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Kidney Disease Tips

Urological Problems - 5 Most Common Ones!

Dr. Shrikant M.Badwe 88% (30 ratings)
M.Ch - Urology/Genito-Urinary Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Urologist, Mumbai
Urological Problems - 5 Most Common Ones!

The urologic system includes all problems related to the urinary system including the kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra, and the prostate. These problems could range from trauma, injury, inflammation, infections, and muscular problems like overactive bladder, prostate hypertrophy, sexual disorders (candidiasis, erectile dysfunction, etc.), tumors or overgrowths, infections of any part along the entire tract, and even erectile dysfunction.

Let us quickly look at the most common ones kidney stones, urinary tract infections, prostate enlargement, erectile dysfunction, and vaginal candidiasis.

  1. Kidney stones: These are calcium deposits, which can seat themselves in any part of the kidney and sometimes even in the ureter. These can cause significant sharp, shooting pain in the back of the abdomen. The pain is almost diagnostic, and while small stones may pass on their own, others may require shock wave lithotripsy to break the bigger ones into smaller ones, which can then pass on their own through urine. Dietary modifications may also be required to prevent the formation of stones, as most people tend to have recurrence of stones.
  2. Prostate hypertrophy: One of the most common problems faced by ageing men is benign prostatic enlargement (BPH). There would be a constant urge to urinate, simultaneous difficulty initiating a stream and a feeling of incomplete emptying. These happen more at night, and diagnosis is very easy, any elderly male who shows these symptoms is almost diagnostic of BPH. This requires a standard surgical procedure known as transurethral resection of the prostate, which is a same-day surgery and quite non-complicated.
  3. Urinary tract infections: This is one of the most common infections, which can be acquired from the use of public bathrooms and unhygienic bathroom practices. There is chance for infection of the entire tract starting from the urethra to the ureter, the bladder, and the kidney. These run the course of any infection. Treatment is usually with a course of oral antibiotics along with symptomatic treatment of the other symptoms like fever, muscle ache, etc. In very rare cases, systemic antibiotics may be required.
  4. Erectile dysfunction: One of the most common, but undisclosed male sexual problem is erectile dysfunction. There is inability of the male to achieve and/or sustain an erection, sufficient to have a satisfactory sexual intercourse. This has both physical and psychological reasons, and may also be due to hormonal imbalance. Very often, a discussion with a counselor would be required to treat the couple, as involving the partner is very important.
  5. Vaginal candidiasis: The normal vaginal flora is very rich with the fungi Candida, and when immunity is low, candidiasis develops. There could be symptoms like foul-smelling discharge, itching, and redness. A course of topical antifungal agents is usually effective in treating this condition.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

Is There A Way To Prevent Complications Caused To Kidney In Diabetic Patients?

Dr. Sandeep Rai 88% (51 ratings)
MBBS, DNB - General Medicine, Post Graduate Diploma in Diabetology (PGDD)(Madras Medical College), F.R.C.P Edin (UK)
Diabetologist, Navi Mumbai
Is There A Way To Prevent Complications Caused To Kidney In Diabetic Patients?

At the point when our bodies process the protein we eat, the procedure creates waste products. In the kidneys, millions of tiny blood vessels act as filters since they have even tinier holes in them. As blood flows through these vessels, little molecules such as waste items may press through the gaps. These waste items turn out to be a part of the urine. Helpful substances such as protein and red blood cells are too enormous to go through the gaps in the filter and stay in the blood.

Diabetes and kidneys: Diabetes can harm the kidneys. Abnormal amount of glucose make the kidneys filter a lot of blood. After a couple of years, they begin to spill and helpful protein is thereby lost in urine. Having low protein levels in the urine is called micro albuminuria.

Medication: When kidney disease is analyzed on time, during micro albuminuria, a few medications may keep kidney disease from getting worse. Having elevated levels of protein in the urine is called macro albuminuria. When kidney disease is looked up some other time during macro albuminuria, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) usually follows.

Causes: Strain on the organs may cause the kidneys to lose their filtering capacity. Waste items then begin to develop in the blood. Finally, the kidneys start to fail. This failure, ESRD, is intense. A patient with ESRD needs a kidney transplant or a blood filtration by a machine (dialysis).

Other complications: Individuals with diabetes will probably have other kidney-related issues such as bladder infections and nerve damages in the bladder.


