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A Clinical Interpretation Of The Term Vishaada W.s.r. To Generalized Anxiety Disorder!

Dr. Sushant Sud 90% (198 ratings)
M.D. (Ayurved), D.H.M, CHSE
Ayurveda, Jamnagar
A Clinical Interpretation Of The Term Vishaada W.s.r. To Generalized Anxiety Disorder!

A Clinical Interpretation Of The Term Vishaada W.s.r. To Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Vishaada is a psychological disorder as old as mankind. The Ayurvedic texts have vividly described various mental disorders and psychological disturbances. But the detailed description of these disorders is arbitrary except for Unmada and Apasmara. One such ill-defined and an unexplored term is Vishaada. Its references are so scattered which makes it very difficult for the clinicians to differentiate and diagnose this condition. Ayurvedic researchers have tried to study and compare the symptomatology of Generalized Anxiety Disorder under the umbrella of several psychological entities but there has been a lacuna in establishing a concrete conclusion to establish a comparative modern clinical entity in simulation to Vishaada. Ayurvedic medical literature was carried out. Although this work focuses primarily on Ayurveda, multidisciplinary literature and research have been analyzed along with the philosophical literature that relates to Vishaada. After studying the disorder in detail it was concluded that the psychological and somatic presentation of the disease entity Vishaada is similar to Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Introduction

Ayurveda is one of the most ancient systems of medicine in the world. It is a science of life, health, and cure based on the eternal laws of nature. This unique Ancient Indian Wisdom has survived vividly down the ages and is flourishing in the present times in newer dimensions attracting the attention globally. According to Ayurveda mental health is a state of sensorial, mental and spiritual well being. The mental ill health is brought about essentially as a result of unwholesome interaction between the individual and his environment.

A wide range of psychiatric conditions has been described in Ayurveda. Primary psychological conditions caused purely by Manasa Doshas, i.e. Rajas and Tamas include Kama, Krodha, Moha, Shoka, Bhaya, Irshya, Vishaada, etc. Moreover, other psychiatric conditions are also described in the classical literature caused by mixed Samprapti including both the Sharirika and Manas Doshas.
In the Ayurvedic classics, Vishaada is not described as a separate disease entity but references regarding Vishaada are found scattered in most Indian classics. A few of earlier done research works have projected the term Vishaada as Depression. But looking into the pathophysiology and symptomatic presentation of Vishaada, this evaluation did not seem to be concrete. On the other hand, ayurvedic researchers have tried to study and compare the symptomatology of Generalized Anxiety Disorder under the umbrella of several psychological entities like Chittodvega, Anavasthittachitta, Attatvabhinivesha, etc. In both the cases, there has been a lacuna in establishing a concrete conclusion to establish a comparative modern clinical entity in simulation to Vishaada.
 

In spite of the scarcity of direct references of Vishaada, the available references have more than sufficient potential to elaborate and establish an understandable disease review of this condition. This is supplemented by the description of Vishaada in Srimad Bhagavad Gita. This description helps in designing the framework of disease Vishaada. Taking into consideration all these facts a hypothesis to understand Vishaada in context of Generalized Anxiety disorder was made and after studying the disorder in detail it was concluded that the psychological and somatic presentation of the disease entity Vishaada is similar to Generalized Anxiety Disorder of modern psychiatry.

Definition and symptomatology of Vishaada

Various authors have derived, defined and interpreted the term Vishaada in different ways. A few of which have been described below
 Shabda Kalpadruma and Vachaspatyam refer to Vishaada as Avasada. Vishaada=Manoavsada=Swakarya Akshamatva=Inability of mind to perform its routine functions effectively (Vachaspatyam).
 Monier Williams gives the meaning of Vishaada as drooping state, lassitude, depression, languor.
Looking into the dictionary meaning of this word it appears that Vishaada resembles depression but having a closer look at other references present in Ayurvedic texts and the epitome of ancient psychology – Bhagavad Gita the symptomatology of Vishaada shows a great resemblance to the features of Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
“Asiddhibhayat vividheshu karmeshu apravritti vishaada” Dalhana defines Vishaada as a condition originated from apprehension of failure resulting into incapability of mind and body to function properly. There is a significant reduction in both the activities. This condition arises out of low self-esteem. Low self-esteem leads to the low-performance expectation which again leads to high anxiety (Udvignata) and reduced effort (Apravritti).

