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How A Child Is At Risk Of HIV?

Dr. Ishwar Gilada 95% (3184 ratings)
MBBS, DDV, FCPS, APEX, Diplomat American Board of Sexology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
How A Child Is At Risk Of HIV?

How did we achieve HIV-Free Generation? 

Spread of HIV infection from a woman who has transmits HIV to her child during pregnancy, childbirth (labor and delivery), or breastfeeding (breast milk) is called as ‘Mother to child’ transmission (MTCT) of HIV. It is also termed as the perinatal transmission of the HIV infection or ‘vertical’ transmission. In the absence of medical intervention, perinatal transmission rates are very high, between 20-45% in different parts of the world. 

In various regions of the African subcontinent a large number of HIV infected children are present. It is a major cause of deaths in teens and adolescents in that region. Almost 90% of all HIV infected children live in the sub-Saharan Africa. In some districts of AP, Karnataka, Maharashtra and TN that were highly HIV-prone, we have several HIV infected children and adolescents. The virus replicates in the body and affects the immune system. Due to decreased immunity, various opportunistic infections enter the body and cause AIDS related symptoms. 

Prevention of HIV infection in infants and young children is now a high priority and has been the rallying point for enhanced prevention efforts. MTCT HIV infection can be prevented with adequate measures by way of Anti-retroviral treatment (ART). All expecting mothers who are HIV infected should have access to the preventive medical services throughout the gestation period, during labor and also during breastfeeding. Proper provision of resources with skilled staff and awareness programs can help in avoiding new infection cases. Breastfeeding is the primary source of transmission of infection from mother to child. Basically, once ART is started in an HIV infected pregnant woman that should continue forever. With proper ART course, chances of MTCT are near Zero.

At the Unison Medicare & Research Centre; which is India’s first fully comprehensive clinic for HIV Care and infectious Diseases, during last decade, not a single MTCT has occurred after treating more than 160 such HIV infected mothers.

Even prior to that MTCT rate was lower than 1%. Our motto has been making the mothers virally suppressed commensurate with the global principle of “Undetectable = Untransmittable”! In fact now more and more HIV infected couples have been coming forward for an elective pregnancy. Even HIV un-infected children orphaned by AIDS or living with sick caregivers are at the great risk of emotional and physical abuse, which in turn increases the child’s vulnerability to HIV infection. Reduction of risks to these vulnerable children is of great importance and various programs are being implemented for the welfare of orphans and vulnerable children. 

Various risk factors that are implicated in the transmission of HIV infection from mother to child are as follows: 

  1. Increased viral load 
  2. Genital tract viral load 
  3. Reduced CD4 cell count 
  4. Unprotected sexual intercourse with infected partner 
  5. Smoking, Substance and drug abuse 
  6. Deficiency of Vitamin A and other essential nutrients 
  7. Presence of other Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) 
  8. Pre-term delivery 
  9. Placental disruption 
  10. Invasive monitoring of the fetus 
  11. Breast feeding

In most cases, HIV will not cross through the placenta from mother to baby. In an otherwise healthy mother, risk of child getting infected is low. Prenatal visits shouldn’t be increased until a complication arises. The physician should observe symptoms of AIDS and pregnancy-related complications on a regular basis. HIV may be the direct cause or a marker of a complex interaction of related medical and social conditions that affect pregnancy. Most HIV positive women are usually asymptomatic and have no major obstetrical problems during their gestation period. They should receive similar obstetric antenatal care as the HIV-negative women, unless indicated by the need to provide specific treatment for HIV related conditions. There is no evidence of a need to increase the number of antenatal visits, provided there are no complications of the HIV infection, although additional counseling sessions may be required to reassure the mother and family.

Care of the HIV positive woman during pregnancy should include ongoing counseling and support as an integral part of the management. Invasive diagnostic procedures, such as chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis or cordo-centesis should be avoided wherever possible, due to a possible risk of infection of the fetus.

4 people found this helpful

High BP - Risk Factors You Must Know About It!

Dr. Rajiv Agarwal 86% (73 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Medicine, DM - Cardiology, Fellowship in Interventional Cardiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
High BP - Risk Factors You Must Know About It!

1) High Dietary Salt/Sodium intake - >5gms salt/>2.3 gms of salt per day increases the risk of developing BP at early age. 

2) Smoking or consuming tobacco products like khaini etc (even occasional consumption can be harmful).

3) Stressful lifestyle, anxiety and decrease sleep - Meditation, decreasing daily stress and sleeping 8 hrs a day can help control BP. 

4) Lack of exercise and physical activity - Daily 30-40 mins of exercise or brisk walking is absolutely essential to remain healthy and avoid BP and heart problems. 

5) High Cholesterol can lead to blockages in arteries of various organs, which in-turn leads to high BP. Hence getting cholesterol checked annually can help in diagnosing it timely.

