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Cancer - Know Vital Test For It!

Cancer - Know Vital Test For It!

Oncology deals with treating cancer after you have been diagnosed with the condition. However, preventive oncology is a specialized branch of oncology, where the aim is to prevent cancer in your body. Michael Shimkin from the University of California coined the term preventive oncology in 1975, for the science of primary and secondary prevention of cancer in the human body.

Prevention of cancer depends on the factors responsible. One of the primary causes is viral infections – responsible for 17% of cancer cases around the world. Amongst them, the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is one of the leading causes of cervical and anogenital cancers

HPV and cancer

HPV is a common reproductive virus, mainly found in women after they engage in sexual intercourse. Even though such infections are common, you will not be able to feel any symptoms from the infection. Within 2 years, the infection clears off without the need for any treatment. However, if the infection persists, women may develop cervical pre-cancer. At this stage, without any preventive measures, the condition will progress to cervical cancer later in life.

In most cases, HPV infections take around 10 years to progress into a cancer of the cervix. Therefore, preventing HPV infections can help prevent cervical cancers. HPV vaccines can help avoid such infections. Furthermore, engaging in safe sexual encounters is key to avoiding HPV and preventing increased risk of cervical cancer.

Tests that help make preventive oncology possible

Since in preventive oncology the aim is to determine the risk of cancer in the body and reduce those risks, special tests are necessary to look for pointers of cancer.

Liquid-based cytology (LBC)- This is a relatively newer diagnostic test for cervical cancer. Here the cytological samples are collected in liquid vials, instead of slides. A slide is later prepared at the lab. LBC reduces the number of slides required for the test and increases the sensitivity to the test. Furthermore, it enhances the ability of smear readers.

Digene HC2 test- This is the new favourite cancer prevention diagnostic test. It can successfully screen a patient against the presence of 13-high risk HPV strains. These types of virus are carcinogenic and responsible for cervical cancer. The test uses advanced Hybrid Capture 2 technology to detect the presence of specific HPV types. Both of these tests are essential in the prevention of cervical cancer in your body. Speak to your oncologist today about preventative measures, if you think you have HPV infections.

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HPV Vaccine - Know Vital Information About It!

HPV Vaccine - Know Vital Information About It!

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is one the most common sexually transmitted virus and an HPV vaccination protect you against this virus. It is estimated that HP infects at least 50% of the population during their sexually active phase. Although the virus is not a deadly type of a virus as it goes away on its own, in some cases, it can lead to anal, throat cancers and genital warts as well.

The common vaccine
Gardasil is the common form of HPV vaccine that is routinely given for such conditions. It is given to people who’re between the age group of 9 and 26. HPV vaccine is not fool-proof as these don’t work effectively against all types of HPV. But, these vaccines are effective against the high-risk strains that account for nearly 75% of all cervical cancers. The vaccine is also effective against the cancer of the vagina and vulva.

The correct dose
The vaccine has a virus-like strain but it is not the actual virus. The patient is given three doses over a period of six months, and there are no side effects associated with it, apart from giddiness and instances of fainting spells (in some cases). However, these are only passing phases and should disappear in some time.

Small facts
It’s always advisable that you consult a well-trusted doctor before going for one of such vaccines. Thanks to marketing gimmicks, many people can be misguided into this, so it’s always better to know if you’re the right person for this or not. Check your report with a doctor, and then decide. Recently, Gardasil 9 was approved by the medical associations and this strain of vaccine is far more effective than its counterparts.

Know the age factor
Ideally, the vaccine should be endorsed for the population at the ages 11 to 12. It is advisable to give the vaccine at a young age, before the sexual activity of a person starts or the start of the puberty.

Gender talk
Gardasil vaccine can be given to women till they reach the age of 25 or 26 and in case they are not exposed to the vaccine at an early stage. Gardasil vaccination is also effective for men in the age group of 9 to 25 and it helps in the prevention of genital warts which is the most common STI among men.

