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Hyperprolactinemia Tips

Don't Play With Your Menstrual Cycle(must Read For Indian Females)

Dr. Rajesh Suthar 90% (775 ratings)
BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
Don't Play With Your Menstrual Cycle(must Read For Indian Females)

Indian women are taught to follow rituals in a fanatic way by religion. They have to flexible all time in all situations according to the need of a family.

Many women are taking pills to alter the duration of menstrual cycle to attend or participate in yagya, poojapath, vidhis etc
 
Some girls taking pills take pills before planning sexual relations or before traveling etc

Now the question is what's wrong in taking few pills.
Menstrual cycle is regularised by a correct balance between some hormones (estrogen, progesterone, fsh, lh, tsh etc). These pills disturb these exact balance in females. When I say balance, this balance is like a house of cards, you are moving one card only but affecting other cards without touching them. This same can happen in your body after playing with menses.


Irregular cycle
Obesity
Dub (dysfunctional uterine bleeding)
Psychic disorders
Hyperprolactinemia
Uterine disorders
Ovarian disorders etc

Above diseases may target who takes or have to take pills to alter the duration of menses.

My request to feminine world is saying no to all hormonal pills
No occasion is bigger than your health. God has sent you on earth as woman only.
A menstruating woman is not allowed in rituals procedure because during this time female are weak and in pain so one can not concentrate.

2 people found this helpful

All About Nipple Discharge

Dr. Namita Mehta 91% (577 ratings)
MD-Gynaecologist & Obstetrician , MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
All About Nipple Discharge

Nipple discharge is a common part of breast functioning, which normally occurs during breast-feeding or pregnancy. It is often associated with the changes of menstrual hormone. The milky discharge post breast-feeding usually continues for up to two years after stopping nursing. The condition normally gets resolved on its own but if the situation persists for a long time resort to medical assistance.

The following are some of the causes of normal nipple discharge:

  • Stimulation: Normal nipple discharge can arise due to stimulation; chafing of your breast skin due to tight bras or vigorous exercises.
  • Pregnancy: Most women tend to witness clear nipple discharge in the early stages of their pregnancy. Towards the later stages, this discharge usually turns watery and becomes milky in color
  • Stopped Breast-feeding: In some cases, nipple discharge continues for some time after the mother has stopped breast-feeding her newborn
  • Hormonal Imbalance: Some women notice tenderness in breasts and nipple discharge during their menstrual cycle

What is an abnormal nipple discharge: An abnormal nipple discharge is usually bloody in color and is accompanied with tenderness of the breast. Papilloma is a non-cancerous tumor that is often responsible for bloody nipple discharge. Continuous nipple discharge from one of the breasts or nipple discharge that arises without any stimulation or external irritation is abnormal in nature.

The possible causes of abnormal nipple discharge include:

  1. Abscess: It is an assortment of pus that get accumulated within the tissues of your body. It is usually accompanied by redness, pain and swelling. Boils and carbuncles are types of abscess. Formation of abscess in breasts may result in nipple discharge.
  2. Breast cancer: Breast cancer often results in bloody nipple discharge and is often found with a presence of lump in one of the breasts.
  3. Mastitis: It is a breast infection that affects the tissues of the breast and is usually prominent during breastfeeding. Fatigue, fever and body aches are common in this situation.
  4. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Normally characterized by the growth of cancerous cells in the milk ducts of your breasts, it is generally identified through mammography screening.
  5. Fibroadenoma: In this situation most young women witness an appearance of solid, tumor like structure
  6. Galactorrhea: Galactorrhea is nipple discharge of milk when not pregnant or breastfeeding. The discharge can vary in color and can be expressed from either or both breasts.

What Causes Galactorrhea: Galactorrhea is commonly caused by hyperprolactinemia, especially when it is associated with amenorrhea. Hyperprolactinemia is most often induced by medication or associated with pituitary adenomas or other sellar or suprasellar lesions.

The release of prolactin from the pituitary is held in check by dopamine from the hypothalamus. Prolactin release is encouraged by serotonin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. This balance can be disrupted by medication (ie. antipsychotics), underactive thyroid function, pituitary tumors, hypothalamic tumors, damage to the pituitary stalk, nipple stimulation, chest trauma, herpes zoster, and emotional stress as well as a variety of other factors.