8 people found this helpful

5 Risk Factors for High BP!

Dr. Sameer Mehrotra 89% (1323 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Cardiology, Cardiac Device Specialist (CCDS - Physician )
Cardiologist, Delhi
5 Risk Factors for High BP!

High blood pressure is a common condition wherein, the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is so much high that it eventually lead to severe health problems, like a heart disease.

A number of factors can put you at a greater risk for developing high blood pressure (HBP or hypertension). Understanding these risk factors can help you be aware of how possibly you are to develop high BP-

  1. High Dietary Salt/Sodium intake - >5gms salt/>2.3 gms of salt per day increases the risk of developing BP at early age. 
  2. Smoking or consuming tobacco products like khaini etc (even occasional consumption can be harmful).
  3. Stressful lifestyle, anxiety and decrease sleep - Meditation, decreasing daily stress and sleeping 8 hrs a day can help control BP. 
  4. Lack of exercise and physical activity - Daily 30-40 mins of exercise or brisk walking is absolutely essential to remain healthy and avoid BP and heart problems. 
  5. High Cholesterol can lead to blockages in arteries of various organs, which in-turn leads to high BP. Hence getting cholesterol checked annually can help in diagnosing it timely.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2062 people found this helpful

Risk Factors Behind High Blood Pressure!

Dr. Skand Kumar Trivedi 90% (24 ratings)
MBBS, MD , DM Cardiology
Cardiologist, Bhopal
Risk Factors Behind High Blood Pressure!

The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood to the entire body through a network of arteries and veins. This network contains big vessels which branch out further to supply blood to the distant organs. There is, therefore, some pressure that the heart and thereby the vessels need to exert to push the blood through these vessels. This is known as blood pressure, and normal pressure levels range from 90-140(systolic)/60-90(diastolic) mm of Hg. However, due to various reasons, this pressure could be more, which is one of the first signs of heart disease

Causes of increased blood pressure: 

  1. Thickening of the blood vessels. With age, the elastic blood vessels naturally turn rigid and less elastic, so there is more pressure required to push blood. It is natural for people over 55 years of age to have higher readings of blood pressure. This is known as primary hypertension (HTN) 
  2. Narrowed blood vessels. This happens due to cholesterol accumulation along the walls of the blood vessels. Faulty dietary habits along with sedentary lifestyle have increased the incidence of hypertension due to this condition, known as atherosclerosis. Critical atherosclerotic narrowing of renal arteries lead to renovascular HTN that is one of the commonest of secondary HTN. 

Other Causes of secondary hypertension are: 

  1. Kidney problems 
  2. Thyroid hormone disorders 
  3. Congenital heart defects 
  4. Chronic alcohol abuse 
  5. Adrenal gland tumours 
  6. Chronic use of medications like birth control pills, pain killers, etc. 

Unidentified and uncontrolled hypertension can be silent and can lead to more severe conditions like heart attack and stroke. India is fast becoming the new hypertension capital of the world. Some of the common risk factors are: 

  1. Age 
  2. Family history 
  3. Being obese or overweight 
  4. Sedentary lifestyle 
  5. Smoking 
  6. Alcohol consumption 
  7. Excessive salt intake 
  8. Stress levels 
  9. Ethnic background 


  1. Hypertension can go undetected for years together, but if there are risk factors like diabetes and high cholesterol, it is advisable to periodically monitor blood pressure. 
  2. Headaches, nosebleeds, and shortness of breath should not be ignored. These can be the first warning signs of hypertension, and if detected early, preventive measures can be taken. 
  3. If there are co-morbid risk factors, it is advisable to constantly keep a check on BP readings. 


This includes a combination of diet and lifestyle modifications. 

  1. Quit smoking and alcohol: Of the many wonders quitting smoking can do, reducing BP readings is just one. The improvement would be almost instantaneous. Quit or else reduce alcohol and see dramatic improvements. 
  2. Weight management: Through a combination of diet and exercise, ensure that weight is brought under control. Set a target BMI (Below 26 kg/m2) and work towards it religiously. 
  3. Diet: Reduce salt, increase potassium, increase vitamin D, eat a heart-healthy diet, and see the hypertension readings improve. 

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4188 people found this helpful

Reduce the Risk

Dt. Sakshi Kohli 89% (15 ratings)
BSc - Dietitics / Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Delhi
Reduce the Risk

Reduce the Risk:

Diabetics can take a few measured steps which can reduce the risk of suffering a stroke.