Prevent cancer?
Gardasil has also been used in the prevention of cancer. It should be noted that the vaccinations are not an exact cure for HPV but it minimizes the chances. It also doesn’t mean that women can skip the Pap smear tests once they are vaccinated that are used to rule out the chances of cervical cancer.

Above all the vaccination should not be taken without consulting your gynaecologist

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HPV Vaccination - Everything You Should Be Aware About!

HPV Vaccination - Everything You Should Be Aware About!

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of 200 viruses. 40 of these are transmitted through direct sexual contact. The infections from papillomavirus can cause penile cancer and anal cancer in men. It can cause genital warts, cervical cancer, anal cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, vulval cancer, and vaginal cancer in women. The Human Papillomavirus is used to prevent such diseases.

Transmission and infection from HPV

The symptoms of the HPV infection usually develop years after the first contact. Therefore, there is a huge possibility of transmission of the virus during intimate. HPV virus may be of a high-risk variety or a low-risk variety. The high-risk HPV produces two proteins. These deactivate the tumour suppressing genes. This leads to abnormal growth of cells that causes cancer. Cervical cancer is the most common form of HPV infection.

In India over 1,22,000 women are diagnosed annually from HPV related cancers. Of them, 67,000 women die annually. Thus, India has the highest HPV related deaths in the world. Using HPV vaccination when a person becomes sexually active is the only preventive method.

HPV Vaccine

HPV vaccine is used to produce antibodies against the virus that prevent them from infecting the cells. It contains virus-like particles. These are not infectious despite having the structure of a virus. The vaccine promotes antibody production and prevents future infections. HPV vaccine is quite effective if an individual is immunised before becoming sexually active. The vaccination requires three shots given over a period of 6 months if you are beetween age 13-26. All girls before marriage should take this vaccine. It is single best vaccine which can prevent genital cancer in women.

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Cervical Cancer - Everything You Should Know!

Cervical Cancer - Everything You Should Know!

Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating in the cervix uteri. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cause of cancer in women. Lack of screening programs in the developing world means that the disease is not identified until it is too late, resulting in higher mortality.

Symptoms :

  • Asymptomatic (without any symptom)

  • Vaginal bleeding on touch

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding

  • Intermenstrual bleeding

  • Bleeding after coitus

  • Menstrual bleeding that is longer and Heavier than usual.

  • Bleeding even after menopause.

  • Moderate pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge in advanced disease, metastases may be present in the abdomen, lungs or elsewhere.


(i) The central cause of cervical cancer is HPV - Human Papilloma Virus.

(ii) It is transmitted through sexual contact.

(iii) Low-risk type virus may cause genital warts.

(iv) High-risk type may cause precancer or cancer

(v) Only women with persistent HPV are at risk.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

HPV is cause of 70% of cervical cancer globally.

Other risk factors: chlamydia infection, hormonal contraception, multiple pregnancies, exposure to the hormonal drug diethylstilbestrol, and family history of cervical cancer.

HPV vaccines

There are two HPV vaccines (Gardasil and Cervarix) which reduce the risk of cancerous or precancerous changes of the cervix and perineum by about 93%.


(i) Surgery (HYSTERECTOMY)(including local excision)

(ii) Chemotherapy in early stages

(iii) Radiotherapy in advanced stages.


  • Pap smear can identify precancerous and potentially precancerous changes in cervical cells and tissue. The smear should contain cells from SCJ (squamocolumnar junction), Transformation zone and endocervix. Ayre’s spatula and endocervical brush are used. Cells are spread on slide and fixed immediately. The treatment protocol depends upon the findings of the smear report. Liquid-based cytology can also be performed now.

  • Cervical screening programs have reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by 50% or more.

  • Colposcopy- a magnified visual inspection of the cervix aided by using a dilute acetic acid (e.g. vinegar), colposcopy guided Biopsy, Endocervical curratage, Pelvic examination are also important tools for screening of cancer.

