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Immunosuppression Tips

Kidney Transplant - Know The Risks & Procedure!

Dr. D.K. Agarwal 91% (206 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology, DNB (Nephrology)
Nephrologist, Faridabad
Kidney Transplant - Know The Risks & Procedure!

When function of both kidneys are lost, Renal transplantation is needed. Kidney transplantation is performed by making use of a donor kidney and replacing the diseased one with it. Kidney transplantations are not conducted on patients suffering from other severe infections or life threatening diseases such as cancer, major lungs or heart condition. Diabetic or obese people usually cannot donate their kidneys as they bear a risk of malfunctioning in future. 

Procedure of Kidney Transplant 

  1. Kidney transplant surgery takes about 3 hours time. 
  2. Tests are conducted to make sure tissue typing match with the new kidney. This decreases the chance of the body rejecting the donor kidney and causing serious complications. 
  3. Thorough evaluation of the medical history is made for both the receiver and the donor. This is to make sure that the donor kidney is healthy, functional and free of disorders. 
  4. The procedure of the surgery includes placing the donor kidney in the lower abdomen. The blood vessels, important arteries are connected to the donor kidney. The bladder will also be connected to the ureter from the donor kidney. 
  5. The new kidney generally begins to function immediately after the surgery is completed successfully. 
  6. The blood begins to flow through the kidney, and it begins to function normally. It filters the blood, collects the waste that is then passed through the bladder as urine. 
  7. A patient who has had a kidney transplantation surgery will need to remain in the hospital for a few days under intense care and observation. 
  8. Medications to prevent the body from rejecting the new kidney will be prescribed. It is important that you continue with these medicines for the rest of your life. 

Risks of Kidney Transplantation 

  1. Rejection of the new kidney by the body. Acute rejection in the initial days of surgery can be treated with medications and injections. However, chronic rejection is a serious condition that causes gradual loss of kidney function. 
  2. There can be severe infections caused by the immunosuppression. It can also occur during the course of surgery, due to the inclusion of foreign tissues 
  3. Reaction to the drugs or anaesthesia used for the purpose of transplantation surgery 
  4. Excessive bleeding or haemorrhage caused due to injuries during surgery 
  5. Any kind of leakage from the ureter or blocking of the ureter tubes, causing an obstruction in the smooth functioning of kidneys 6.    The anti rejection drugs may lead to a decline in calcium, causing osteoporosis and other calcium deficiency infirmities 
  6. Fluctuations in blood sugar, blood pressure levels 
  7. Increased risk of cancer 
  8. Infections in internal organs 
  9. Obesity

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2114 people found this helpful

Gynaecological Issues In HIV-Infected Women!

Dr. Manisha Patil 88% (10 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DGO, Fellowship In Aesthetic Medicine
Gynaecologist, Pune
Gynaecological Issues In HIV-Infected Women!

People who have the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, commonly known as 'HIV', are known as HIV positive people. The virus is the agent of AIDS that is currently incurable. HIV is known to alter the human immune system and makes people much more susceptible and vulnerable to diseases and infections. Body fluids such as semen, blood, breast milk, vaginal fluids etc. of an infected individual contains the virus which can be passed from one person to another during blood-to-blood and/or sexual contact. HIV positive women may even pass on this virus to their children during pregnancy, delivery or by breast feeding them. HIV is also transmitted during oral, anal or vaginal sex, by contaminated hypodermic needles and by blood transfusion. 
Mentioned below are a few issues that a HIV positive woman has to face apart from discrimination and stigma, fear of infecting their children or partners, violence and abandonment. 