  1. Control extra weight. High abdominal fat leads to an increased production of bad cholesterol, which saturates the blood vessels. This blood gets deposited on the inside of the blood vessels; thus leading to an increased risk of forming blood clots in the body. On the other hand, HDL (good) cholesterol works to remove deposits from your blood vessels. So, maintaining good cholesterol is important to reduce your risk of a stroke.
  2. Follow a heart-friendly diet at home. Some simple steps at home can help you achieve this goal. Make an attempt to control your bad cholesterol with a high intake of fibre-rich foods. There are many daily consumption food items which are a rich source of fibre. Oats, whole-grain breads, including your whole-grain flours and cereals, peas, fruits, and vegetables will increase your routine dose of fibre. Take small steps to gradually increase the amount of fibre in your digestive system.
  3. Quit smoking. Smoking can prove hazardous for people with diabetes. It leads to further clogging of arteries by narrowing down the blood vessel. Consult a doctor to help you quit smoking if you are a chain smoker.
  4. Stay fit, healthy, and hearty. Exercise regularly to pump more blood. The ideal LDL level is less than 100 mg/dl.
  5. Drink responsibly. Limit the amount of alcoholone drink per day for women and two drinks a day for men. Continuously monitor your blood pressure, and take the doctor’s advice to keep it under control if it’s high.
  6. Say no to saturated fats. They raise your cholesterol level. Saturated fats are most commonly found in meats, butter, fatty dairy products, food cooked in coconut or palm oil. Consult a dietician to monitor your daily intake of saturated fat. Also, don’t binge on fast food as they are high in saturated and trans-fats. Also, restrict your appetite of cookies, snack foods, fried foods, baked goods and popcorn, as they are a source of increasing cholesterol level in the body.
  7. Regularly consult your doctor. You need to stay in touch with your doctor regularly to monitor your diet and other lifestyle aspects too. Insulin and other diabetes medications and pre-medications for a diabetic and are important to control your blood sugar levels. However, the effectiveness of these medicines hugely depends on the timing and size of the dose. A regular medical checkup is recommended to avoid any abnormality. Also, other medicines you take to treat conditions other than diabetes may affect your blood sugar level.
3 people found this helpful

Diabetes: Who Is At Risk?

Dr. Neelkanth Kote 89% (41 ratings)
MBBS, MD, Certificate Course In Diabetes Management
General Physician, Bangalore
Diabetes: Who Is At Risk?

Diabetes is one of the most common problems that are caused by obesity, unhealthy and inactive lifestyle. It is a metabolic disorder in which the body is unable to store and use energy from food. Being physically inactive and eating unhealthy food are primary causes of diabetes. It is a long term condition which causes high or unstable blood sugar levels in the body.

98896When a patient suffers from low blood sugar it is called Hypoglycemia, and if the blood sugar levels are too high, it is called Hyperglycemia. Both are extremely harmful for a patient.

Type 1 and Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes-

Type 1

In Type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin. The condition has no known cure and is usually hereditary in nature. Approximately 10% of those suffering from diabetes have Type 1 diabetes. Patients with Type 1 diabetes have to take regular medication, including insulin injections as well as take care of their diet.

Type 2

Type 2 diabetes happens when the body does not produce enough insulin for its proper functioning. 90% of all diabetic people suffer from Type 2 diabetes. It is usually caused by poor lifestyle choices, like physical inactivity and unhealthy food habits. The disease lasts a lifetime and is usually progressive in nature, but can be managed by taking regular medication, choosing an active lifestyle and maintaining proper body weight.

Gestational Diabetes

Diabetes during pregnancy is known as gestational diabetes. This has to be managed by taking medication or in extreme cases insulin shots. If undetected or untreated, gestational diabetes increases complications during childbirth, and causes unusual weight gain in the baby. However, gestational diabetes usually ends after the baby is born and women can go back to their normal lifestyle and eating habits post delivery.

Symptoms of Diabetes-

  1. Frequent urination
  2. Extreme hunger or thirst
  3. Weight loss
  4. Problems with vision
  5. Tingling or numbness of the extremities.
  6. Unexplained fatigue
  7. Dry skin
  8. Cuts or sores that heal slowly
  9. High number of infections

Who is at greatest risk for developing diabetes?

People who:

  1. are 45 or over
  2. are overweight
  3. are habitually physically inactive
  4. have previously been identified as having IFG (impaired fasting glucose) or IGT (impaired glucose tolerance)
  5. have a family history of diabetes
  6. are members of certain ethnic groups (including Asian American, African American, Hispanic American, and Native American)
  7. have had gestational diabetes or have given birth to a child weighing more than 9 pounds
  8. have elevated blood pressure
  9. have an HDL cholesterol level (the good cholesterol) below 35 mg/dl and/or a triglyceride level above 250 mg/dl
  10. have polycystic ovary syndrome
  11. have a history of vascular disease

What is pre-diabetes?