  • The screening intervals are:

Guidelines According to Age and Reproductive Status

  • After a woman becomes sexually active, pap smear testing needs to be done after every 2 years.

  • After that, if you get 3 consecutive normal pap smears (that is, three normal tests in a row), the doctors may consider spacing this test to every 3 years.

  • After 65 years of age, you may stop.

However, doctors may recommend for more frequent testings in any of the following conditions if:

  1. You are HIV positive

  2. You have inflammation of cervix in previous pap smear screening test.

  3. You are nutritionally deficient and weak.

  4. Immunocompromised state, like after radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or after a lone term steroid treatment.

  5. Your mother was exposed to DES (diethylstilbestrol) while pregnant.


Cervarix and Garsasil are vaccines against certain types of cancer-causing human papillomavirus.

HPV is a virus, usually transmitted sexually, which can cause cervical cancer.

Gardasil, also known as Gardisil or Silgard or recombinant human papillomavirus vaccine [types 6, 11, 16, 18] is a vaccine for use in the prevention of certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), specifically HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. HPV types 16 and 18 cause an estimated 70% of cervical cancers, and are responsible for most HPV-induced anal, vulvar, vaginal and penile cancer cases. HPV types 6 and 11 cause an estimated 90% of genital warts cases.

Cervarix is designed to prevent infection from HPV types 16 and 18, that cause about 70% of cervical cancer cases.


Immunization with vaccine consists of 3 doses of 0.5-mL each, by intramuscular injection according to the following schedule: 0, 1, and 6 months.  Vaccine is available in 0.5-mL single-dose vials. You may contact to nearest gynecologist for further information about vaccines.


Ayurveda has definite protective influence over the killing disease. Prana is ultimate force that maintains our vitality. In Ayurveda this is named as Vata. We have to balance our Vata to keep away from killing cancer. Cancer prevention is targeted at creating balance and harmony through AAHARA, VIHARA, DINACHARYA RUTUCHARYA , RUTUSANDHICHARYA, SADVRUTA, PRANAYAMA, RASAYANA SEVAN, PANCHAKARMA AACHAR RASAYANA, AND ANTICANCER HERBS. Research has shown that some ayurvedic herbs has anticancer activity. Curcumin, inhibit tumor-promoting enzymes and interfere with the growth of cancerous tumors. As a powerful antioxidant, curcumin neutralizes free radicals that increase the risk of cancer. So HARIDRA TAILA pichoo (A sterile tampoon soaked in oil kept in vagina) is effective.

  • Ginger not only kills cancer cells, it also prevents them building up resistance to cancer tretment.
  • Fenugreek seeds were experimentally shown to protect against cancers of the breast, cervix and prostate cancer.
  • There are many Ayurvedic herbs that have anti-carcinogenic properties, such as Amla, Ashwagandha, Triphala, Guduchi, Tulsi, Neem, and Brahmi.
  • The role of the mind in healing must be emphasized as mental disturbances are a more subtle cause than the physical imbalances in the doshas.
  • Spiritual healing is the process of removing or healing our karma, which plays a role in all disease.
  • So mental and spiritual both the states are important for curing any disease which is explained only in ayurveda.

It is important to continue looking for effective ways to expand screening for each women for reducing cervical cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. So here we all should screen, prevent and treat cervical cancer to improve the quality and logitivity of life of women.

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HPV Infection - Know More About It!

HPV Infection - Know More About It!

What is HPV infection?

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes skin and mucous membrane infections. There are more than 100 varieties of human papillomavirus (HPV). Some types of HPV infection cause plantar warts on the feet, while other varieties of HPV infection are responsible for the warts that most commonly occur on a person’s hands or face.