Preventing complications: Not everybody with diabetes goes through a kidney disease. Elements that can impact kidney disease improvement include genetics, blood sugar control and blood pressure. The more a person keeps diabetes and blood pressure under control, the lower the chances of getting a kidney disease.

Keeping your glucose levels high can counteract diabetic kidney problems. Research has demonstrated that blood glucose control diminishes the danger of micro albuminuria by 33%. For individuals who suffer from micro albuminuria have now a reduced danger of advancing to macro albuminuria. Different studies have recommended that blood glucose control can reverse micro albuminuria.

Treatment: Essential treatments for kidney infection include control of blood glucose and blood pressure. Blood pressure dramatically affects the rate at which the condition progresses. Indeed, even a gentle increase in blood pressure can rapidly aggravate a kidney infection. Four approaches to bring down your blood pressure are: 

 

  1. Shedding pounds
  2. Eating less salt
  3. Maintaining a strategic distance from liquor and tobacco
  4. Exercising regularly

A low-protein diet can decrease the amount of lost protein in the urine and increase the protein levels in the blood. Never begin a low-protein diet without talking to your physician. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

524 people found this helpful

Common Causes Of Kidney Diseases In Children!

Dr. Amit Agarwal 89% (793 ratings)
MD - Paediatrics, MBBS, FISPN & FISPN - Pediatric Nephrology
Pediatrician, Noida
Common Causes Of Kidney Diseases In Children!

The main function of the kidneys is to filter blood and remove toxic wastes from the body in the form of urine. The kidneys also help regulate blood pressure and maintain a proper balance of salts and fluids in the body. Kidney problems in children can range from chronic kidney disease and kidney failure to reversible disorders which do not have any long-term effects. Kidney diseases may be caused by many factors.

1. Birth defects
If a child is born with a defect in his or her urinary tract, the risk of suffering from kidney disease is very high. For example, a narrow or twisted urethra can make it hard for the child to urinate and thus increase the risk of infection. Conditions such as fetal hydronephrosis can occur even when the child is in the mother’s womb. This is marked by an enlargement or the narrowing of one or both the kidneys.

2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
If a urinary tract infection is left untreated in a child, the bacteria causing the infection can travel upwards into the urinary tract. Once it affects the bladder, the condition is known as cystitis. If this bacteria travels to the kidneys and begins to affect them as well, this results in a condition known as pyelonephritis. This can lead to permanent kidney damage. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to diagnose a UTI in infants and children. Common symptoms to watch out for include bloody or cloudy urine, pain during urination and frequent urination. Infants may also have loose bowel movements.

3. Reflux disorders
In some cases, a defect in the valves between the bladder and the ureters can cause urine to flow backward to the kidneys instead of out of the body. This is known as reflux. It can cause kidney infections and may also cause permanent damage to the kidneys. The good news is that it can be treated and corrected with antibiotics or surgery.

4. Hereditary diseases
Genetic abnormalities can also be the cause of kidney disease. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one such condition that is passed down from a parent to their child. In this case, the abnormal genes cause cysts to develop in the kidneys that replace healthy tissue and impair kidney functioning. Alport syndrome is another hereditary kidney disease.

5. Systemic diseases
Systemic diseases are conditions that do not affect any single organ but affect the entire body as a whole. Diabetes and Lupus are two systemic diseases that can cause kidney disease. In the case of diabetes, the body is unable to regulate glucose levels that in turn damage the kidney cells. Though this is the leading cause of kidney failure in adults, it is not so commonly seen in children. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

519 people found this helpful

8 Diet Tips To Prevent Kidney Stones!

Dr. Praveen Kumar Pandey 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS ( Surgery ), MCH ( Urology ), DNB ( Urology )
Urologist, Lucknow
8 Diet Tips To Prevent Kidney Stones!

The kidneys filter the blood and eliminate the waste products through urine. The waste deposition is sometimes in the form of excessive calcium, uric acid and other undesirable contents. It causes the urine to get highly saturated. The solid depositions then turn into stone like formations, also termed as renal lithiasis or calculi. There are different kinds of kidney stones, which are differentiated based on its varied constituents. Kidney stones cause excruciating pain and uneasiness. Frequent urination and discomfort during urination, presence of blood in the urine, are some major signs of kidney stones.