According to modern psychiatry, anxiety is defined as a phenomenon which is characterized by a state of apprehension or unease arising out of anticipation of danger. It is well reported that patients with generalized anxiety disorder appear to have autonomic hypo responsiveness[8] which does not necessarily mean that the patient is suffering from depression.
“Vishaado anushtheyo atmanam ashaktatajananam.” In this definition, Chakrapani comments that Vishaada is a feeling of incompetence to accomplish or perform the desired work.

To perform well or to achieve a goal, one needs a moderate amount of anxiety to anticipate and apprehend the consequence of a decision or behavior. But when a person is unable to cope up with this stress it leads to a feeling of incompetence to accomplish the desired goal and leads to an intense disagreeable state, associated with an undefined threat to one‟s physical and psychological self. Subjectively patient use words such as tense, panicky, terrified, jittery, nervous, wound up, and apprehensive.

Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by a pattern of frequent, persistent worry and anxiety that is out of proportion to the impact of the event or circumstance that is the focus of the worry. For getting a clear picture of Vishaada it is important to review the literature available in the acclaimed book of psychological counseling since ages i.e. Bhagwad Gita

In the first chapter of Bhagwad Gita named as „Arjuna Vishaada Yoga‟, when Arjuna sees most of his relatives, friends, and elders lined opposite to him in the war he develops Vishaada which is specified by the Vishidayantee process. Due to this Vishaada, he develops certain symptoms presented below which are quite similar to symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. As a result of this disorder, he develops dejection and flight reaction. For which Lord Krishna begins psychological counseling and clears his misconceptions one by one.

A clear understanding of each symptom of Vishaada mentioned by Shri Krishna is Bhagwad Gita provides a platform for understanding the presentation of symptoms in Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

In the Ayurvedic classics, Vishaada is not described as a separate disease entity but references regarding Vishaada are found scattered in most Indian classics. It may be due to Pravara sattva and comparatively less stressful lifestyle of our ancestors that Vishaada has not been described as a separate disease entity in our classics. But realizing the nuisance value of this condition Acharya Charaka has included it in the “Agrya Samgraha” as “Vishado Roga Vardhanaanaam”. In spite of the scarcity of direct references to Vishaada, the available. references have more than sufficient potential to elaborate and establish an understable disease review of this condition. This is supplemented by the description of Vishaada in “Srimad Bhagvad Gita”.This description helps in designing the framework of disease Vishaada.
A few of earlier done research works have projected the term Vishaada as Depression. But looking into the pathophysiology and symptomatic presentation of Vishaada this evaluation did not seem to be concrete. On the other hand ayurvedic researchers have tried to study and compare the symptomatology of Generalized Anxiety Disorder under the umbrella of several psychological entities like Chittodvega, Anavasthittachitta, Attatvabhinivesha, etc. In both the cases there has been a lacuna in establishing a concrete conclusion to establish a comparative modern clinical entity in simulation to Vishaada.

Taking into consideration all these facts a hypothesis to understand Vishaada in context of Generalized Anxiety disorder was made and after studying the disorder in detail it was concluded that the psychological and somatic presentation of the disease entity Vishaada is similar to Generalized Anxiety Disorder of modern psychiatry.