Symptoms of HPV infection-

  • Rough, raised bumps that usually occur on the hands, fingers or around fingernails
  • Slightly raised lesions darker than your regular skin color usually appear on your face, neck, hands, wrists, elbows or knees
  • Flat lesions, small cauliflower-like bumps or tiny stem-like protrusions most commonly on the vulva

Causes of HPV infection-

  • Sexual intercourse
  • Anal sex
  • Skin-to-skin contact in the genital region

Risk factors of HPV infection-

  • Multiple sex partners
  • Weakened immune systems
  • Damaged skin

Complications of HPV infection-

Diagnosis of HPV infection-

Diagnosis of HPV infection involves the following tests:

  • Vinegar solution test
  • Pap test
  • DNA test

Precautions & Prevention of HPV infection-

  • Reduce your number of sex partners
  • Using a latex condom, that may prevent some but not all HPV transmission
  • Keep your feet clean and dry, wearing clean socks, and wearing shoes or sandals in public pools and locker rooms.
  • Routine HPV vaccination for girls and boys ages 11 and 12 is available

For Treatment of HPV infection

  • Homeopathic Treatment of HPV infection
  • Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of HPV infection
  • Psychotherapy Treatment of HPV infection
  • Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of HPV infection
  • Surgical Treatment of HPV infection
  • Dietary & Herbal Treatment of HPV infection
  • Other Treatment of HPV infection

Treatment of HPV infection- 

Homeopathic Treatment of HPV Infection-

Homeopathy heals lesions and prevents further lesions. It treats the person as a whole. Treatment is constitutional. It means that homeopathic treatment focuses on the patient as a person, as well as his pathological condition. It balances the energy system, improves immunity and body functions. It naturally cures the root cause of disorder. Some of the homeopathic medicines that can be used for treatment of HPV infection are:

  • Merc
  • Nit Ac
  • Calc
  • Thuja
  • Dulc
  • Petro

Psychotherapy and Hypnotherapy Treatment of HPV Infection-

Psychotherapy and hypnotherapy can help in stress relief. They can help in better coping and early relief.

Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of HPV infection-

Allopathic Treatment of HPV infection involves the following medications:

Surgical Treatment of HPV infection

Surgical Treatment of HPV infection involves one of the following surgeries:

Dietary & Herbal Treatment of HPV infection-

  • Eat foods rich in antioxidants such as blueberries, tomatoes, strawberries and cherries.
  • Eat sweet potatoes, carrots, broccoli, lettuce and tomatoes.


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What are Genital warts?

What are Genital warts?

What are Genital warts?

Genital warts are one of the most common types of sexually transmitted infections. They are caused by a virus known as the human papilloma virus (HPV).

Symptoms of Genital warts-

  • Small, flesh-colored or gray swellings in your genital area
  • Bleeding from the warts during sex
  • Several warts close together that takes on a cauliflower shape
  • Itchiness and irritation

Causes of Genital warts-

  • Genital warts can be passed from one person to another during sex
  • It can be transmitted by skin-to-skin contact with someone who has the wart virus

Risk factors of Genital warts-

  • Becoming sexually active at a young age
  • Having unprotected sex with multiple partners
  • Having had another sexually transmitted infection
  • Having sex with a partner whose sexual history you don’t know

Complications of Genital warts-

Diagnosis of Genital warts-

Diagnosis of Genital warts includes the following tests:

  • Viewing warts through a special microscope
  • Pap tests
  • HPV test

Precautions & Prevention of Genital warts-

  • Avoid Sharing of towels and undergarments
  • Using a condom every time you have sex reduces the risk
  • Vaccination prevents further complications

Treatment of Genital warts

  • Homeopathic Treatment of Genital warts
  • Acupuncture & Acupressure Treatment of Genital warts
  • Psychotherapy Treatment of Genital warts
  • Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Genital warts
  • Surgical Treatment of Genital warts
  • Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Genital warts
  • Other Treatment of Genital warts

Treatment of Genital warts-

Homeopathic Treatment of Genital warts-

The homeopathic remedies can work well with your body’s immune system to help get rid of this virus. It acts by triggering a response of the immune system against the warts to kill them. Some of the homeopathic remedies used for treatment of genital warts are:

  • Calcarea
  • Nitric ac
  • Hepar
  • Nat S
  • Sepia
  • Thuja

Conventional / Allopathic Treatment of Genital warts-

Conventional or Allopathic Treatment of Genital warts include the following medications:

  • Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) – This chemical treatment burns off genital warts.
  • Imiquimod (Aldara, Zyclara) – This cream appears to boost your immune system’s ability to fight genital warts
  • Podophyllin and podofilox (Condylox) – Podophyllin is a plant-based resin that destroys genital wart tissue.