  1. Menstrual Disorders: Changes in menstrual cycles are frequently reported by HIV infected women. However, menstrual dysfunctions are due to varied reasons that aren't directly related to the disease. Although most of the HIV positive women suffer from amenorrhea i.e. the unusual absence of periods, it is not just due to HIV but also because of weight loss or immunosuppression.  
  2. Contraception: It is very important that the contraception a HIV positive woman chooses not only acts as birth control but also to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Although condoms do not provide exceptional pregnancy prevention, they are excellent at preventing transmission of the HIV virus. Permanent sterilization is usually the most chosen contraceptive method for HIV serodiscordant couples.
  3. Surgical Complications: HIV positive women are at a higher risk of undergoing gynecologic surgery. This is because they are more vulnerable to pelvic infectious disease that requires surgical intervention. There is also a greater risk of developing vulval cancer in HIV positive women. 
  4. Fertility: There has been an increase in the number of seropositive women contemplating pregnancy and childbirth. Most couples resort to assisted reproduction to lower the risk of horizontal HIV transmission. Studies show that undergoing HIV treatment and having an undetectable viral load is helpful in preventing the transmission of HIV. It is important to consult a medical expert if you are unable to get pregnant after at least 6 months of trying. Fertility problems are more common in HIV positive women than HIV negative women. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2429 people found this helpful

Cancer - Know What Can Increase Your Risk!

Dr. Mukul Gharote 89% (35 ratings)
MBBS, DM - Oncology, MD - General Medicine
Oncologist, Nashik
Cancer - Know What Can Increase Your Risk!

Cancer has unfortunately become a common condition. This is largely because of an unhealthy lifestyle and pollution that surrounds us. Some people have a higher risk of cancer as compared to others. Understanding your risk of suffering from a form of this disease can put you in a better position to fight against it.

Here are a few elements that can help you understand your risk of having cancer.

  1. Age: While cancer can affect people of all ages, it is more commonly seen amongst elderly men and women. The median age for cancer is 66 years. However, this depends largely on the type of cancer. Neuroblastomas are more common amongst children and adolescents as compared to adults. Similarly, 25% of bone cancer cases are diagnosed among young adults under the age of 20 years.
  2. DietCertain types of foods are considered carcinogenic i.e. they have the ability to cause cancer. Excessive consumption of such foods can greatly increase an individual’s cancer risk. These include:
  3. Hormones: Estrogen is often considered a human carcinogen. Thus taking hormonal therapy that involves a greater concentration of estrogen or only estrogen can increase your cancer risk. For example, hormone therapy that uses the only estrogen can cause endometrial cancer.
  4. ImmunosuppressionPeople with a compromised immune system are at a high risk of cancer. For certain medical procedure, it may be necessary to temporarily suppress the immune system. This can also increase a person’s risk of cancer. An organ transplant is one such procedure. The four most common types of cancer that can be caused by a suppressed immune system are lung cancer, kidney cancer, liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  5. ObesityBeing overweight or obese can increase a person risk of many types of cancer including breast cancer, and cancer of the colon, rectum, kidneys, esophagus, pancreas, gallbladder and endometrium.
  6. Radiation: Exposure to certain types of radiation can damage DNA and mutate cells causing cancer. This includes x rays, radon, gamma rays and some other forms of high energy radiation. A person may be exposed to these types of radiation during certain medical procedures such as chest X rays, PET scans, and CT scans. Working in nuclear power plants can also put a person at risk of exposure to these types of radiation. Tanning booths and sunlamps are another sources of UV radiation that can cause cancer.
3686 people found this helpful

5 Reasons to Talk About STDs with Your Doctor!

Dr. Rakesh Agarwal 89% (33 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine & Surgery (B.A.M.S)
Sexologist, Muzaffarnagar
5 Reasons to Talk About STDs with Your Doctor!

It is always advisable to practice safe physical intimacy, which helps avoid many complications including unwanted pregnancies and STDs. Talking of the latter, while some like herpes manifest shortly after contracting the disease, some may take months and years to show up and infections like chlamydia are extremely hard to detect.

So, if you think you could have contracted an STD from someone, be sure to watch out for the following signs and symptoms.

  1. Vaginal or penile discharge: If you are experiencing anything unusual in terms of discharge (color, consistency, or odor change) from your genital organs after unprotected sex, it is always advisable to get it tested. The risk is higher if you are not sure of your partner’s history.

