgery.
  3. Hematoma formation: A hematoma is an accumulation of blood outside the blood vessel. This is not normal at all and requires urgent inspection and treatment. This is a relatively common complication that happens after a laparoscopic surgical procedure. Precautions are taken by surgeons to avoid this but it may still occur. It needs to be diagnosed early, and then the bleeding vessel needs to be emobilized selectively in order to reduce any further complication of this type.
  4. Anesthesia related complications: To prevent anesthesia related complications during laparoscopic surgery, it is essential that procedures related to the airways, ventilation, analgesia, antimetics are followed in the preoperative state.
  5. Injury: Any injury that may be inflicted on the blood vessels present in the walls of the abdomen or on the sidewall in the pelvic region, as well as injuries in the bowel area and the urinary tract. Proper protocol must be followed by the doctor to avoid such complications as much as possible.
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Gynecology & Infertility - How Do Laparoscopy Surgeries Help?

Gynecology & Infertility - How Do Laparoscopy Surgeries Help?

Almost every woman wants to lead a healthy life with their loved ones and experience the joy of motherhood when the right time comes. However, as much as you detest it, the last decade or two has seen a steady rise in gynecological problems. While some of the gynecological conditions are minor and can be easily treated and taken care of, others may give you a hard time. From PCOS to Endometriosis, left untreated, some of these problems may trigger infertility, complicating things further.

Open surgeries have long been the only surgical option to deal with such critical problems. However, the advent of Laparoscopy has brought about a much-needed relief benefitting millions of women with gynecological problems worldwide. Based on latest technology and being minimally invasive, laparoscopy comes with a lot of benefits. In addition to surgically treating a condition, laparoscopy also ensures an accurate and better diagnosis. In this article, we will discuss the laparoscopic surgeries to deal with infertility and other related gynecological issues.

Infertility and Laparoscopic surgery:

Identifying the underlying factor(s) responsible for infertility can go a long way to treat the condition successfully. Some of the factors that contribute towards infertility include

  1. PCOS: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a medical condition whereby formation of a cyst(s) take place in one or both the ovaries. These cysts affect the ovulation process as the eggs either do not mature or the ovary fails to release the mature eggs. To deal with this situation, a surgeon often performs the Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling or Ovarian Diathermy.
    • Here, the surgeon makes small cuts in the abdomen (belly button).
    • To inflate the stomach, the surgeon inserts carbon dioxide gas inside the stomach.
    • The Laparoscope along with the surgical instruments are next inserted inside through the incisions.
    • Parts of the ovary that are being affected are destroyed using Electrocautery.
  2. Ovarian Diathermy plays a significant role in normalizing the ovulation process, which was affected by PCOS.
  3. A blocked fallopian tube can also trigger infertility. In this case, Laparoscopic Fimbrioplasty (performed when there is a scar or a blockage in the part of the fallopian tube that is adjacent to the ovary) comes in handy. It is a laparoscopic reconstructive procedure that helps to open the tubal blockage, thereby restoring the fimbriae (finger-like projections located at the tube ends that aids in the transportation of the matured eggs from the ovary into the uterus).
  4. Endometriosis: This is a medical term used to define a condition whereby the endometrial cells grow outside the uterus, often in the ovary or the fallopian tube resulting in pain and infertility. Here also, laparoscopy comes as a savior, getting rid of any scarred tissues, endometrial implants or endometrioma (endometriosis cyst that forms in the ovary), thereby improving the condition.
  5. Laparoscopy can also be used to treat ovarian cancer, removal of fibroids (uterine myomas or uterine tumors), hysterectomy (uterus removal).
  6. Laparoscopy plays a significant role in reversing the tubal ligation (closure of the fallopian tube to prevent pregnancy).

Gall Bladder Surgery - How To Prepare For It?

Gall Bladder Surgery - How To Prepare For It?

Surgery using a laparoscope is the most common way to remove the gallbladder. A laparoscope is a thin, lighted tube that lets the doctor see inside our belly. It is a minimally invasive surgery in which small incisions and specialized tools are used to remove a diseased or infected gallbladder.

The gall bladder is a small organ that sits right under the liver and is credited with bile storage, which can help the body in breaking down various kinds of fats that enter it. So, what all do you need to know about this operation? Read this list.

Reasons for Gall Bladder Operation: The gall bladder is not a very efficient organ. It can lead to blockages and choking as the bile it stores can become very thick and difficult to handle. Also, this bile can start to harbour deposits that are hard ball like substances, usually known as gall bladder stones. The size of these stones can vary from the size of a grain to the size of a golf ball. 

Further, these gall bladder stones can cause infections which can lead to symptoms like nausea, vomiting, bloating and more. Another reason can also be the gall bladder disease known as chloelithiasis, which can cause abdominal pain. Inflammation in the pancreas, also known as pancreatitis, can lead to gall bladder open removal surgery.

Risk: While the gall bladder removal surgery is usually considered a safe one, with little or no complications, there are risks attached to this surgery too. These include sudden and excessive bleeding and the creation of blood clots, allergic reactions to the drugs used as well as anaesthesia, blood vessel damage, accelerated heart rate which leads to an increased risk of contracting a heart attack or heart disease, infections, inflammation or swelling in the pancreas, and injuries caused to the bile duct during surgery.

You might also need this type of surgery if you have the following:

1. biliary dyskinesia, which occurs when the gallbladder doesn't fill or empty correctly due to a defect
2. choledocholithiasis, which occurs when gallstones move to the bile duct and potentially cause a blockage that prevents the gallbladder from draining
3. cholecystitis, which is an inflammation of the gallbladder
4. pancreatitis, which is an inflammation of the pancreas

Laparoscopic surgery is preferred over open cholecystectomy surgery because the smaller incisions that are made reduce your risk of infection, bleeding, and recovery time.

Preparation: To prepare for your gall bladder removal surgery, the doctor may ask you to have a prescription fluid so that your bowels are flushed clean. You may also be asked to fast for at least six hours before the surgery so that there is no hindrance to the same. Also, the use of an antibacterial soap to bathe is usually prescribed so that the risk of contracting infections decreases.

While this surgery can be a simple one, you will have to take due care after the surgery to ensure that the recovery is fast and virtually pain free.

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