Surgical Treatment of Genital warts-

Surgical Treatment of Genital warts includes the following surgeries:

  • Freezing with liquid nitrogen (cryotherapy)
  • Electrocautery
  • Surgical excision
  • Laser treatments

Dietary & Herbal Treatment of Genital warts-

  • Eat Foods high in antioxidants such as broccoli, strawberries, oranges, lemons, spinach and almonds
  • Eat food rich in folic acid such as nuts, whole grains and bananas


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Adult Immunisation - Vaccines That Are Of Great Help!

Adult Immunisation - Vaccines That Are Of Great Help!

Vaccines are not just for kids; the human body can be vulnerable to viruses during any time period of life. It is important for an adult to get vaccinated regularly, else there are always chances that some virus or infection may attack you in a severe way.

Let's look at some of the vaccines adults should get for a healthy and ensured life:

Human Papilloma Vaccine: Human Papillomavirus is one such deadly virus that is responsible for Cervical Cancer in women and Skin or Genital Warts in both men and women. There are over 100 types of Human Papillomavirus that can spread between people through skin contact. Around 40 of them pass on through sexual contact. HPV vaccine is available in any reputed hospital.

There are two kinds of HPV vaccines -

  • Gardasil: This vaccine protects the human body from HVP type 16, 18, 6 and 11. It prevents you from having genital warts and further spreading of the disease through sexual contact.
  • Gardasil 9: This vaccine protects the body from HPV 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. Gardasil 9 is responsible for the protection of these kinds of HPV viruses that cause Cervical Cancer in women.

When should we get it?

You can get HPV vaccine anytime; one single shot lasts about two years.

Pneumococcal Vaccine -

This vaccine protects the human body from diseases like Pneumonia and Meningitis.

Who should get this vaccine?

  • Adults who smoke regularly are vulnerable to Pneumonia and should get this vaccine.
  • Elderly people over the age of 60 are also vulnerable to pneumonia and should get this vaccine shot as soon as possible.

How many vaccine shots should I get?

PCV 13 and PPSV23 is prescribed to the elderly over the age of 60. PCV13 is to be taken at first and PPSV23 to be taken one year after the first shot.

Hepatitis Vaccine -

Strains of Hepatitis Viruses like A, B and C attack the Liver and can cause Liver failure in adults. There are vaccines to prevent the human body from Type A and Type B. However, there’s no vaccine for hepatitis C yet.

Who can get it?

  • Hepatitis B vaccine can be administered to people of all age groups, be it children or adults.
  • Hepatitis A vaccine is mostly prescribed to people working in the healthcare sector or going abroad to a tropical country.

When to get it?

Hepatitis vaccine can be taken during any time of the year.

Vaccine options for Flu:

  • Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (IIV)
  • Recombinant Influenza Vaccine (RIV)
  • Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV)

Vaccine options for Typhoid:

  • Inactivated (killed) vaccine
  • Live, Attenuated (Weakened) Vaccine

Vaccine options for Pneumococcal:

Vaccine option for Hepatitis A:

  • Inactivated (Killed) Vaccine

Vaccine for Hepatitis B:

  • It is made from the parts of Hepatitis B virus but it cannot cause Hepatitis B infection.

Human body is vulnerable throughout its life. Deadly viruses can attack our body anytime, and we must stay prepared and ahead of them. The vaccines mentioned above would help in avoiding some of the common but dangerous diseases.

