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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis Of It!

Dr. Prashant K Vaidya 88% (18372 ratings)
Diploma In Gastroenterology, Diploma In Dermatology, BHMS
Homeopathy Doctor, Hyderabad
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis Of It!

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, commonly called PID, is an infection of the female reproductive organs(uterus,fallopian tubules ovaries &cervix). PID is one of the most serious complications of a sexually transmitted disease in women: It can lead to irreversible damage to the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, or other parts of the female reproductive system, and is the primary preventable cause of infertility in women.


Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) occurs when bacteria move from the vagina or cervix into the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix
Most cases of PID are due to the bacteria that cause chlamydia and gonorrhea. These are sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The most common way a woman develops PID is by having unprotected sex with someone who has a sexually transmitted infection.

However, bacteria may also enter the body during some surgical or office procedures, such as:

• Childbirth
• Endometrial biopsy
• Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD)
• Therapeutic or elective abortion


Signs and symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease may include:

• Pain in your lower abdomen and pelvis
• Heavy vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor
• Irregular menstrual bleeding
• Pain during intercourse
• Low back pain
Fever, fatigue, diarrhea or vomiting
• Painful or difficult urination

PID may cause only minor signs and symptoms or none at all. Asymptomatic PID is especially common when the infection is due to chlamydia.

Other symptoms that may occur with PID:

• Bleeding after intercourse
• Chills
• Fatigue
• Frequent or painful urination
• Increased menstrual cramping
• Irregular menstrual bleeding or spotting
• Lack of appetite
Nausea, with or without vomiting
• No menstruation
Painful sexual intercourse


• Pelvic ultrasound. This test uses sound waves to create images of your reproductive organs.
• Endometrial biopsy. During this procedure, a small piece of your uterine lining (endometrium) is removed and tested.
Laparoscopy. During this procedure, your doctor inserts a thin, lighted instrument through a small incision in your abdomen to view your pelvic organs.

1 person found this helpful

I am taking susten 200 starts on 20 nov. When we take last susten of this cycle ?when we check pregnancy ?dr. Prescribed me susten 200 on 21th day of period. Please suggest.

Dr. Preethi P 92% (96 ratings)
MBBS, DGO - Gynaecologist & Obstetrician, Diploma in Advanced Gynaec Laparoscopic Surgery
Gynaecologist, Chennai
I am taking susten 200 starts on 20 nov. When we take last susten of this cycle ?when we check pregnancy ?dr. Prescri...
Usually we should take susten sr 300 mg as sustained release for oral use from day 18 for 10 days only. Stop it after 10 days. Wait for 5 days to do urine pregnancy test or serum beta hcg blood test. Goodluck.
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Know How Can Homeopathy Help In Dealing With Infertility!

Dr. Sebastian Joseph Niravath 90% (35 ratings)
Homeopathy Doctor, Kochi
Know How Can Homeopathy Help In Dealing With Infertility!

Homoeopathy is a complementary system of healing that believes in ‘like cures like’. But can it cure infertility? Read on to know more about the role of homoeopathy in infertility. Homoeopathy uses the same principle of ‘like cures like’ to treat infertility as well.

In scientific terms, infertility is defined as the inability to conceive despite having regular unprotected sex for one or more than one year. The cause for infertility can be either present in the male or female partner like low sperm counts in men or poor quality of sperm and hormonal disturbances, blocked fallopian tubes, endometriosis, fibroids etc. in women.

Homoeopathy works in infertility by - 

  1. Regulating ovulation in women
  2. Increasing sperm count and improving sperm mobility in men
  3. Removing emotional blockages
  4. Reducing stress
  5. Treating depression and anxiety

Homoeopathy is especially useful in curing infertility due to low sperm count and sperm motility. A homoeopath can identify the cause of your infertility by asking you specific questions related to your: 

  1. Age
  2. Duration of trying to conceive
  3. Nicotine, alcohol, coffee or tea consumption
  4. Genital diseases including inflammation, surgery and trauma
  5. Any other conditions you may suffer from, including hereditary conditions
  6. Any active infection in the body
  7. Exposure to toxins such as chemicals, radiation, heat or noise
  8. Stress levels

Homoeopathic remedies for infertility
If you want a sure cure for infertility, visit a reputed homoeopath who will match the right medicine with your constitution and symptoms. However, we have a list of common remedies for the condition for your information:

