I am Dr. Vinod Saralal Javeri, Urologist. Today I will talk about kidney diseases. Stones in the kidney is not uncommon. Its cause is drinking insufficient water. Patient starts getting pain. Pain might acute, severe and radiating towards to legs. It may lead to the blood in the urine. If it gives infection, patient may also start getting pain. If the stone is small or less than 5mm, normally it passes out in 50% of the time. These kind of patients need medical or surgical treatment. If the stones have come down in the bladder and it grows in the size, so through surgery we take out all the stones. The common types of stones are calcium oxalate, carbonate, and uric acid stones. When it starts growing after the age of 45-50 onwards, it grows into the size and causes narrowing of the prostatic area. It causes frequent urination, patient may have to wait to pass the urine, urgency incontinence.
They may notice that urine is not in flow or maybe in the drops. It may cause blood in the urine or infection in the urine. After test we get to know whether it is a benign prostate or a cancerous prostate. Investigations are done before giving the medicines. Test we done is sonography. It gives size of the prostate, condition of the bladder, kidney and ureter. We also do rectal examination. We do PSA. It is a blood test to find out whether it is a cancerous prostate or benign prostate. In the latest treatment we have started using laser treatment. But the cost is higher so each and every hospital does not use laser treatment. Cancerous prostate arises after the age of 55 onwards. We treat the patient with the biopsy and we also find out if there is any other cancer in any part of the body. Urinary bladder is situated under the pelvis bladder in the male and female. If patient is retaining urine after passing urine then also patient requires treatment. In this case anti-biotics can help. Some of the patient gets stress urinary infection.
When patient cough, laugh or lift any weight they use to pass some amount of urine. There is another treatment for stress urinary surgery. We do the diagnosis with fimosis. Patient usually get problem in diabetes as their foremost skin does not easily open. There may also be narrowing in the opening of the urethra which requires a minor surgery or dilatation. Testis are important for reproductory system. There may also be defect in the child where testis maybe small from the birth. If patient have the problem of hydrocele then also it requires the surgery. If the valves of the veins are defetcted, it produces a diagnosis called varicose vein which causes a reduction in the sperm, abnormality of the sperm. With the treatment sperm counts starts getting improved and motility also starts to get improved. If testis are not got improved, they might have to get removed. Hematuria is a common condition. Blood may come from the kidney, prostate, urethra. So, diagnosis and treatment is important on time and if you have any such problem, consult a Dr immediately. If kidney has grown the tumor, kidney may have to removed. If patient is below 60, we advice them to have a transplant done. And for transplant they have to have their relative to donate their kidney. Once the surgery is done, patient can live a normal life with the medicines.