3138 people found this helpful

Nipple Discharge - 4 Common Causes

Dr. Anuradha Khurana 91% (163 ratings)
MBBS, DGO
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Nipple Discharge - 4 Common Causes

Nipple discharge is a common part of breast functioning, which normally occurs during breast-feeding or pregnancy. It is often associated with the changes of menstrual hormone. The milky discharge post breast-feeding usually continues for up to two years after stopping nursing. The condition normally gets resolved on its own but if the situation persists for a long time resort to medical assistance.

The following are some of the causes of normal nipple discharge:
- Stimulation: Normal nipple discharge can arise due to stimulation; chafing of your breast skin due to tight bras or vigorous exercises.
- Pregnancy: Most women tend to witness clear nipple discharge in the early stages of their pregnancy. Towards the later stages, this discharge usually turns watery and becomes milky in color
- Stopped Breast-feeding: In some cases, nipple discharge continues for some time after the mother has stopped breast-feeding her newborn
- Hormonal Imbalance: Some women notice tenderness in breasts and nipple discharge during their menstrual cycle

What is an abnormal nipple discharge?
An abnormal nipple discharge is usually bloody in color and is accompanied with tenderness of the breast. Papilloma is a non-cancerous tumor that is often responsible for bloody nipple discharge. Continuous nipple discharge from one of the breasts or nipple discharge that arises without any stimulation or external irritation is abnormal in nature.

The possible causes of abnormal nipple discharge include:

1. Abscess- It is an assortment of pus that get accumulated within the tissues of your body. It is usually accompanied by redness, pain and swelling. Boils and carbuncles are types of abscess. Formation of abscess in breasts may result in nipple discharge.

2. Breast cancer- Breast cancer often results in bloody nipple discharge and is often found with a presence of lump in one of the breasts.

3. Mastitis- It is a breast infection that affects the tissues of the breast and is usually prominent during breastfeeding. Fatigue, fever and body aches are common in this situation.

4. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)- Normally characterized by the growth of cancerous cells in the milk ducts of your breasts, it is generally identified through mammography screening.

5. Fibroadenoma- In this situation most young women witness an appearance of solid, tumor like structure

6.Galactorrhea- Galactorrhea is nipple discharge of milk when not pregnant or breastfeeding. The discharge can vary in color and can be expressed from either or both breasts.

What Causes Galactorrhea?
Galactorrhea is commonly caused by hyperprolactinemia, especially when it is associated with amenorrhea. Hyperprolactinemia is most often induced by medication or associated with pituitary adenomas or other sellar or suprasellar lesions.

The release of prolactin from the pituitary is held in check by dopamine from the hypothalamus. Prolactin release is encouraged by serotonin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. This balance can be disrupted by medication (ie. antipsychotics), underactive thyroid function, pituitary tumors, hypothalamic tumors, damage to the pituitary stalk, nipple stimulation, chest trauma, herpes zoster, and emotional stress as well as a variety of other factors. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

4711 people found this helpful

Different Reasons for Infertility in Females & Males

Dr. Nupur Gupta 91% (280 ratings)
MICOG, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Gurgaon
Different Reasons for Infertility in Females & Males

Infertility refers to the inability to conceive after having regular unprotected sex for a period of 12 months or so. The complex process of ovulation and fertilization need to work right in order to become pregnant.

The common reasons that cause infertility in female and male are listed below:

Reasons for female infertility:

  1. Uterine abnormalities - This includes problems related to the opening of cervix or abnormalities in the shape of the uterus which includes arcuate or septate uterus or any congenital anomalies like bicornuate uterus or uterine didelphys. Fibroids may distort the uterine cavity interfering with implantation of fertilized egg. Adenomyosis or endometriosis of the endometrium is one the common causes of early infertility.
  2. Thyroid problems - Disorders of the thyroid gland, either too much thyroid hormone or too little can interrupt the menstrual cycle, leading to infertility in the long run.
  3. Ovulation disorders - This prevents the ovaries from releasing eggs. Examples include hormonal disorder (PCOS, hypothyroidism, hyperprolactinemia), excessive exercise, eating disorders, injuries, cysts be it follicular or endometriotic and ovarian tumors.

