Infant and Newborn Nutrition is the description of the dietary needs of newborns and infants. Food provides the energy and nutrients that infants need to be healthy. An adequate intake in nutrient rich food is good nutrition. An infant diet lacking essential calories, minerals, fluid and vitamins could be considered 'bad' nutrition. For a baby, breast milk is "best". It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and 6 months of age. Clinicians can be consulted to determine what is best for each baby. If a food introduced one at a time, a potential allergen can be identified. Breastfeeding can prevent allergic, atopic dermatitis, cow's milk allergy, and wheezing in early childhood. Breastfed babies have lower risks of asthma. Some foods tend to illicit allergies in young children. These include eggs, honey, peanuts (including peanut butter), other tree nuts.
When water is added to dry formula, it must come from a clean and safe water source. Watered down formula will lowers the levels of calories, vitamins and minerals the infant will ingest during each feeding. Inadequate intake of nutrients can slow the development and growth of the baby. Manufacturers include instructions on the container for safe mixing of formula. Assistance from governmental and non-governmental agencies may be available to caregivers having difficulties buying formula. Testing the temperature of the formulas will help prevent scalding the baby's mouth.
Infantile colic and often indicated homeopathic remedies. It’s also referred as crying baby syndrome.
For anyone with a baby suffering from this problem, it’s a reality that causes significant distress to the infant as well as parents, carers and siblings. A specific cause is as yet unknown and the symptoms involve excessive crying for more than three hours per day for more than three days per week in an infant who is otherwise (clinically) well and thriving. The infant may also have abdominal distension, flatus, borborygmus, a flushed face, clenched fists, may draw their knees up or arch their back, as if in pain. Colic may develop in the early weeks of life, peaking at around 2-8 weeks of age and ceasing by around 12 to 16 weeks but may, in rarer cases, persist for up to 12 months.
The symptoms may occur at any time but more typically arise in the late afternoon or evening. While fewer than 5% of colicky infants are found to have an organic disease, it’s important to differentiate colic from other causes of excessive crying such as constipation, infantile migraine, dairy, soy or some other form of allergy (where these may be associated with an aggravation of symptoms), gastro-oesophageal reflux (which may itself be secondary to dairy or soy allergy), or lactose overload / malabsorption (indicated by frothy watery diarrhoea with perianal excoriation). Other causes of persistent crying may include early teething, urinary tract infection, otitis media or raised intracranial pressure.
There are a number of symptoms that, when combined with excessive crying, indicate the need for timely medical attention- these include a change in bowel habits, an abnormal temperature, persistent abdominal distenstion, an increase in crying frequency or lethargy.
Very few medications, from allopathic medicine have consistently been found to be effective for colic, but found to have serious side effects. In mothers who are breastfeeding, a maternal hypoallergenic diet, avoiding dairy products, eggs, wheat, or nuts, may improve matters. The rapid acting and low-risk features of homeopathic medicines can make them ideal for use with infants suffering from colic, and following are some of the most frequently prescribed.
Colocynthis: This is one of the most commonly used first-aid medicines for colic. Characteristically, the colic will cause the child to bring the knees up to the chest. Child will be irritable easily angered. There may be co-existing gastro-intestinal bloating, green spluttery diarrhoea, vomiting and a coated tongue.
Chamomilla: Chamomilla is also a common prescription here. The child in this case usually hot, thirsty, has red cheeks and wants to be carried, cries inconsolably and may angrily reject things that are offered. In colic the appearance is typically one of vomiting, an arched back, restlessness, anger, and the infant is often teething at the same time. The stools may be green and smell of rotten eggs and there may be great abdominal distension with small quantities of flatus being passed.
Infants Topic Diarrhoea
When if one frequently passes watery stool that have no lumps in them look out for other symptoms of diarrhoea. These can include vomiting, fever, and sometimes blood or mucus in your baby's stool
Newborns pass stool freq, so you may worry that your baby has diarrhoea when in fact one pass stool that are normal for her age.
Also, how often your baby does a stool will depend on whether she's being breast or formula-fed.
Here are more signs of normal motion:
The stool of breastfed newborn babies is usually yellowish and on the soft or liquid side. Your baby may fill nappy up to five times daily.
Sometimes a breastfed baby will pass motion during or immediately after each breastfeeding session. This happens because as her stomach fills up, the milk stimulates her entire intestinal tract, prompting a bowel movement.
Within a month, most breastfed babies do one or two poos a day.
Causes of diarrhoea?
The most common cause of diarrhoea is a virus called rotavirus
Rotavirus causes an infection of the gut called gastroenteritis. The infection damages the inner lining of your baby's intestine, allowing fluid to leak and food to pass through without any nutrients being absorbed. In some cases, rotavirus can lead to a serious bowel infection and dehydration.
A vaccine against rotavirus will be offered as part of your baby's routine immunisations when she is eight weeks and again when she is 12 weeks.