1. Sepia -

  • This is a very powerful uterine remedy
  • It is very useful in cases where the woman miscarries repeatedly
  • Useful in treating uterine prolapse
  • Treats late and scanty periods, irregular periods, as well as early and profuse bleeding
  • Treats irregular or absent ovulation
  • Treats low sex drive in men

2. Sabina -

  • Treats women who have recurrent miscarriages
  • Treats inflammation of ovaries and uterus after an abortion

3. Silica -

  • Boosts the immune system and improves chances of conception

4. Aurum -

  • Treats infertility caused by depression, feelings of self-hatred and worthlessness
  • Treats high blood pressure
  • Treats enlarged and prolapsed uterus

5. Phosphorus -

  • Treats infertility due to uterine polyps
  • Infertility due to anxiety and stress

6. X-Ray -

  • Treats infertility in males due to low sperm counts
  • It helps in improving the quality of sperms
1743 people found this helpful

Female Infertility - How To Resolve It?

Dr. Chitrangada Gupta 88% (15 ratings)
MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS, Fellowship In Reproductive Medicine
Gynaecologist, Lucknow
Female Infertility - How To Resolve It?

A number of different factors can cause the problem of infertility in women. The issue of infertility is not new to the medical world. Various medications and treatments have come up with the advancement of science and this has helped cure the problem of infertility over time. Although infertility can have a severe impact on your mental health, it is still not impossible to cure. There are multiple medications and treatments which can still give you a healthy chance of having a baby. Age is one of the major factors which cause the problem of infertility in women as women are born with a finite number of eggs and with increasing age, the number of eggs automatically reduce. Therefore, to avoid infertility, opting for an early pregnancy can also be suggested.

Start With a Thorough Diagnosis
A number of blood tests are carried out to determine the cause of infertility, like the presence of cystic ovaries, abnormal hormonal levels or any other cervical problem. Apart from that, the procedure of Laparoscopy is also carried out to look at the outer lines of the fallopian tube, ovaries, and uterus as well. This procedure helps the doctors in identifying any abnormal growth in the pelvic region. The next procedure which is carried out is HSG or Hysterosalpingography which involves the insertion of a dye or saline into the cervix through ultrasound or X-ray to check for any kind of blockage in the fallopian tube.

Various Treatments for the Problem of Infertility

  1. IVF or In Vito Fertilization is the most advanced procedure which is used to help the sperms and eggs. This artificial technique of fusing the sperms and the eggs outside the body and placing it in the uterus after the formation of the embryo is one of the most used procedures in the case of infertility.
  2. Another alternative treatment which can be chosen is the Assisted Reproductive Technology. Hormonal therapy along with the combination of fertility drugs are two procedures which are used in this technology. Other types of tests which are carried out are intrauterine insemination and zygote intra fallopian transfer among others.
  3. Egg donation is another popular method which is used during infertility. This process involves the removal of Oocytes from the ovary of women who have taken fertility drugs.
  4. A small amount of concentrated sperm cells is used in another method called Intrauterine
  5. Insemination which only requires a few minutes to be completed and is an extremely painless process.

Along with these other alternative methods of surrogacy, ZIFT or Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer and special medical therapies can also be used to increase the fertility rate.

1193 people found this helpful

IVF - Know Vital Information About It!

Dr. Deepti Nitin Gupta 87% (32 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in Obstetrics & Gynaecology, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), Fellowship in Reproductive Medicine
IVF Specialist, Bhopal
IVF - Know Vital Information About It!

IVF or In Vitro Fertilization is a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART), wherein the egg and the sperm are physically combined in a laboratory dish before being transferred into the uterus. This procedure of reproduction has gained popularity among infertile and homosexual couples and also among women opting for single motherhood.

Although IVF is a becoming increasingly accepted procedure in the present day scenario with the growing infertility levels among individuals and open-mindedness of the society, there are some factors that must be taken into consideration before opting for the IVF procedure.

  1. Multiple Births: To guarantee the success of the treatment, usually more than one embryo is inserted into the uterus after fertilization. It is not uncommon for multiple embryos to end up attaching themselves to the uterine wall, leading to multiple births. It is important for the individual or the couple to be emotionally and physically prepared for that possibility.
  2. Reasons for infertility: Before opting for the procedure, the couple is often advised to go through several tests to check for the sperm count, mobility and the uterus environment to determine if at all IVF is the best option for the couple.
  3. Side Effects: After the procedure, the woman is expected to be under several types of medication to prevent the eggs from ripening. There are certain obvious side effects including headache, bloating, nausea and mood swings. In certain cases, the individual may experience circulatory problems, which when heightened may require hospitalization.
  4. Emotional Impact: IVF has a major impact on the emotion regulation of the individual. It might be overwhelming for most individuals and a strong psychological system is often searched for people opting for the procedure. The stress and the overflow of emotions can sometimes be too much to take for somebody and hence, people with major psychological disorders are advised against it.
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Women's Infertility - Know All About It!