  2. Vaginal or penile itching: This could again be one of the early signs of infection and therefore it will be good to get it checked.

  3. Sores or lesions on the genitals: Whatever the size, shape or color, if you are seeing sores on the genitals, especially after doubtful sexual relations, visit your doctor and have a frank chat.

  4. Vaginal bleeding: If there is abnormal bleeding which is not normal for you, it could be a warning sign of an STD and it is better to get it checked.

  5. Painful sex: Again, if this is abnormal for you, it is time for a checkup. Note that this would usually be combined with one or more of the above symptoms and would not be the only issue you are having.

  6. Testicular pain: Pain in the testicles which is not normal for you could be another indication of an STD. This would not be the only symptom and would be accompanied by other symptoms mentioned above.

  7. Pain in the lower abdomen: Most STDs in men and women also have lower abdominal pain, in the pelvic/scrotal area.

  8. History: If your partner has had a history of STDs in the last one year, then the risk of you developing an STD is  quite high. In such cases, it is always advisable to get it tested. This will help clear your doubt plus control the disease at an early stage.

  9. Inability to conceive: Some STDs can cause infertility and so inability to conceive may require ruling out STDs

  10. A Manifestation of symptoms: For more severe conditions like HIV, the symptoms manifest after a long time and include general symptoms of immunosuppression like fatigue, tiredness and slowly develop specific symptoms like oral candidiasis and other infections.

When in doubt, do not hesitate to get yourself or your partner tested. There is no reason for embarrassment and avoiding tests in the early days can prove very dear if the disease progresses to advanced stages.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3324 people found this helpful

HIV In Women - Common Health Problems That They Face!

Dr. D G Saple 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Dermatology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
HIV In Women - Common Health Problems That They Face!

People who suffer from Human Immunodeficiency Virus, commonly known as 'HIV', are known as HIV positive people. The virus is the agent of AIDS that is currently incurable. HIV is known to alter the human immune system and makes people much more susceptible and vulnerable to diseases and infections. 

Body fluids such as semen, blood, breast milk, vaginal fluids etc. of an infected individual contains the virus, which can be passed from one person to another during blood-to-blood and/or sexual contact. HIV positive women may even pass on this virus to their children during pregnancy, delivery or by breast feeding them. HIV is also transmitted during oral, anal or vaginal sex, by contaminated hypodermic needles and by blood transfusion. 

Mentioned below are a few issues that a HIV positive woman have to face apart from discrimination and stigma, fear of infecting their children or partners, violence and abandonment. 

  1. Menstrual Disorders: Changes in menstrual cycles are frequently reported by HIV infected women. However, menstrual dysfunctions are due to varied reasons that aren't directly related to the disease. Although most of the HIV positive women suffer from amenorrhea i.e. the unusual absence of periods, it is not just due to HIV but also because of weight loss or immunosuppression
  2. Contraception: It is very important that the contraception a HIV positive woman chooses not only acts as birth control, but also to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Although condoms do not provide exceptional pregnancy prevention, they are excellent at preventing transmission of the HIV virus. Permanent sterilization is usually the most chosen contraceptive method for HIV serodiscordant couples.
  3. Surgical Complications: HIV positive women are at a higher risk of undergoing gynecologic surgery. This is because they are more vulnerable to pelvic infectious disease that requires surgical intervention. There is also a greater risk of developing vulvar cancer in HIV positive women. 
  4. Fertility: There has been an increase in the number of seropositive women contemplating pregnancy and childbirth. Most couples resort to assisted reproduction to lower the risk of horizontal HIV transmission. Studies show that undergoing HIV treatment and having an undetectable viral load is helpful in preventing the transmission of HIV. It is important to consult a medical expert if you are unable to get pregnant after at least 6 months of trying. Fertility problems are more common in HIV positive women than HIV negative women.