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Reasons Why You Should Vaccinate Against HPV

Reasons Why You Should Vaccinate Against HPV

HPV refers to Human Papillomavirus. This is a common virus, which has got more than 100 different types and over 40 of these types are transmitted sexually. This virus may cause cervical cancer and cases of genital warts. It is likely to occur in people who are sexually active to contract genital HPV, and it is not accompanied by any signs or symptoms. The virus is transmitted via skin to skin contact and is severely infectious in nature. Using condoms may reduce the risk of spreading of this virus, but is not always successful.

There are two major vaccines for HPV.

  1. GardasilThis vaccine prevents the most common HPVs which are associated with genital and anal cancer, and also warts of both genital and anal type.
  2. CervarixThis type of vaccine prevents HPV associated with the occurrence of cervical cancer.

Reasons for vaccination against HPV

HPV vaccines are recommended to girls between 11 and 12 years. It is also given to girls and women between the age of 13 and 26 years, who have never been vaccinated against HPC before. These vaccines should be given to females before they start being active sexually and get exposed to the HPV virus. Sexually active females benefit from these vaccines as well, but the effect is less.

Here are three reasons why you should vaccinate against HPV:

  1. All types of HPV vaccine help in the elimination of the viruses which cause cervical cancer. Viruses causing cancer in the vulva, vagina or anus are also targeted by these HPV vaccines. The HPV vaccines also protect against genital or anal warts. HPV vaccines work effectively in the prevention of cancers caused by HPC viruses and also curb the common health problems which are accompanied.
  2. The effect of HPV vaccines is quite long lasting in an individual who is vaccinated against HPV. Usually it lasts for ten years or more without having any related disorders or cancers. The protection does not weaken over time and remains stable.
  3. HPV vaccines are licensed by the FDA to be completely safe and efficient to use. Extensive studies have been carried out globally, and no safety concerns have ever arisen. The side effects of HPV vaccines are usually quite mild. However, a little amount of pain, dizziness and nausea are involved.

HPV vaccines are a series of effective vaccines, which prevent the occurrence of cervical cancer and other cancers which are sexually transmitted. They are generally given to women before getting sexually active to prevent transmission of HPV viruses. Some HPV vaccines are prescribed to males as well.

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Warts- Are They Troubling You? Know And Treat!

Warts- Are They Troubling You? Know And Treat!

Five most important facts about Warts:

1. These are caused by a virus known as Human papillomavirus.

2. These are confined to skin and mucosa only.

3. Vaccine is available to prevent these from occuring though it confers protection only from four types of HPV(>200 types of HPV are there!). 

4. These are treatable but there is none treatment which effectively cures; most effective are given first like Salicylic acid, Cryotherapy, Radiofrequency, Electrocautery.

5. treatment type varies in different sites, age, stage of disease etc. even some warts may go without treatment but then there is a chance of spread as it takes many months for spontaneous resolution.

So, consult your skin specialist/dermatologist for best solution of your/ your ward's WARTS.

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Request you to share the knowledge on HPV vaccination, I am 25 years old, and is it advisable to take that vaccination? If so ,three doses or ?Please also share the vaccination cost. Thank you in advance.

Request you to share the knowledge on HPV vaccination,
I am 25 years old, and is it advisable to take that vaccinatio...
There are 2 types of HPV vaccines- Cervarix and Gardasil. Cervarix prevents infection from HPV 16 and 18 which cause 70% of cervical cancers whereas Gardasil prevents infection from HPV 16, 18, 6 and 11. HPV 6 and 11 cause 90% of genital warts which are also sexually transmitted. These vaccines should ideally be taken by girls between 9 to 13 years of age, but can be taken up to 26 yrs. Best if taken before the girl becomes sexually active, as she might have already acquired the virus if vaccine is taken after start of sexual activity. Three doses are given at 0, 1 and 6 months intramuscularly. The cost per dose for Gardasil is Rs. 3000 and for Cervarix is Rs. 2190 in India. Pap smears for screening of cervical cancer should be done routinely at 3 years intervals even in women who have been vaccinated.
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