Dr. Sameer Pahlajani 88% (11 ratings)
IVF Specialist, Raipur
Women's Infertility - Know All About It!

Infertility is the incapability of a couple to conceive after indulging in unprotected sex multiple times over a long period. It can also be referred to as the biological inability of a man to cause conception or a woman to conceive as well as being unable to carry the pregnancy for the whole duration. Research has shown that female problems contribute to over half of all the infertility cases.


Causes of infertility in include:

  1. Ovulation Disorders – This is regarded as the most common cause of infertility in women. The disorders can be caused due to conditions like PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome), Premature ovarian failure, poor quality of eggs, overactive or underactive thyroid gland and chronic conditions like cancer or AIDS.

  2. Problems in fallopian tubes or uterus – Abnormalities in the uterus or fallopian tubes render the woman incapable of conceiving naturally. This might be due to conditions like Endometriosis, previous sterilization treatments or surgeries to correct past problems.

  3. Medications or Treatments – There is a possibility of some treatments affecting infertility. Examples include NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy.


Usually, the initial steps for diagnosing infertility involve a review of the complete medical history of the patients as well as a physical exam. Post this check-up, some diagnostic tests are conducted for infertility. This might include-

  1. Blood and Urine tests: For checking hormone levels.

  2. Pap smear: For checking the health of your cervix.

  3. X-ray: For outlining the internal shape of the uterus so that blockages in fallopian tubes can be identified.

Risk Factors:

  1. Age – Increasing age tends to lower the quality as well as the quantity of a woman's eggs

  2. Smoking Besides damaging your cervix and fallopian tubes, smoking increases your risk of miscarriage. It is also believed to deplete your eggs at a premature stage, thereby reducing your chances of pregnancy.

  3. Weight – Normal ovulation is hindered by being overweight or even significantly underweight. This is because lower levels of BMI (body mass index) reduces the frequency of ovulation, reducing the chances of pregnancy.

  4. Sexual history – Sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea and Chlamydia can cause damage to the fallopian tubes, resulting in infertility.


Even though it is possible to restore fertility in women using only one or two therapies, a number of treatments might be required before conception is possible. Some of these treatments include:

  1. Intrauterine insemination (IUI): deliberately introducing sperm into the uterus of a woman for achieving pregnancy.

  2. Stimulating ovulation with fertility drugs.

  3. Surgery to restore fertility.

In situations where pregnancy does not happen spontaneously, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) can be used by couples to achieve a pregnancy. It is any form of fertility treatment which involves the handling of sperm and egg. The entire ART team consists of psychologists, physicians, embryologists, nurses and lab technicians.

One common ART technique is In vitro fertilization (IVF). It is a process where an egg and sperm are manually combined in a laboratory dish, followed by transfer of the embryo to the uterus.

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Infertility - Does It Only Impact Women?

Dr. Padmaja Mohan 93% (181 ratings)
MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, DCN -Diploma in Clinical Nutrition, MBBS, Fellowship in Cosmetic Gynaecologgy
Gynaecologist, Noida
Infertility - Does It Only Impact Women?

Infertility is a medical condition in which the patient fails to conceive after one year of having unprotected sex. It is advisable that women who are above 35 years of age and often experience irregular menstrual cycles should consult a doctor on being unable to conceive within six months.

Is infertility a common issue?

Infertility has become a common problem for the new age women. Sedentary lifestyle and stress are believed to hamper the fertility of women nowadays. According to a report, about 6 percent women in US in the age group 15-44 years are infertile.

Infertility: It’s not just a woman’s problem

Infertility is not an issue with only women. Both, men and women can be infertile or are responsible for the condition. The process of reproduction requires mutual co-operation from both sexes. Therefore, they can together contribute towards infertility as well. It is wrong to blame the woman only. According to the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth data, it has been found that about 7.5 % men in the age group of 18-45 years (who have has sexual exposure) visited infertility clinics at least once in their lifetime. Of these men, about 18% were affected with male-related infertility issues.