Kidney stones can be prevented by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and a balanced diet with sufficient nutrients:

  1. Calcium and oxalate-rich food should be consumed together. This leads to the binding of calcium and oxalate together in the stomach intestines, before they can be processed in the kidneys. This helps to control the formation of calcium and oxalate depositions in the kidneys.
  2. Do not cut down on calcium. Since most of the kidney stones are found to be calcium depositions, many people tend to cut down on their calcium intake. It is important to continue with food that is rich in calcium such as milk. However, it is necessary to reduce intake of other calcium supplements. Decrease in calcium can lead to degeneration and deformation in bones and muscles.
  3. Too much of red meat consumption and high fat dairy products can lead to the formation of stones in the kidneys. Animal protein is rich in purine that increases uric acid, saturating the urine and creating stones. It is important to balance your diet by including lots of green vegetables, whole grains, fibres, fruits and low-fat dairy products. Opt for non-animal protein such as lentils or legumes.
  4. Cut down on sugary and aerated drinks. They contribute to the formation of depositions due to their high and unhealthy levels of fructose and preservatives.
  5. Reduce or abstain from alcohol. Alcohol is known for its multiple disadvantages to the human body. It has also been found to increase the levels of uric acid in blood.
  6. Keep your body hydrated. Drink adequate quantity of water throughout the day, preferably 3 litres or more depending on your physical activities. It prevents the solidification of the depositions and helps to eliminate wastes smoothly.
  7. Increase the intake of anti-oxidants in the form of green tea, dark chocolates and fruits.
  8. Lower the intake of salt.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2272 people found this helpful

Kidney Cancer - What Causes It?

Dr. Nitesh Jain 93% (69 ratings)
MCh - Urology, MBBS
Urologist, Chennai
Kidney Cancer - What Causes It?

Kidney Cancer, more commonly known as renal cancer, first presents itself in the lining of the kidney. It then grows malignant and forms a tumor. The good news is that renal cancer rarely spreads to other organs. The bad news is that the tumors grow quite large before they can be detected.

Causes-
Kidney cancer has been found to occur most often in people who are older than 40 years of age. Though the cause of the cancer is not definitively known, there are a few factors that might increase the risk of developing kidney cancer. These include-

1. Obesity- Obesity can cause hormonal changes which in turn can increase the risk of cancer.

2. Smoking- As with any other kind of cancer, nicotine consumption, in the form of smoking cigarettes, increases the risk of developing the disease. In the case of renal cancer, it can, in fact, double the chances.

3. Pain Medications- A prolonged use of pain relievers over a period of time can increase the risk of renal cancer. Certain components of the medication can lead to kidney damage.

4. Genetic history- A medical history of family members, especially siblings, with the disease can significantly increase the risk of kidney cancer.

Symptoms-
In its early stages, kidney cancer remains asymptomatic, but as the tumor grow in size, symptoms begin to present themselves. These symptoms might include the following-

1. Blood in the urine.

2. A gradual loss of appetite leading to weight loss.

3. A persistent pain in your abdomen in conjunction with a lump.

4. A fever that is neither a result of an infection nor a cold, and one that lasts for weeks.

5. Swelling of the legs and ankles.

Treatment
Treatment for kidney cancer will depend on the size and location of the tumour and whether it has spread to other organs or parts of the body. Therefore, to determine the stage of cancer, diagnostic tests such as biopsy, are performed along with urine and blood tests. After determination of your cancer stage, the doctor will perform either a radical or a partial nephrectomy, where the cancerous tumor is removed along with additional tissues. Often, kidney surgery is followed by kidney transplant if both the kidneys need to be removed in nephrectomy. However, if nephrectomy does not cure your kidney cancer, then your oncologist may recommend cryotherapy, radiofrequency ablation or arterial embolization.

Kidney cancer in its advanced stage is often treated with either biological therapy where your body’s immune system is utilized to fight cancer cells or targeted therapy where drugs are used stop the multiplication of cancer cells by blocking their signals. Due to such advancement in cancer treatment, the rate of success has gone up in recent years but you also need to follow a healthy lifestyle to make sure that the treatment can bring out the desired positive outcomes. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3378 people found this helpful

Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor For Kidney Disease!

Dr. Tanmay Pandya 87% (84 ratings)
DM - Nephrology, MD - General Medicine
Nephrologist, Delhi
Diabetes - A Major Risk Factor For Kidney Disease!

With the advancements in technology, you have gained more and more comforts for life and with that the incidence of lifestyle diseases to have increased. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, has affected an approximate 422 million people across the world, and is continuing to affect a large number of people every year.