Issues for HIV Positive Women

Dr. Meenu Goyal 88% (636 ratings)
DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Issues for HIV Positive Women

People who suffer from Human Immunodeficiency Virus, commonly known as 'HIV', are known as HIV positive people. The virus is the agent of AIDS that is currently incurable. HIV is known to alter the human immune system and makes people much more susceptible and vulnerable to diseases and infections. 

Body fluids such as semen, blood, breast milk, vaginal fluids etc. of an infected individual contains the virus, which can be passed from one person to another during blood-to-blood and/or sexual contact. HIV positive women may even pass on this virus to their children during pregnancy, delivery or by breast feeding them. HIV is also transmitted during oral, anal or vaginal sex, by contaminated hypodermic needles and by blood transfusion. 

Mentioned below are a few issues that a HIV positive woman have to face apart from discrimination and stigma, fear of infecting their children or partners, violence and abandonment. 

  1. Menstrual Disorders: Changes in menstrual cycles are frequently reported by HIV infected women. However, menstrual dysfunctions are due to varied reasons that aren't directly related to the disease. Although most of the HIV positive women suffer from amenorrhea i.e. the unusual absence of periods, it is not just due to HIV but also because of weight loss or immunosuppression
  2. Contraception: It is very important that the contraception a HIV positive woman chooses not only acts as birth control, but also to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Although condoms do not provide exceptional pregnancy prevention, they are excellent at preventing transmission of the HIV virus. Permanent sterilization is usually the most chosen contraceptive method for HIV serodiscordant couples.
  3. Surgical Complications: HIV positive women are at a higher risk of undergoing gynecologic surgery. This is because they are more vulnerable to pelvic infectious disease that requires surgical intervention. There is also a greater risk of developing vulvar cancer in HIV positive women. 
  4. Fertility: There has been an increase in the number of seropositive women contemplating pregnancy and childbirth. Most couples resort to assisted reproduction to lower the risk of horizontal HIV transmission. Studies show that undergoing HIV treatment and having an undetectable viral load is helpful in preventing the transmission of HIV. It is important to consult a medical expert if you are unable to get pregnant after at least 6 months of trying. Fertility problems are more common in HIV positive women than HIV negative women.
3324 people found this helpful

HIV Positive Women - 4 Associated Issues

Dr. Yashica 91% (191 ratings)
MBBS, DNB - Obstetrics and Gynecology, DGO
Gynaecologist, Delhi
HIV Positive Women - 4 Associated Issues

People who have the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, commonly known as 'HIV', are known as HIV positive people. The virus is the agent of AIDS that is currently incurable. HIV is known to alter the human immune system and makes people much more susceptible and vulnerable to diseases and infections. Body fluids such as semen, blood, breast milk, vaginal fluids etc. of an infected individual contain the virus which can be passed from one person to another during blood-to-blood and/or sexual contact. HIV positive women may even pass on this virus to their children during pregnancy, delivery or by breastfeeding them. HIV is also transmitted during oral, anal or vaginal sex, by contaminated hypodermic needles and by blood transfusion. 
Mentioned below are a few issues that an HIV positive woman has to face apart from discrimination and stigma, fear of infecting their children or partners, violence and abandonment. 

1. Menstrual Disorders: Changes in menstrual cycles are frequently reported by HIV infected women. However, menstrual dysfunctions are due to varied reasons that aren't directly related to the disease. Although most of the HIV positive women suffer from amenorrhea i.e. the unusual absence of periods, it is not just due to HIV but also because of weight loss or immunosuppression.  

2. Contraception: It is very important that the contraception an HIV positive woman chooses not only acts as birth control but also to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Although condoms do not provide exceptional pregnancy prevention, they are excellent at preventing transmission of the HIV virus. Permanent sterilization is usually the most chosen contraceptive method for HIV serodiscordant couples.