Reasons for male infertility:

  1. Problems with delivery of sperm - This can happen due to sexual problems, such as premature ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation (semen entering bladder instead of emerging through the penis during orgasm), genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, structural problems such as blockage of the part of the testicle that contains sperm or injury to reproductive organs.
  2. Damage related to cancer - This includes radiation and chemotherapy. Cancer treatments can impair sperm production. Removal of one testicle due to cancer may also affect male fertility.
  3. Abnormal sperm production - This can be due to various problems like undescended testicles, genetic defects, health problems including diabetes, infections such as mumps, chronic urinary tract infection especially e. Coli or surgeries on the testicles. Enlarged veins in the testes increase blood flow and heat, affecting the number and shape of sperm.
4358 people found this helpful

Common Cause of Infertility in Females

Dr. Richika Sahay Shukla 92% (808 ratings)
DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Common Cause of Infertility in Females

Common Cause of Infertility in Females

For pregnancy to occur, every part of the complex human reproduction process has to take place just right. The steps in this process are as follows:

  • One of the two ovaries releases a mature egg.
  • The egg is picked up by the fallopian tube.
  • Sperm swim up the cervix, through the uterus and into the fallopian tube to reach the egg for fertilization.
  • The fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus.
  • The fertilized egg implants and grows in the uterus.

In women, a number of factors can disrupt this process at any step. Female infertility is caused by one or more of these factors.

Ovulation disorders

Ovulation disorders, meaning you ovulate infrequently or not at all, account for infertility in about 25 percent of infertile couples. These can be caused by flaws in the regulation of reproductive hormones by the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland, or by problems in the ovary itself.

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In PCOS, complex changes occur in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and ovaries, resulting in a hormone imbalance, which affects ovulation. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and obesity, abnormal hair growth on the face or body, and acne. It’s the most common cause of female infertility.
  • Hypothalamic dysfunction. The two hormones responsible for stimulating ovulation each month — follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) — are produced by the pituitary gland in a specific pattern during the menstrual cycle. Excess physical or emotional stress, a very high or very low body weight, or a recent substantial weight gain or loss can disrupt this pattern and affect ovulation. The main sign of this problem is irregular or absent periods.
  • Premature ovarian insufficiency. This disorder is usually caused by an autoimmune response where your body mistakenly attacks ovarian tissues or by premature loss of eggs from your ovary due to genetic problems or environmental insults such as chemotherapy. It results in the loss of the ability to produce eggs by the ovary, as well as a decreased estrogen production under the age of 40.
  • Too much prolactin. Less commonly, the pituitary gland can cause excess production of prolactin (hyperprolactinemia), which reduces estrogen production and may cause infertility. Most commonly this is due to a problem in the pituitary gland, but it can also be related to medications you’re taking for another disease.

Common Cause of Infertility in Females

Dr. Richika Sahay Shukla 92% (808 ratings)
DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Common Cause of Infertility in Females

Common Cause of Infertility in Females

For pregnancy to occur, every part of the complex human reproduction process has to take place just right. The steps in this process are as follows:

  • One of the two ovaries releases a mature egg.
  • The egg is picked up by the fallopian tube.
  • Sperm swim up the cervix, through the uterus and into the fallopian tube to reach the egg for fertilization.
  • The fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus.
  • The fertilized egg implants and grows in the uterus.

In women, a number of factors can disrupt this process at any step. Female infertility is caused by one or more of these factors.

Ovulation disorders

Ovulation disorders, meaning you ovulate infrequently or not at all, account for infertility in about 25 percent of infertile couples. These can be caused by flaws in the regulation of reproductive hormones by the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland, or by problems in the ovary itself.

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).In PCOS, complex changes occur in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and ovaries, resulting in a hormone imbalance, which affects ovulation. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and obesity, abnormal hair growth on the face or body, and acne. It’s the most common cause of female infertility.
  • Hypothalamic dysfunction.The two hormones responsible for stimulating ovulation each month — follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) — are produced by the pituitary gland in a specific pattern during the menstrual cycle. Excess physical or emotional stress, a very high or very low body weight, or a recent substantial weight gain or loss can disrupt this pattern and affect ovulation. The main sign of this problem is irregular or absent periods.
  • Premature ovarian insufficiency.This disorder is usually caused by an autoimmune response where your body mistakenly attacks ovarian tissues or by premature loss of eggs from your ovary due to genetic problems or environmental insults such as chemotherapy. It results in the loss of the ability to produce eggs by the ovary, as well as a decreased estrogen production under the age of 40.
  • Too much prolactin.Less commonly, the pituitary gland can cause excess production of prolactin (hyperprolactinemia), which reduces estrogen production and may cause infertility. Most commonly this is due to a problem in the pituitary gland, but it can also be related to medications you’re taking for another disease.

          If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an IVF Specialist.

2 people found this helpful

Irregular Periods - When To See A Gynaecologist?

Miracles Healthcare 91% (257 ratings)
MBBS
Gynaecologist, Gurgaon
Irregular Periods - When To See A Gynaecologist?

