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Diabetes Mellitus

Dt. Esha Singhal 92% (258 ratings)
M.Sc - Dietitics / Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Ghaziabad
Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin or both. Patients with high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period are considered as diabetics.

Symptoms of Diabetes:

Frequent urination.
Disproportionate thirst.
Intense hunger.
Weight gain.
Unusual weight loss.
Increased fatigue.
Blurred vision.
Cuts and bruises don't heal properly or quickly.
More skin and/or yeast infections.
Itchy skin.
Gums are red and/or swollen.
Frequent gum disease/infection.
Sexual dysfunction (men).
Numbness or tingling, especially in your feet and hands.

General Instructions for Diabetics:

Do not skip meals and have small and frequent meals 5-6 small meals to prevent hypoglycemia.

Use whole grain cereals, whole grams, and pulses, whole wheat porridge, whole wheat bread, oats etc to incorporate fiber into your diet.
Supplement wheat with the whole channa and do not sieve flour (wheat and channa 5:1 ratio). Mix rice with whole grams or dals in a ratio of 1:1 to incorporate fiber.
Consume at least 4-5 servings of fresh green vegetables and fruits/day.
Take fruits as a dessert. Use lemon as salad dressing
Use olive / sunflower/ rice bran / soy /mustard oil. Change oils in a couple of months.
Almonds, walnuts, flax seeds and fish are good sources of antioxidants.
Fresh lime (without sugar), coconut water, soups can be taken liberally.
No fasting to be done to avoid hypoglycemia.
The patient should always carry sweet for use in an emergency when the blood glucose levels go down.
Attainment and maintenance of an appropriate body weight is a must.


Whole milk and its products.
Homogenized milk and its products.
Sugar, jams, jellies, honey, sugarcane(gur), chocolate, cakes pastries, etc.
Rooty vegetables like potato, colocasia (arbi), sweet potato (shakerkandi), and beetroot (chukander).
Fruits i.e. mango, banana, chiku, grapes.
Maida preparations like white bread, biscuits, plain boiled rice, sago, noodles, macaroni, etc.
Saturated fats like ghee, butter, coconut oil.
Fried foods like puris, paranthas, pakoras, samosas, kachoris, matris,etc.
Aerated drinks, fruit juices, alcoholic drinks.
Pickles in oil, sauces/ squashes.

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Diabetes Mellitus

Dr. Swarup Kumar Ghosh 92% (82 ratings)
MD - Bio-Chemistry, MF Homeo (London), DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery), BHMS
Homeopath, Kolkata
Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease entity, but includees a variety of metabolic dissorders associated with relative deficiency of insulin action an increase of blood glucose in many cases there is tendency to ketoacidosis, the most important immediate danger, an increased liablitiy to angiopathy that provides the most serious long term risk.

 Aetiology:- knowledge is far from complete, but two factors of imporyance have been recognized; over nutrition some form of hereditsry tendency. The importance of over nutritiion is shown by the fact the over the age of 40 some 80% of patients developing diabrtrs are, or have been, considerably obese. It is of interest that the food rationing of both world wars was associated with a temporary fall in the incidence of diabetes.

 * new classification use type 1, 2 diabetes
 * type 1 diabetes mallitus it is immune mediated in 90% idiopathic in less than 10%. In is also called juvenile onset diabetes mellitus as it affects 11 to 14 yrs. Old children.

 The insulin production in hampered so they require exogenous insulin.
 Type 2 diabetes mellitus the tissues where insulin acts become insensitive.

Clinical diabetes mellitus
 Primary stage
 * precinical
Secondary stage
 * diabetic gtt, but, asymptomartic.
 * symptomatic; full blown s/s.
 * with complications.

 Pathogenesis is complex is still not clear.
 Factors possibly responsible for development of diabetes mellitus include. Deficiency of insulin antagonists.
 Excessive neogucogenesis.

Diabetes Mellitus

Dt. Archna Gupta 88% (678 ratings)
PG Diploma in Nutrition & Dietetics, Food & Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Ghaziabad
Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is caused by a deficiency in the secretion of insulin.

Predisponsing factors:

the various predisposing factor are:


  • heredity: a familial tendency to diabetes has been found to exist genetic factors are involved when the disease develops before the age of 40 years
  • age: the disease occurs at all ages but a greater percentage of the cases occurs in persons over 45 of age.
  • sex: the disease affects both sexes. the incidence of the disease is somewhat greater in men tha in women.
  • obesity: the incidence of diabetes is greater among obese persons than in persons of normal weight.
  • stress: stresses of various types,ex. frequent intections, worry irregular meals, etc. may also contribute to the development of the disease.