The dictionary meaning of the word Vishaada is misguiding and leads us to a wrong simulation of this condition with Depression but having a closer look at other references present in Ayurvedic texts and the epitome of ancient psychology – Bhagavad Gita the symptomatology of Vishaada shows a great resemblance to the features of Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
Dalhana defines Vishaada as a condition originated from apprehension of failure resulting into incapability of mind and body to function properly which is quite similar to the definition of anxiety given by modern psychiatry i.e. a phenomenon which is characterized by a state of apprehension or unease arising out of anticipation of danger.This condition arises out of low self-esteem. Low self-esteem leads to low-performance expectation which again leads to high anxiety (Udvignata) and reduced effort (Apravritti). It is well supported by the fact that patients with generalized anxiety disorder appear to have autonomic hypo responsiveness which does not necessarily mean that the patient is suffering from depression.
Chakrapani comments that Vishaada is a feeling of incompetence to accomplish or perform the desired work. To perform well or to achieve a goal, one needs a moderate amount of anxiety to anticipate and apprehend the consequence of a decision or behavior. Subjectively patient use words such as tense, panicky, terrified, jittery, nervous, wound up, and apprehensive. When a person is unable to cope up with this daily stress it leads to a feeling of incompetence to accomplish the desired goal and leads to an intense disagreeable state, associated with an undefined threat to one‟s physical and psychological self.
Gangadhara and Arundatta describes Vishaada as “Sarvada manah khedah” and “Dukhkhitvam” respectively which similar to definition of Generalized anxiety disorder which is characterized by a pattern of frequent, persistent worry and anxiety that is out of proportion to the impact of the event or circumstance that is the focus of the worry.
Although various authors have tried to interpret Vishaada in their own way but Bhagwad-Gita the essence of Vedic Literature shows us the path to interpret this condition and providing the base of understanding Generalized Anxiety Disorder in context of Vishaada. Arjuna got anxious when he saw his relatives with whom he had to fight. To motivate him the Bhagavad-Gita is preached in the battle field Kurukshetra by Lord Krishna to Arjuna as counseling to do his duty while multitudes of men stood by waiting. Arjuna faced the problem of conflict between emotions and intellect. Due to this Vishaada he develops certain symptoms presented below which are quite similar to symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. As a result of this disorder he develops dejection and flight reaction. For which Lord Krishna begins psychological counseling and clears his misconceptions one by one. This reference from Gita puts a clear picture for the framework of disease Vishaada.
On the other hand, various authors have tried to interpret Vishaada as Depression due to a lot of similarities in the list of presentations. Anxiety and depression have a lot of similarities and both can manifest with feelings of hopelessness, agitation, feeling withdrawn, fatigue, lack of ambition, inability to enjoy things that used to bring pleasure, fear of the future, inability to cope with stressful situations, etc. It is also true that anxiety and depression often co-exist, in fact persons with actual anxiety disorders almost always have a degree of depression, along with it and persons with clinical depression also commonly have co-existing anxiety.GAD has been said to represent a residual phase of chronic depression (Nisita et al., 1990).

Generalized Anxiety Disorder is one such disorder where a patient commonly experiences a mix of both anxiety symptoms and depression symptoms. They may at times have stronger manifestations of depression and at other times, stronger manifestations of anxiety, while at other times, they are both about even in manifestation.

In a nutshell, we can say that Vishaada cannot be termed as Depression because of the following reasons

1) A major distinguishing feature of depression that is often listed as one of its major symptoms is “profound sadness”. In Vishaada a person has spells of emotion, that causes them to have crying spells etc., but it is not the same profound sadness that is more chronically severe with depression.

2) A major feature of Vishaada is the “fear emotion”, which can be the bewildering type, such as severe anxiety attacks or panic attacks or can be the chronic lingering type that manifests as severe worry and apprehension. The chronic worry aspect of anxiety, is what is most often mistakenly referred to as depression, when it is actually a fear emotion (fear of the future, fear about health, finances etc.) and though it is not in the depression category, can result into depressive symptoms, due to the prolonged periods of stress it causes.

3) Vishaada is an anxiety disorder whereas Depression is a mood disorder.

4) In Vishaada the individual does not suffer from suicidal tendencies unlike in depression.

5) It is emphasized by Acharya Charaka that “Vishaado Roga Vardhananam”.Anxiety has been regarded as causing various other diseases, not depression.

Therefore we can infer that Vishaada is not Depression and it can be compared with Generalized Anxiety disorder. Various authors have tried to use these terms at ease often contradicting each other as to the exact meaning of the term but it is important to keep in mind the clinical implications along with the literary meaning in order to understand the term efficiently. Hence, it can be concluded that Vishaada can be compared with Generalized Anxiety disorder based on the references available and the similarity in clinical presentations of both the conditions.

 

1 person found this helpful

Dr. Sajeev Kumar 89% (28275 ratings)
C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
Relieve stress by changing the interpretation

Stress is the reaction of the body or the mind to the interpretation of a known situation. Stress management, therefore, involves either changing the situation, changing the interpretation or taming the body the yogic way in such a way that stress does not affect the body.