Missing out on your periods or irregular periods once in a while is common. However, the problem arises when irregular periods become every month’s story. The irregularity can be an amalgamation of a host of factors. Ignoring the same for long will only complicate things further. For women of reproductive age, the problem can give rise to deleterious consequences, including difficulties in conceiving. In this article, we will discuss some of the common triggers that result in irregular periods and when to seek medical help.

What causes Irregular Periods?
The hormonal balance plays a significant role in the proper functioning of the vital organs of the body. More than often, irregular periods are found to be a manifestation of hormonal imbalance. Some of the conditions that trigger the hormonal imbalance include

  • PCO is a common medical condition that affects women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by the formation of cysts in the ovary (one or both) that affects the ovulation process. In PCOS, there is an increased production of Androgen, especially Testosterone that can cause irregular periods, hair fall, facial hair, weight gain etc.

  • Time and again doctors and health professionals emphasize the importance of leading a stress-free life. Research suggests stress and anxiety often interfere with the functioning of the Hypothalamus. As a result, the pituitary glands that control and regulate the activities of the ovaries, adrenal glands, and thyroid glands may be affected. These can also trigger a hormonal imbalance giving rise to menstrual problems such as Irregular periods. In case of extreme stress, there may be a short-term cessation of periods (Secondary Amenorrhea).

  • The hormonal imbalance and irregular periods can also be an outcome of other medical conditions such as endometriosis, a cancer affecting the reproductive organs, fibroids, obesity, diabetes, hyperprolactinemia (characterized by elevated level of prolactin) or even thyroid disorders.

  • Women who indulge in strict dieting can also suffer from irregular periods. Strict dieting (especially the ones that are without a proper nutritional guidance) can rob the body of the essential nutrients disrupting the hormonal balance.

  • Irregular periods are normal in women who are nearing their menopause.

When to seek medical assistance?
Irregular periods can be indicative of a severe health problem. Consult a gynecologist

  • If your regular cycles get delayed by more than 7 days.

  • There is spotting or bleeding in between the periods.

  • Your periods last for more than ten days or less than two days.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

  • There is excruciating pain during periods.

  • The gap between two successive menstrual cycles is more than 35 days or less than 21 days.

  • Your periods are heavy and unmanageable, affecting your daily routine.

4216 people found this helpful

Reasons Behind Infertility in Women!

Dr. Anju Sharma 87% (58 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Agra
Reasons Behind Infertility in Women!

The inability to conceive after indulging in unprotected sex is known as infertility. It can also be referred to the biological incapability of a male to cause the conception or a woman being unable to carry the pregnancy for full-term. Research has shown that female problems contribute to over half of all the infertility cases while a majority of the other causes include sperm disorders.

Treatment of infertility depends on:

  1. Cause of Infertility
  2. Duration of Infertility
  3. Age of both partners
  4. Personal preferences

Causes:
Causes of infertility in women include:
1. Ovulation disorders: This is regarded as the most common cause of infertility in women. The disorders can be caused due to the following

2. Problems in fallopian tubes or uterus: Abnormalities in the uterus or fallopian tubes render the woman incapable of conceiving naturally. This might be due to:

3. Medications: There is a possibility that treatment will cure infertility. Examples include NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy. Treatment of infertility might involve a significant amount of psychological, physical, temporal and financial commitments. In men, treatment is done to treat lack of healthy sperm or general sexual problems. The treatments include:

  1. Medications
  2. Surgery
  3. Change in lifestyle
  4. Sperm retrieval

Even though it is possible to restore fertility in women using only one or two therapies, a number of treatments might be required before conception is possible. Some of these treatments include:

  1. Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
  2. Stimulation of ovulation with fertility drugs
  3. Surgery to restore fertility

In situations where pregnancy does not happen spontaneously, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) can be used by couples to achieve pregnancy. It is a form of fertility treatment which involves the handling of sperm and egg. The entire ART team consists of psychologists, physicians, embryologists, nurses and lab technicians.

One common ART technique is In vitro fertilization (IVF). It is a process where an egg and sperms are manually combined in a laboratory dish, followed by transfer of embryo to the uterus. Some aspects involved in an IVF cycle are:

  1. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
  2. Assisted hatching
  3. Donor eggs or sperm
  4. Gestational carrier

Some complications that may occur during the treatment of infertility are:

  1. Multiple pregnancy
  2. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
2357 people found this helpful

Infertility In Men And Women - What Really Causes It?