Metabolism in diabetes mellitus:

The metabolismof carbohydrates, fat and protein in diabetes mellitus is briefly discussed below:

  • Carbohydrate metabolism: due to decreased oxidation of glucose in the tissues, the level of blood glucose is increased markedly, leading to glycosuria. the quantily of glucose present in urine may very from  0.5 to 6% depending on the severity of the disease. the volume of urine is increased (polyuria).
  • Fat metabolism: since, glucose is not utilised, there is increased breakdown of fats to acetate and ketone bodies (acetoacetic acid, acetone and β-hydroxybutyric acid. the keto acidosis which develops may lead to dehydration and coma in severe diabetes. the serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels are high.
  • Protein metabolism: since carbohydrates are not utilised for the production of energy, there is increased breakdown of tissue proteins and increased oxidation of dietary proteins for use as energy. hence, there is an increased in nitrogen excetion leading to negative nitrogen balance wasting of muscles is a common symptom in chronic diabetes. hence, diabetics need more proteins (about 2g/kg body weight) rgan normal subjects. the protein allowances should be corresponsingly higher (50% higher) for daibetic children and expectant and nursing mothers. further, increased protein intake may hepl to increase insulin production.

Clinical types of diabetes:

the classification of diabetes from the clinical point of view is as follows :

  • juvenile daibetes
  • adult diabetes


  • juvenile daibetes: this includes all daibetics below the age of 20 years. the disease is primarily due to deficiency of insulin. the subjects are generally undernourished and ematiated. they require a high calories, high protein diet and insulin for maintaining the blood sugar level within normal limits.
  • adult diabetes: (maturity onset diabetes) a majority of them are pbese subjects. the treatment will consist of a reducing diet rich in proteins and carbohydrates along with oral anti-diabetic drugs to maintain the blood glucose within normal limits. these subjects require less insulin than juvenile diabeyes.

Treatment of diabetes mellitus

the principles of treatment are as follows:

  • diet
  • moderate exercise
  • insulin in juvenile daibetes and sever adult diabetes and/or oral anti-daibetic drugs in mild to moderate adult diabetes.

diet: only weighed quantitis of food should be consumed according to the diet schedule prescribed by the physician. the most important consideration should be given to:

  • calories needs
  • the proportion of calories from carbohydrate, fats and protein.
  • calorie requirements: the calorie requirements should be about 5% less than the actual requirements for the patient’s height and ideal body weight.


the proportion of calories derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the diet will depend on the type of diabetes as indicted below in table:

type of diabetes


fats calories (%)


juvenile diabetes




adult obese diabetics




adult diabetics with normal body weight






proteins: since, diabetics in general are in negative nitrogen balance, they should receive about twice as much proteins as normal subjects. the proteins should be of high biological value and provide about 20 to 25% of the calories in the diet.

fluid: a liberal intake is desirable.

carbohydrates: the daily intake of carbohydrates should provide about 40% of the calories to prevent ketosis. the carbohydrate intake should not exceed 40% of the total calorie intake (except in the case of obese diabetics as indicated in above table) as otherwise it will be difficult to control the blood sugar level.

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Tips For Diabetes Mellitus

Homeopath, Greater Noida
Tips For Diabetes Mellitus

1. Morning walk is a must for every diabetic and that should be of 30 mins duration.
2. Cut short on intake of sugar rich products.
3. Avoid maida, potato, rice and sugar.

4. Dont skip your medicines.
5. Take 7 to 8 hrs of sleep.
6. Regularly check your sugar levels at gap of 15 days to 1 month.
7. If the sugar level goes very low below normal consult your physician.
8. Never take any medicine without  consulting a doctor.

1 person found this helpful

5 Gastrointestinal Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus!

Dr. Parimal Swamy 88% (30 ratings)
Diabetologist, Jabalpur
5 Gastrointestinal Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus!

Diabetes is a systemic disease that affects almost every part of your body. Of these, the digestive system is the most badly affected. While gastrointestinal disorders are commonly experienced by everyone, diabetics have a much higher risk of suffering from indigestion, food poisoning, gallstones and ulcers. Some of the most common gastrointestinal problems experienced by diabetics are:

  1. Gastroparesis: High blood sugar levels can damage the vagus nerve that controls the emptying of the stomach. As a result fo this damage, the muscles of the stomach and intestines do not work optimally leading to a condition known as Gastroparesis. This is a condition where the stomach is not able to empty itself properly and the digestion process is slowed down. Gastroparesis can cause bloating, nausea, pain in the abdomen, heart burn and a loss of appetite. It can also cause undigested food in the stomach to harden and form lumps that block food from moving into the intestines. This disease cannot be cured but can be managed with medication and a special diet.
  2. Ulcers: Stomach ulcers can be described as open sores that develop on the inner lining of the stomach, oesophagus and beginning of the small intestine. These ulcers form as a result of bacterial infections. Diabetes weakens a person’s immune system thus reducing their ability to fight these infections and increasing the risk of developing ulcers. Diabetes also increases the risk of bleeding from these ulcers and secondary infections that may arise from it.
  3. Yeast infections: Diabetics are extremely vulnerable to yeast infections. This is aggravated by fluctuation in blood sugar levels and can extend from the mouth to the oesophagus. Common symptoms of this type of yeast infection are pain in the throat and difficulty swallowing. It may also cause heartburn and intestinal bleeding if left untreated.
  4. Celiac sprue: This condition creates gluten allergies and causes the inflammation and thinning of the small intestine’s mucosa. In some cases, this condition may interfere with the absorption of food and lead to diarrhoea and weight loss.
  5. Diabetic diarrhoea: Patients who have been suffering from diabetes for a few years may experience an increased urge to pass stools frequently. This is usually related to gastric problems in the colon which cause fluids to move at a faster than normal speed through the small bowel and colon. It may also be caused due to the secretion of fluids in the colon and improper absorption of food. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
4068 people found this helpful