Every situation has two sides. Change of interpretation means looking at the other side of the situation. It is something like half glass of water, which can be interpreted as half empty or half full.

Studies have shown that anger, hostility and aggression are the new risk factors for heart disease. Even recall of anger has been reported to precipitate a heart attack.

Many studies have shown that when doctors talk positive in front of unconscious patients in ICU, their outcome is better than those in whose presence if doctors talk negative.

The best way to practice spiritual medicine is to experience silence in the thoughts, speech and action. Simply walking in the nature with silence in the mind and experiencing the sounds of nature can be as effective as 20 minutes of meditation. He said that 20 minutes of meditation provides the same physiological parameters as that of seven hours of deep sleep.

MBBS
General Physician, Kolar
Anytime you get investigations done, please take it to a doctor for interpretation before deciding to start medication by self or by advice from friends and family!
Instead of getting package investigations done at labs which advertise for them, where each package will only contain a fraction of investigations you'll be actually needing, visit your doctor, get a thorough check up from them and then do the investigations they have advised!

Dealing with Stress

Dr. Sajeev Kumar 89% (28275 ratings)
C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
Dealing with Stress
Stress may be broadly defined as comprising of three components, namely a "known situation, interpretation of a situation and the physical and mental reaction to that interpretation of the situation".

• Stress is a situation: There cannot be a stress without a situation. One cannot be stressed about some event occurring in USA without knowing the person or the situation. The situation requires familiarity with the particular sensory object (known situation).

• Stress is an interpretation of a situation: Without interpretation, stress is not possible. The same situation can be interpreted differently by different people. A stimulus may be stressful to one but not to the other.

• Stress is a physical and mental response to the interpretation of the situation: Stress manifests because of a chemical imbalance resulting due to sympathetic over-activity, which manifests as mental and or physical symptoms.

Stress is the body’s physical and mental response to the interpretation of a situation. Management of stress, therefore, involves either changing the situation, changing the interpretation of the situation or making the body resistant to physical and mental changes in the situation.

Practicing Patanjali’s eight limbs of yoga via living a yogic lifestyle, adhering to the various Dos and Don’ts in life as taught in various religious teachings, and learning to meditate helps our body to resist these sympathetic–activating changes and handle the stressful situation. These involve proper diet, exercise, meditation and relaxation exercises. Changing the interpretation of a situation involves counseling. Cognitive behavior therapy used in counseling is one such example. Change in interpretation requires deeper understanding of the problem and removal of the obstacles. This can be done by using Ganesha’s principles of stress management, Rosenburg’s Principle of Non–Violent Communication, or the principles of counseling from Bhagwad Gita. Change of the situation is the final resort for solving the problem, even though this may not be always possible. For example, in a dispute between husband and wife, divorce should be the last choice, after all counseling efforts have failed to resolve the issue.

How To Take Care Of Yourself?

Dr. Virender Kumar Bhatia 87% (506 ratings)
M.B., B.S. FCGP., FIAMS
General Physician, Panipat
How To Take Care Of Yourself?
  • Get investigated only as per written doctor's advice
  • Do consult again for interpretation and clinical significance 
  • Take full course of medicines 
  • Get adult vaccinations as per recommendation 
  • Increase physical activity 
  • Eat only home made nutritious diet 
  • Take 2-3 glass full of home made liquids every 2-3hrs 
  • Remain enthusiastic to pursue your professional life
1 person found this helpful

Nadi Tarangini

Dr. Abhishek Dadhich 88% (43 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Jodhpur
Nadi Tarangini

*Nadi Tarangini*
For the first time, centuries of subjective knowledge has been demystified using modern artificial intelligence. Nadi tarangini's ultra sensitive sensors and advanced software give you precise nadi patterns and a high degree of accuracy.

**Quick and comprehensive nadi report*
In just five minutes, get physical and mental wellness indicators, along with diet and lifstyle suggestions

*Detect dosha imbalances*
Through gati and sparsha based vikruti

*Easy report interpretation*
With low, medium and high references for each parameter. Compare current nadi pattern with averaged healthy dosha patterns.