Dr. Amol Lunkad 85% (14 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Pune
Infertility In Men And Women - What Really Causes It?

What causes infertility?

It is important to understand what fertility is for a person or couple to know when it is time to seek help. Infertility refers to the inability to conceive after having regular unprotected sex for a period of 12 months or so. The complex process of ovulation and fertilization need to work right in order to become pregnant.

The common disorders that cause infertility in male and female are listed below:

Causes of male infertility

1. Abnormal sperm production

This can be due to various problems like undescended testicles, genetic defects, health problems including diabetes, infections such as mumps, chronic urinary tract infection especially e. Coli or surgeries on the testicles. Enlarged veins in the testes increase blood flow and heat, affecting the number and shape of sperm.

2. Problems with delivery of sperm

This can happen due to sexual problems, such as premature ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation (semen entering bladder instead of emerging through the penis during orgasm), genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, structural problems such as blockage of the part of the testicle that contains sperm or injury to reproductive organs.

3. Overexposure to certain chemicals and toxins

These can include radiation, pesticides, tobacco smoke, alcohol, marijuana and steroids. Frequent exposure to heat can also elevate the testicular temperature, impairing sperm production.


4. Damage related to cancer

This includes radiation and chemotherapy. Cancer treatments can impair sperm production. Removal of one testicle due to cancer may also affect male fertility.

Causes of female infertility

1. Ovulation disorders

This prevents the ovaries from releasing eggs. Examples include hormonal disorder (PCOS, hypothyroidism, hyperprolactinemia), excessive exercise, eating disorders, injuries, cysts be it follicular or endometriotic and ovarian tumors.

2. Uterine abnormalities

This includes problems related to the opening of cervix or abnormalities in the shape of the uterus which includes arcuate or septate uterus or any congenital anomalies like bicornuate uterus or uterine didelphys. Fibroids may distort the uterine cavity interfering with implantation of fertilized egg. Adenomyosis or endometriosis of the endometrium is one the common causes of early infertility.

3. Fallopian tube damage

This usually results from infection of the fallopian tube by a pelvic inflammatory disease caused by sexually transmitted infection, endometriosis or adhesions.

4. Thyroid problems

Disorders of the thyroid gland, either too much thyroid hormone or too little can interrupt the menstrual cycle, leading to infertility in the long run.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3620 people found this helpful

Infertility in Women - Know The Top 3 Reasons Behind It!

Dr. Apoorva Pallam Reddy 94% (225 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Gynaecologist, Bangalore
Infertility in Women - Know The Top 3 Reasons Behind It!

The inability to conceive after indulging in unprotected sex is known as infertility. It can also be referred to the biological incapability of a male to cause the conception or a woman being unable to carry the pregnancy for full-term. Research has shown that female problems contribute to over half of all the infertility cases while a majority of the other causes include sperm disorders.

Treatment of infertility depends on:

  1. Cause of Infertility
  2. Duration of Infertility
  3. Age of both partners
  4. Personal preferences

Causes:
Causes of infertility in women include:
1. Ovulation disorders: This is regarded as the most common cause of infertility in women. The disorders can be caused due to the following

2. Problems in fallopian tubes or uterus: Abnormalities in the uterus or fallopian tubes render the woman incapable of conceiving naturally. This might be due to:

3. Medications: There is a possibility that treatment will cure infertility. Examples include NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy. Treatment of infertility might involve a significant amount of psychological, physical, temporal and financial commitments. In men, treatment is done to treat lack of healthy sperm or general sexual problems. The treatments include:

  1. Medications
  2. Surgery
  3. Change in lifestyle
  4. Sperm retrieval

Even though it is possible to restore fertility in women using only one or two therapies, a number of treatments might be required before conception is possible. Some of these treatments include:

  1. Intrauterine insemination (IUI)
  2. Stimulation of ovulation with fertility drugs
  3. Surgery to restore fertility

In situations where pregnancy does not happen spontaneously, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) can be used by couples to achieve pregnancy. It is a form of fertility treatment which involves the handling of sperm and egg. The entire ART team consists of psychologists, physicians, embryologists, nurses and lab technicians.

One common ART technique is In vitro fertilization (IVF). It is a process where an egg and sperms are manually combined in a laboratory dish, followed by transfer of embryo to the uterus. Some aspects involved in an IVF cycle are:

  1. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
  2. Assisted hatching
  3. Donor eggs or sperm
  4. Gestational carrier

Some complications that may occur during the treatment of infertility are:

  1. Multiple pregnancy
  2. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.

2526 people found this helpful
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