Diarrhoea can also be caused by:
Allergies (find out more about milk allergy and intolerance and food allergies)
Enzyme deficiencies, although these are rare
How should care during baby's diarrhoea?
Make sure that your baby drinks plenty of fluids to help ease her symptoms and prevent dehydration.
If your baby is taking breast or formula feeds best than
You can try your baby with sips of oral rehydration solution (ors) a few times an hour.
An ors helps to replace the fluids and salts your baby loses because of the diarrhoea. Keep giving water and usual breastfeeds
Don’t give her fruit juices, glucose drinks and fizzy drinks. Unabsorbed sugar draws water into the intestine and can make diarrhoea worse
Don’t give your baby anti-diarrhoeal medicine. It must not be given to children under 12 years old, as it could cause serious side-effects
To prevent your baby passing on her diarrhoea to other children, keep her away from childcare or nursery until at least 48 hours after her last diaeroohea
Breastfed babies less likely to get diarrhoea?
Yes. Certain elements in breastmilk can inhibit the growth of the germs that cause diarrhoea
Should stop giving solid foods in diaerrohea?
No. If your child is six months or older, unless she is vomiting frequently, you can still give her solids.
For an older toddler you could try small amounts of chicken and starchy foods, such as mashed potatoes and pasta.
But don't worry doesn't want to eat. It's more important that drinks to avoid dehydration
When should call the doctor?
Diarrhoea can be worrying if it lasts for more than a few hours, but it will usually clear up on its own. If your child has loose, watery stools for more than a couple of days, call your doctor
The biggest concern with diarrhoea is fluid loss, so don't delay in showing your pedatiaric if your baby shows these signs:
Dry skin or lips
A sunken fontanelle
Discoloured hands and feet
Strong yellow motion
Fewer wet nappies than usual
Shows the following secondary symptoms:
Vomiting which lasts more than 24 hours
Fever that lasts longer than 24 hours
Refusal to drink
Blood in motion
A swollen tummy
How to decrease baby’s discomfort?
Cuddle and comfort as much as possible, and keep her dry. Use care and tenderness when changing nappies since it's easy for a baby's bottom to become sore with diarrhoea. Use a barrier cream to prevent irritation if the diarrhoea lasts more than a day.
How prevent baby from getting diarrhoea again?
Proper hygiene can help reduce the chance of diarrhoea, because the germs that cause it can be easily passed from hand to mouth. So wash your hands thoroughly with soap after handling soiled nappies or using the toilet.
Cradle cap is a slick, yellow scaling or crusting on a child's scalp. It is regular in children and can be effortlessly treated. Cradle cap is not a part of any ailment and does not indicate poor care of the child. It is the usual development of sticky skin oils, scales, and sloughed skin cells. It is not harmful to your child and generally leaves by an infant's first birthday. Some of the recommended ways to treat cradle cap are listed below:
Baby shampoo: Shampoo might be the absolute best approach to treat cradle caps in babies. Regular shampooing can get rid of a flakey scalp and make it a smooth one. Abstain from getting the shampoo in your child's eyes. In case you are uncertain about using it, ask a doctor or specialist for guidance. Do not utilize shampoos that contain groundnut oil or shelled nut oil on children under five years of age.
Coconut oil: Every mother uses coconut oil for many reasons. It is the most effective treatment. It smells astounding as well. Put a little on your child's head every evening and wash it over the next morning with an infant brush.
Vaseline: A considerable number of mothers use Vaseline. Apply it on the hair around evening time and by morning, the cradle cap will be a little improved.
Fine-toothed comb: This is a lice brush and is very useful. However, with a little oil, this is most likely one of the least demanding and quickest approaches to evacuate those flakes.
Shea butter: Applying Shea butter on the scalp is a great approach. Rub it on the hair, then brush it off gradually. It brings about the ideal result, as indicated by a few mothers.
Home treatment is normally all that is required for support. Here is how one needs to do it:
An hour prior to shampooing, rub your child's scalp with infant oil petroleum gel to lift the coverings and flakey scales.
Before applying the shampoo, first get the scalp wet, then tenderly rub the scalp with a delicate swarm brush (a delicate toothbrush would work too) for a couple of minutes to remove the scales. You can attempt to tenderly remove the flakes with extreme attention to detail.
At that point, wash the scalp with baby shampoo, flush well, and tenderly towel dry.
In case that your child's cradle cap gets to be swollen or infected, a course of anti-infection agents or an antifungal cream or cleanser such as ketoconazole might be recommended by a specialist. A gentle steroid cream such as hydrocortisone may likewise be suggested for an irritant rash.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Free tongue movement in pre-verbal infants influences their perception.says Canadian researchers.
The results showed a teether inserted into the mouth of an infant has an impact on the tongue tip and blade movement influencing speech perception.