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Tackle the problem of patient retention with clear evidence of your treatment's effectiveness over time.

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2 people found this helpful

6 Tips for Happiness

Ms. Samiksha Jain 91% (659 ratings)
Hypnotherapist, DCS, BSIC, Advanced Trainee of Transactional Analysis, Advanced Skills in Counselling
Psychologist,
6 Tips for Happiness
6 TIPS TO HAPPINESS.(KEY CONCEPTS OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY)

1. Give yourself permission to be human. When we accept emotions ? such as fear, sadness, or anxiety ? as natural, we are more likely to overcome them. Rejecting our emotions, positive or negative, leads to frustration and unhappiness.

2. Happiness lies at the intersection between pleasure and meaning. Whether at work or at home, the goal is to engage in activities that are both personally significant and enjoyable. When this is not feasible, make sure you have happiness boosters, moments throughout the week that provide you with both pleasure and meaning.

3. Keep in mind that happiness is mostly dependent on our state of mind, not on our status or the state of our bank account. Barring extreme circumstances, our level of well being is determined by what we choose to focus on (the full or the empty part of the glass) and by our interpretation of external events. For example, do we view failure as catastrophic, or do we see it as a learning opportunity?

4. Simplify! We are, generally, too busy, trying to squeeze in more and more activities into less and less time. Quantity influences quality, and we compromise on our happiness by trying to do too much.

5. Remember the mind-body connection. What we do ? or don't do ? with our bodies influences our mind. Regular exercise, adequate sleep, and healthy eating habits lead to both physical and mental health.

6. Express gratitude, whenever possible. We too often take our lives for granted. Learn to appreciate and savor the wonderful things in life, from people to food, from nature to a smile.
43 people found this helpful

Dr. Aravinda Jawali 91% (1377 ratings)
MD-PhD, FIPS, Fellow of Academy of General Education (FAGE), DPM, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Ludhiana


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BIOLOGICAL MARKERS FOR MENTAL ILLNESS
0 Comments / Jun 30, 2015

Psychiatry

Reliable indicators are of great help in the diagnosis of any disease. This fact assumes more importance in the diagnosis of mental illness because a clinician has to depend on interpretation of clues discernible from a patient’s behaviour, including emotional outbursts. Fortunately, researchers from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine are reported to have identified, for the first time, a biological marker. Their study has been published in the journal EBioMedicine.



Researchers know that the XIST gene works overtime in female patients with mental illness. They also know that this gene inactivates one of the two copies of the X chromosome in cells that store genetic material. Keeping all this in view, they decided to focus on the identification of biomarkers for mental illness, which would, in turn, facilitate further research paving the way for the development of effective drugs.

The study was led by Xianjin Zhou, assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry at UC San Diego School of Medicine and lead author. They carried out their study on 60 lymphoblastoid cell lines from female patients, most of whom were found with a family history of mental illness.

Results revealed that nearly 50 per cent of the female patients were found to have XIST gene and other genes related to the X chromosome. The team led by Zhou pointed out that a new treatment option for treating mental illness may be to reverse the abnormal activity of the inactive X chromosome in the patients.

The whole team is optimistic about the results, which have revealed the possibility of early diagnosis of mental illness with a simple blood test. Encouraged by the results, they intend to pursue their research, aimed at finding effective treatment options for mental illness.




Pap Smear - Understanding Its Role In Cancer Screening!

Dr. Sagar Bumb 89% (36 ratings)
DGO , MBBS
Gynaecologist, Pune
Pap Smear - Understanding Its Role In Cancer Screening!

Cervical cancer can throw life completely off balance. It is one of the most common types of cancer affecting women worldwide. Lack of an early diagnosis makes this life threatening condition almost untreatable. A Pap smear also referred to as a Pap Test comes as a ray of hope for many women.

A Pap smear is a screening test that plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and detection of cervical cancer in women. A Pap smear may further be used to point out any abnormalities in the cervical cells which may have a potential to turn malignant in the future. Doctors recommend all women (between 21-65 years of age) to undergo a pap smear to be on the safer side. While most women are advised to repeat the pap smear between every 3-5 years, women with the following conditions or ailments should be extra careful.