Insulin is a vital hormone in the body which regulates the level of sugar in the blood, and when this level is elevated, it can lead to issues in various parts of the body. Diabetes is a disease that doesn't allow the body to produce enough insulin or optimize the use of insulin produced in the pancreas, and thus impairs several organs and decreases the quality of life adversely.

What are the effects of diabetes on the kidneys?

  • When a person has high blood sugar, the tiny blood vessels in the body are injured. When the blood vessels in the kidneys are damaged, the kidneys are not able to clean the toxins from the body properly. It results in the retention of water as well as salt in the body, which typically leads to weight gain and swelling in the ankles. Also, a person may have protein in the urine along with waste materials in the blood.
  • High blood sugar can also lead to nerve damage in the body, causing difficulty in releasing the contents of the bladder. The pressure exerted from the bladder may back up and cause harm to the kidneys. Also, when the urine remains in the bladder for an extended period, one may develop infections from the rapid growth of bacteria in the urine owing to high blood sugar level.
  • About 30 percent of people affected with Type 1 diabetes and around 10 to 40 percent of people with type 2 diabetes would eventually be affected by kidney damage.

What are the signs and symptoms of kidney damage due to diabetes?

  • The earliest symptom of kidney disease due to diabetes is a rise in an excretion of the protein known as albumin in the urine.
  • This increase in the protein is confirmed through various general tests. Therefore, it is essential to get these tests done on a yearly basis. In its early stages, it diabetes leads to weight gain and swelling in the ankles.
  • There is an increase in blood pressure, and it causes frequent urination, particularly at night. If you are affected by diabetes, you should get your blood, urine and blood pressure checked at least once in every year.
  • This can allow you to exercise better control of the disease and the early treatment of kidney disease. You should try to lower your blood sugar level to reduce the risk of severe kidney disorder.

In the advanced stage of kidney disease, the blood urea nitrogen will increase along with the level of creatinine in the blood. It will cause symptoms such as extreme fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite, vomiting, anemia, and muscle cramps. Your nephrologist will work with you and your dietician for reducing the blood sugar level and also keep the kidneys in working condition.  In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2717 people found this helpful

What To Expect When You Opt For Kidney Transplant?

Dr. Yogesh Kumar Chhabra 86% (32 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology, DNB (Nephrology)
Nephrologist, Delhi
What To Expect When You Opt For Kidney Transplant?

The kidneys are responsible for the elimination of waste from the body. The blood is filtered in the kidneys and all toxic wastes are filtered out and excreted through urine. When this filtration does not happen effectively, a lot of waste can be found in the blood, which affects normal body function.

Kidneys may lose their functioning either due to age, injury, or disease conditions. Whatever the reason, when kidney function is hampered, the body suffers. If there was an injury or congenital problem, it could be unilateral and the non-affected kidney could still do the function. However, if it is infection or old age, normally both kidneys are affected and then replacement should be looked for externally. This is where a kidney transplant comes into the picture.

What is it?

It is a surgery where a healthy, functioning kidney is placed into the body. The donor could be

  1. Living: These donors have to be related or unrelated. Related is often termed someone, who is a family member and is willing to donate one kidney (one kidney is sufficient for normal, healthy individuals) to the diseased person.
  2. Cadaver: If a person is willing to donate kidneys post death, these are used for transplant, within a specified time.

Identifying the right donor and recipient:

  1. Blood type and tissue type should be matched; a good tissue type match improves the chances of success
  2. Overall health of the donor to ensure there is no heart disease, lung disease, or diabetes
  3. The recipient also should be healthy

What to expect during surgery?

  1. Once a donor is identified, in living donors, the surgery to remove the kidney and to transplant it are done simultaneously
  2. The surgery usually takes about 3 to 4 hours
  3. Antibiotics are given prior to the surgery to prevent infection
  4. The blood vessels and ureter are connected back to the kidney after the transplant
  5. Hospital stay can range from 5 days to 2 weeks, depending on the overall health of the patient and the anticipated risk of rejection.
  6. Most transplanted kidneys work effectively almost immediately. A kidney stored from a cadaver may take a little longer compared to a fresh kidney from a living donor
  7. People who have had transplants are put on immunosuppressants on a chronic basis to reduce chances of rejection. The new kidney will always be recognised by the body as a foreign body, and so this is essential.