3. Surgical Complications: HIV positive women are at a higher risk of undergoing gynecologic surgery. This is because they are more vulnerable to pelvic infectious disease that requires surgical intervention. There is also a greater risk of developing vulval cancer in HIV positive women. 

4. Fertility: There has been an increase in the number of seropositive women contemplating pregnancy and childbirth. Most couples resort to assisted reproduction to lower the risk of horizontal HIV transmission. Studies show that undergoing HIV treatment and having an undetectable viral load is helpful in preventing the transmission of HIV. It is important to consult a medical expert if you are unable to get pregnant after at least 6 months of trying. Fertility problems are more common in HIV positive women than HIV negative women. 

4353 people found this helpful

Cancer Treatment Through Alternative Medicine!

Dr. Jagjeet Singh Parwana 83% (93 ratings)
MBBS, Ph.D. Alternative Medicine
Alternative Medicine Specialist, Patiala
Cancer Treatment Through Alternative Medicine!

Cancer is becoming the disease of modern times as with changing lifestyles, more and more people are developing this disease. Research has shown up multiple options, but these options are not without side effects. Cases of immunosuppression, weight loss, hair loss, etc., are just a few of them. Therefore, there is constant work being done to identify alternate methods of arresting cancer and preventing it.

While these alternate methods do not help in curing cancer, they definitely help in managing the signs and symptoms of cancer. This makes a lot of sense as even with conventional treatments, beyond a certain point, chemotherapy only helps in palliation and is not a complete cure.

  1. Acupuncture: This practice of inserting needles at specific points in the body helps in relieving nausea caused by cancer and also helps improve pain to a large extent. However, this should not be used in people who are on anticoagulants and have poor platelet count. Getting an experienced person to do it is also very essential.
  2. Exercise: The chronic fatigue, which sets in with cancer, can be greatly reduced by regular exercise. Talk to a private physician to identify what would work for you, taking into account overall status and plan accordingly. This will also improve sleep patterns and your overall quality of life.
  3. Hypnosis: For extreme stress and anxiety induced by cancer, hypnosis is a good option. It helps calm the mind and soothes the body to relax completely. It also helps in reducing the nausea and vomiting that is often associated with chemotherapy.
  4. Ayurveda: Ayurveda has multiple proven substances, which are known to detox the system and control cancer growth cells.
  5. Massage: Superficial and deep massage have definite benefits in chemotherapy. This relieves the muscle tension and stress associated with chemotherapy. Specific conditions like bone condition, pain type, etc., have to be taken into account before planning for this. Also invest in a good experience personnel to do this, as wrong hands may cause more damage.
  6. Meditation: The deep breathing and relaxation that happens with meditation helps control stress and anxiety in people with cancer. The advantage is that it can be done by the person at any time, anywhere, without investing in any equipment.
  7. Yoga: By combining body movements with relaxation techniques, yoga does wonders for the body. It improves agility, improves mental alertness, controls anxiety, improves metabolism, and is an effective detoxification method. A good yoga instructor can help in designing the right program to get the maximum benefits.
  8. Music therapy: Whether it is simple listening to music, writing songs, or playing an instrument, music has its healing powers. Having a group also helps as a form of supportive therapy. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
3471 people found this helpful

Complete Adult Immunization Schedule!

Dr. Rohini Dhillon 92% (505 ratings)
PGDMCH, MBA( CHA) , MBBS
General Physician, Gurgaon
Complete Adult Immunization Schedule!

If you think that immunisation is only for your infant, then you are living in a fool’s paradise. It’s a life-long process. You are never too old for this. It is a life-protecting job. You must get all your immunisation done in time to be protected against fatal diseases.