How to increase haemoglobin and I am having uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. How to control it by medication.

Dr. Shefali Karkhanis 92% (457 ratings)
Dip.Diab, Fellowship Diabetology (Gold Medallist), MBBS
Diabetologist, Thane
How to increase haemoglobin and I am having uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. How to control it by medication.
Depending upon your blood sugar values your medicines may be changed. Increase your haemoglobin by eating healthy food rich in iron like spinach. You can also take iron supplements.
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I am 26 years old. But I have polyurine. Is it symptoms of diabetes mellitus? what should I do?

Dr. Kiran Mehta 88% (756 ratings)
Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), MS - Urology, MBBS
Urologist, Ahmedabad
I am 26 years old. But I have polyurine. Is it symptoms of diabetes mellitus? what should I do?
Dear , first get urine tested either to confirm or rule out infection if infection then take antibiotics and if urine is negative then get usg done with full bladder volume, bladder wall thickness on full bladder with post-void residual urine volume measurement post the report along with pictures of the scan
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Does the growth hormone has any direct or indirect influence on diabetes mellitus?

Dr. Prabhakar Laxman Jathar 95% (14648 ratings)
MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
Does the growth hormone has any direct or indirect influence on diabetes mellitus?
Vijay, Growth hormone is one of the glucose counter regulatory hormones, rising in response to hypoglycemia. It has both intrinsically hyperglycemic action and causing insulin resistance. GH has effect on glycemic control is evident from abnormal glucose tolerance seen in acromegalics. Clinical studies have shown that giving GH in children for increasing height, makes them susceptible for developing T2 DM
1 person found this helpful
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Helpful Tips for Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Dr. Prabhakar Laxman Jathar 95% (14648 ratings)
MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Helpful Tips for Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Are you suffering from diabetes and are looking for ideal at home management remedies? Diabetes is a health condition, which occurs when the blood sugar level of the body rises. There are several ways following which you will be successfully able to manage your diabetes. They are as follows:

  1. Exercise regularly and track your workout patterns. Exercise is the most important lifestyle choice for a diabetic patient, which allows you to maintain a good shape. It boosts your body's metabolism rate and insulin uptake process. By taking notes on your exercising habits, you will be able to make timely and required changes. 
  2. Stop consuming fast food. Try to abstain from eating outside food and reduce your intake of sugar, salt and high calorie food. Meal should be prepared at home using light ingredients and less amount of salt and sugar.
  3. Quit smoking as it is very harmful, especially if you are a diabetic. Smoking narrows your blood vessels, as a result of which, your blood circulation gets disrupted.
  4. Increase your fiber intake. Fiber is beneficial for all diabetic patients and helps in smooth functioning of your digestive processes. It also help in reducing your cholesterol and blood sugar levels.
  5. Take care and pay attention to your feet properly. You should wash your feet in lukewarm water regularly and dry them gently. You should moisturize your feet with a lotion. Check on your feet for cuts, sores, redness, swelling and blisters and consult a doctor in case of an unusual foot sore.
  6. Get your eyes checked frequently as diabetes affects your vision in serious ways, which may also lead to blindness. Regular eye checkups will help you to prevent retinopathy.
  7. Take proper care of your teeth which includes brushing and flossing at least two times every day. This is because diabetes makes you prone to several serious gum infections. Go for regular dental checkups if you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes and in case you observe swollen, red gums, consult your doctor immediately.
  8. Avoid stress and adapt ways to eliminate stress. Your body hormones, which are produced in relation to intense stress, prevent insulin from working efficiently, which increases your blood sugar levels and stress levels further. Relaxation techniques are effective for dealing with stress. 
  9. Opt for several small meals instead of a few large meals every day. This helps in keeping your digestive processes active, which in turn increase insulin sensitivity.

type diabetes

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment & Management!

Dr. Khwaja Ahtesham Ahmad 88% (29 ratings)
PGDDM Diploma In Diabetology
Diabetologist, Siwan
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment & Management!
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