  1. Women who are HIV positive or those with a weak immune system.
  2. Those who have undergone an organ transplant.
  3. Any woman whose pap smear indicates the presence of precancerous cells.
  4. Women who had chemotherapy sessions.

The above mentioned conditions do not necessarily imply a 100% probability of cervical cancer. Consult your doctor and follow the necessary advice and precautions.

The procedure involved in a Pap smear
The Pap test is not a very tedious process and is often carried out in the doctor's clinic itself. The person to undergo the test is made to lie down on her back (the knees should be in a bent position). The physician then carefully inserts a speculum into the vagina. The main idea is to widen the vaginal walls so that the doctor can have a clear view of the cervix. Next, using a spatula, the doctor will collect samples of your cervical cells and send it for examination.


The significance of the Pap smear result

  • A negative test indicates a healthy cervix with no precancerous cells.
  • A positive result can, however, have many implications, such as there can be a condition known as dysplasia (minute alterations in the cervical cells). There may be some inflammation. However, the condition may be nothing to lose your sleep over. In many women, the condition heals by itself. A thorough investigation, (colonoscopy followed by a biopsy) may be needed if the problem persists for long.

Further, there can be 

  • Squamous intraepithelial lesion: This, unfortunately, indicates the presence of precancerous cells.
  • Squamous cell cancer: As the name suggests, this more than often, confirms the presence of malignant or cancer cells.
  • Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: Here the squamous cells appear very flat and thin, growing on the cervical surface. The condition may not necessarily indicate something serious. The person concerned may require further tests for a better interpretation of the condition.

A Pap smear is for your good. Go for a Pap smear and also encourage women in your circle to indulge in this healthy practice. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

4372 people found this helpful

Pap Smear - A Guide To Understanding Its Role In Cervical Screening!

Dr. Meenakshi Yelvantge 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MRCOG
Gynaecologist, Pune
Pap Smear - A Guide To Understanding Its Role In Cervical Screening!

Cervical cancer can throw life completely off balance. It is one of the most common types of cancer affecting women worldwide. Lack of an early diagnosis makes this life threatening condition almost untreatable. A Pap smear also referred to as a Pap Test comes as a ray of hope for many women.

A Pap smear is a screening test that plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and detection of cervical cancer in women. A Pap smear may further be used to point out any abnormalities in the cervical cells which may have a potential to turn malignant in the future. Doctors recommend all women (between 21-65 years of age) to undergo a pap smear to be on the safer side. While most women are advised to repeat the pap smear between every 3-5 years, women with the following conditions or ailments should be extra careful.

  1. Women who are HIV positive or those with a weak immune system.
  2. Those who have undergone an organ transplant.
  3. Any woman whose pap smear indicates the presence of precancerous cells.
  4. Women who had chemotherapy sessions.

The above mentioned conditions do not necessarily imply a 100% probability of cervical cancer. Consult your doctor and follow the necessary advice and precautions.

The procedure involved in a Pap smear
The Pap test is not a very tedious process and is often carried out in the doctor's clinic itself. The person to undergo the test is made to lie down on her back (the knees should be in a bent position). The physician then carefully inserts a speculum into the vagina. The main idea is to widen the vaginal walls so that the doctor can have a clear view of the cervix. Next, using a spatula, the doctor will collect samples of your cervical cells and send it for examination.


The significance of the Pap smear result

 

  • A negative test indicates a healthy cervix with no precancerous cells.
  • A positive result can, however, have many implications, such as there can be a condition known as dysplasia (minute alterations in the cervical cells). There may be some inflammation. However, the condition may be nothing to lose your sleep over. In many women, the condition heals by itself. A thorough investigation, (colonoscopy followed by a biopsy) may be needed if the problem persists for long.

Further, there can be 

  • Squamous intraepithelial lesion: This, unfortunately, indicates the presence of precancerous cells.
  • Squamous cell cancer: As the name suggests, this more than often, confirms the presence of malignant or cancer cells.
  • Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: Here the squamous cells appear very flat and thin, growing on the cervical surface. The condition may not necessarily indicate something serious. The person concerned may require further tests for a better interpretation of the condition.

A Pap smear is for your good. Go for a Pap smear and also encourage women in your circle to indulge in this healthy practice.

2531 people found this helpful
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