Kidney transplant success rates are quite high, and more and more people are opting for transplants as opposed to dialysis. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3527 people found this helpful

Medications Affect On Kidneys

Nephrologist, Dehradun

Avoid unnecessary medications, they may affect your kidneys.

1 person found this helpful

Renovascular Hypertension - Surgical Procedures That Are Used To Treat It!

Dr. Yashpal Singh 88% (25 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, DNB Peripheral Vascular Surgery
Vascular Surgeon, Lucknow
Renovascular Hypertension - Surgical Procedures That Are Used To Treat It!

Renovascular hypertension is also known as renal hypertension. This can be defined as a rise in blood pressure because of partial or complete blockage of the renal arteries. It may be caused by a blockage in only one artery or multiple arteries. This condition does not usually exhibit any symptoms unless it is a long-standing condition. Renovascular hypertension may be caused by a narrowing of one or both renal arteries or fibromuscular dysplasia. It can also be affected by kidney disease.

Without treatment, renal hypertension can affect a number of other organs. In extreme cases, it can even be fatal by causing kidney failure, heart attacks or a stroke. Hence, an early diagnosis and treatment is a must. Medication is usually the first form of treatment advised by a person. This takes the form of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers. However, in some cases, taking both types of medication may still not be enough to reduce renal hypertension. In such cases, surgical procedures may be required. Surgery has longer lasting results and it helps control hypertension to a much higher degree as compared to medication. The results of a surgical procedure are also quicker.

The most common surgical procedures used to treat this condition include:

  1. Angioplasty: This is a minimally invasive procedure that does not always require hospitalization. The procedure involves threading a catheter through a large artery in the groin and taking it to the renal artery. The catheter is then used to inflate a balloon in the renal artery for a few minutes. This helps widen the artery and increase the blood flow rate.
  2. Stenting: This can be considered an extension of an angioplasty. Along with the balloon, a wire mesh stent is also expanded in the renal artery. Though the balloon is later deflated and removed the wire mesh is left in place. This helps keep the artery open and improves blood flow.
  3. Bypass Surgery: This procedure is an open abdominal procedure for which the patient is put under general anesthesia. A bypass surgery is usually considered only if an angioplasty and stenting are not viable forms of treatment. This procedure involves sewing a healthy blood vessel in place beside the renal artery and redirecting blood flow to this blood vessel. This blood vessel may be harvested as part of the aorta. Bypass surgery is the most effective form of treatment and has the longest lasting results.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3236 people found this helpful

Haemodialysis - Things You Must Consider!

Dr. Deepak Sharma 87% (753 ratings)
FIMSA, MD-Nephrology, DM - Nephrology, MD-Medcine, MBBS
Nephrologist, Delhi
Haemodialysis - Things You Must Consider!

Kidney is the most vital organ in the body as it eliminates the waste material from our blood. When kidneys fails to carry out its work effectively the waste materials gets accumulated in the blood and end up with many serious disease condition that affects the other vital structures in our body. The function of the kidney is carried out artificially by an external device called dialyser to purify the blood and remove the waste products from it. This procedure is called as dialysis. There are two types of dialysis they are haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. In Haemodialysis, the waste products are removed from the blood and there by the fluid and electrolyte balance is maintained.

Things a person should follow if they are undergoing haemodialysis

  1. Love your heart: Patients undergoing dialysis are at more risk of getting cardiac problems. So it is best advised to follow few of the following measures to take care of their heart
    • Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol levels under control
    • Quit smoking
    • Reduce stress
    • Have healthy low fat and heart friendly diet
    • Get regular physical activity but avoid excessive strainers activity that may require extra effort from your heart
    • Maintain a healthy weight
  2. Diet: Dialysis not only removes the waste matters from your blood but sometimes also the essential electrolytes and nutrients. Protein, potassium sodium and phosphorus are the major things that are to be noted.
    • Encourage the patient to take high quality protein rich foods like meat, fish, milk, egg and chicken which is essential to improve your muscle strength and immunity.
    • Have a check of your sodium level and take sodium rich foods accordingly, as excess sodium may increase the fluid intake.
  3. Limit your fluid intake: Use ice cubes instead of water or use small cups of water. Make sure you measure every sip of water you take.
  4. Don't Overeat: Slow down while eating and stop eating when you feel full. don’t over load your stomach
9 people found this helpful
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