Here are some of the most common vaccines given to adults:

  1. Hepatitis A (Hep A): You should take this vaccine if you are exposed to a specific risk factor for hepatitis A virus infection. You may also opt for this to be simply protected from this disease. The vaccine is usually given in two doses. It should be given 6-18 months apart.
  2. Hepatitis B (Hep B): You will need this if you are exposed to a specific risk factor for hepatitis B virus infection. You may take it simply if you want to be protected from this disease. The vaccine is given in three doses over a period of six months.
  3. Human papillomavirus: This vaccine is given to women, who are 26 years of age or younger. In the case of men, the upper limit for age is 22. It can also be given to a man with risk factor in the age group 22 to 26. It is given in three doses over a period of six months.
  4. Influenza: It is a must for every individual. It should be given a dose every winter. It will not only provide protection to the immunised person, but also to others surrounding him.
  5. Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR): You may require at least a single dose of this vaccine if you were born after 1975.
  6. Meningococcal (MenACWY [MCV4], MenB, MPSV4): You may need MenACWY and/or MenB vaccine if you have been suffering from certain health conditions. It is given to adults who are not having a functioning spleen.
  7. Pneumococcal (Pneumovax [polysaccharide vaccine, PPSV]; Prevnar [conjugate vaccine] PCV): You will have to get both pneumococcal vaccines, Prevnar (if you haven’t had it before) and Pneumovax, if you are more than 65 years of age. You will have protection from diseases like asthma, heart, and lung, or kidney disease, immunosuppression. It is best to consult your doctor before injecting such vaccines.
  8. Tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough (pertussis) (Tdap, Td): It must be given to all adults who have not got a dose of Tdap in adolescence. It is a must for pregnant women. You need a Td booster once in every 10 years.
  9. Varicella (Chickenpox): If you’ve never been exposed chickenpox or got vaccinated after receiving 1 dose, you must talk to your doctor to know when and what you should take.
  10. Zoster (shingles): If you are 60-year-old or above, you must definitely get a 1-time dose.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3507 people found this helpful

HIV-Positive Women Face Many Challenges!

Dr. Ajay Kumar Pujala 86% (141 ratings)
FHM Fellowship In HIV Medicine, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
HIV-Positive Women Face Many Challenges!

People who have the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, commonly known as 'HIV', are known as HIV positive people. The virus is the agent of AIDS that is currently incurable. HIV is known to alter the human immune system and makes people much more susceptible and vulnerable to diseases and infections. Body fluids such as semen, blood, breast milk, vaginal fluids etc. of an infected individual contains the virus which can be passed from one person to another during blood-to-blood and/or sexual contact. HIV positive women may even pass on this virus to their children during pregnancy, delivery or by breast feeding them. HIV is also transmitted during oral, anal or vaginal sex, by contaminated hypodermic needles and by blood transfusion. 
Mentioned below are a few issues that a HIV positive woman has to face apart from discrimination and stigma, fear of infecting their children or partners, violence and abandonment. 

  1. Menstrual Disorders: Changes in menstrual cycles are frequently reported by HIV infected women. However, menstrual dysfunctions are due to varied reasons that aren't directly related to the disease. Although most of the HIV positive women suffer from amenorrhea i.e. the unusual absence of periods, it is not just due to HIV but also because of weight loss or immunosuppression.  
  2. Contraception: It is very important that the contraception a HIV positive woman chooses not only acts as birth control but also to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Although condoms do not provide exceptional pregnancy prevention, they are excellent at preventing transmission of the HIV virus. Permanent sterilization is usually the most chosen contraceptive method for HIV serodiscordant couples.
  3. Surgical Complications: HIV positive women are at a higher risk of undergoing gynecologic surgery. This is because they are more vulnerable to pelvic infectious disease that requires surgical intervention. There is also a greater risk of developing vulval cancer in HIV positive women. 
  4. Fertility: There has been an increase in the number of seropositive women contemplating pregnancy and childbirth. Most couples resort to assisted reproduction to lower the risk of horizontal HIV transmission. Studies show that undergoing HIV treatment and having an undetectable viral load is helpful in preventing the transmission of HIV. It is important to consult a medical expert if you are unable to get pregnant after at least 6 months of trying. Fertility problems are more common in HIV positive women than HIV negative women. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3489 people found this helpful
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