Infertility in men: Men can suffer from infertility due to various factors. The infertility can be detected by analysis of the semen. A doctor can evaluate the concentration of the semen or determine the sperm count, the mobility of the sperm and its shape or morphology. These are important for fertility. Semen analysis can be hampered due to the following conditions:

1. Varioceles - The veins on the man’s testicles are unnaturally large and leads to overheating of the sperms
2. Diseases like diabetescystic fibrosis, trauma and infection.
3. Unhealthy lifestyle
4. Environmental toxins

Infertility in women: Women must have proper functioning of the reproductive organs to become fertile. The fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus must be physically and physiologically fit for getting pregnant. A woman may get infertile due to following reasons:

1. Irregular periods that suggests the woman is not ovulating properly.
2. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
3. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) or excessive physical or emotional stress causing missed periods
4. Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) or inability of the ovary to produce sufficient eggs
5. Premature ovarian insufficiency: The ovary stops functioning properly before 40 years of age
6. Blocked, swollen or open fallopian tubes
7. Menopause

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Hi Dr, My age 33 I have no child because of fallopian tube blockage on both sides can I take thiosinaminum 30ch and eupionum 30ch and how to take?

Dr. Akanksha Aggarwal 93% (3907 ratings)
BHMS (Gold Medalist)
Homeopathy Doctor, Gurgaon
Hi Dr, My age 33 I have no child because of fallopian tube blockage on both sides can I take thiosinaminum 30ch and e...
if you have fallopian tube blockage .. then there is no way of treatment you can take to conceive baby ...
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Hi Doctor, on letrozole 2.5 mg medication my follicle was grown to 20 mm by 9 the day and my doctor gave me an injection of hcg 5000 but by day 13 follicle size was decreased to 15 mm and there was minimal free fluid in pod. Is there are chances of ovulation. Please kindly answer to my question.

Dr. Sheila Bharathan 88% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
IVF Specialist, Chennai
Hi Doctor, on letrozole 2.5 mg medication my follicle was grown to 20 mm by 9 the day and my doctor gave me an inject...
Likely you have ovulated finding free fluid and reduction in size of follicle are evidences that ovulation has taken place.
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Fallopian Tubes - Know Forms Of Blockage For It?

Dr. Sameer Pahlajani 88% (11 ratings)
IVF Specialist, Raipur
Fallopian Tubes - Know Forms Of Blockage For It?

It's said that blocked fallopian tubes are the most common cause of female infertility in about 40% of women who are infertile. Fallopian tubes are channels through which the egg travels to reach the uterus and blockage of these tubes can put a stop to this from taking place. Depending on the different parts of the tubes, this form of blockage is of several types.

What are the different types of fallopian tube blockages?

1. Proximal tubal occlusion
This form of fallopian tube blockage involves the isthmus (an area of about 2 cm long, this part of the fallopian tube connects the infundibulum and ampulla to the uterus). This problem occurs after an illness like complications associated with abortion, cesarean section, PID (pelvic inflammatory disease).

2. Mid-segment tubal obstruction
It occurs in the ampullary section of the fallopian tube and is most frequently a result of tubal ligation damage. The procedure of tubal ligation is performed to put a stop to pregnancy permanently.

3. Distal tubal occlusion
This is a kind of blockage wherein the section of the fallopian tube that is close to the ovary is affected and is commonly associated with a condition known as hydrosalpinx (a condition in which the fallopian tube is filled with fluid). The latter is often brought on by Chlamydia infection, leading to fallopian tube and pelvic adhesions.

The conditions that may give rise to this problem can include:

1. Genital tuberculosis (the TB infection that occurs in the genital tract)
2. Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy in which the embryo places itself outside the uterus)
3. Tubal ligation removal
4. Complications related to surgery of the lower abdomen
5. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
6. Uterine fibroids (benign growths that occur in the uterus)
7. Endometriosis (development of uterine tissue outside of the organ)

These disorders can lead to the development of scar tissue, adhesions, polyps or tumors to form inside the pathway. Additionally, the tubes can also get stuck to other body parts such as the ovaries, bladder, uterus and bowels. Two things can happen to the fallopian tubes, either they can become twisted or the walls of the tubes may stick together, leading to complete blockage. Moreover, even if the fallopian tubes are partially damaged, they can remain open so as to enable pregnancy to occur, while increasing your risk for ectopic pregnancy.

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