Pre-diabetes is a condition of elevated blood glucose level that has not yet reached a diabetic level. Along with insulin resistance, pre-diabetes causes no symptoms. An individual may be pre-diabetic for years without knowing it. Pre-diabetes increases your risk of developing Type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Weight loss and exercise may halt the onset of diabetes from pre-diabetes by returning blood glucose levels to a normal range.

Diabetes is the fifth-leading cause of death by disease. Diabetes leads to the death of many people each year across the globe. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

5187 people found this helpful

Who Is At Risk Of Gallstones?

Dr. Aleem Ullah Khan 87% (11 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, Diploma In Laproscopy Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
Who Is At Risk Of Gallstones?

Gallstones are actually hard deposits or lumps that are formed in gallbladder. Gallbladder is a pear shaped, sac-like structure that is located in the upper right part of the abdomen that stores bile. Many people have gallstones present in their bladder but they never know it. This can be an alarming situation for people who have it.

What Causes Gallstones?

There may be several reasons, including:

  1. Your genes
  2. Your weight
  3. Problems with your gallbladder
  4. Diet
  5. Bile can be part of the problem. Your body needs bile, but if it has too much cholesterol in it, that makes gallstones more likely.
  6. It can also happen if your gallbladder can’t empty properly.

Who Is at Risk for Gallstones?
While your body produces cholesterol naturally, you can also take in excess cholesterol through your diet. Many risk factors for gallstones are related to diet. These include:

  1. being overweight or obese
  2. eating a diet that’s high in fat or cholesterol
  3. rapid weight loss within a short period of time
  4. eating diet that’s low in fiber
  5. having diabetes mellitus

What are the treatments available for this?

  1. Surgery: One of the famous treatments include surgeries. The famous surgery is Cholecystectomy (Removal of gallbladder) that further includes Laparoscopic surgery and Open cholecystectomy.
  2. Medications: The patients who cannot undergo surgeries can also use drugs like ursodiol and chenodiol . But this can take months or years to remove stones from bladder.

You can reduce your risk of gallstones if you:

  1. Don't skip meals. Try to stick to your usual mealtimes each day. Skipping meals or fasting can increase the risk of gallstones.
  2. Lose weight slowly. If you need to lose weight, go slow. Rapid weight loss can increase the risk of gallstones. Aim to lose 1 or 2 pounds (about 0.5 to 1 kilogram) a week.
  3. Maintain a healthy weight. Obesity and being overweight increase the risk of gallstones. Work to achieve a healthy weight by reducing the number of calories you eat and increasing the amount of physical activity you get. Once you achieve a healthy weight, work to maintain that weight by continuing your healthy diet and continuing to exercise.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1894 people found this helpful

Who Is At Risk Of Osteoporosis?

Dr. Murali Krishna 89% (108 ratings)
DNB (Orthopedics), MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Visakhapatnam
Who Is At Risk Of Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a condition which usually results due to a decrease in bone density. In this condition, the bones become weak and brittle. Fractures are a common result of osteoporosis. Usually, symptoms or signs do not show up until the condition progresses to its advanced stages.

Since osteoporosis is usually irreversible and incurable, preventing the fractures is considered to be extremely important.

Who is at risk of osteoporosis?
All men and women have some risk of developing 'thinning' of the bones (osteoporosis) as they become older, particularly over the age of 60. As mentioned above, women are more at risk than men. The following situations may also lead to excessive bone loss and so increase your risk of developing osteoporosis. If you:

  1. Are a woman who had the menopause before 45 years of age
  2. Have already had a bone fracture after a minor fall or bump
  3. Have a strong family history of osteoporosis.
  4. Have a body mass index (BMI) of 19 or less (that is, you are very underweight)
  5. Have irregular periods
  6. Have taken, or are taking, a steroid medicine (such as prednisolone) for three months or more
  7. Are a smoker
  8. Have an alcohol intake of more than four units per day
  9. Lack calcium and/or vitamin D (due to a poor diet and/or little exposure to sunlight).
  10. Are mostly inactive

Ways To Treat Osteporosis

Osteoporosis in women can be treated using Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). The therapy makes use of either a combination of progestin and oestrogen or simply, oestrogen. However, it is possible that certain combinations have side-effects that might give rise to other medical conditions. Therefore, proper consultation with an orthopedist is an essential pre-requisite so that the condition of osteoporosis as well the side effects may be addressed before proceeding with Hormone Replacement Therapy.

There are a number of medications that can be used which have long-term effects on osteoporosis. However, the schedule for intake of these medicines should be followed diligently. Failing to adhere to the schedule could lead to serious complications. For example, the intake of Risedronate medications (prevent bone loss) should be scheduled once every month, failing which can cause ulcers in the food pipe. Raloxifene has effects which are similar to oestrogen but does not exhibit any serious side effects. Teriparatide can be used to treat osteoporosis in people who have a high risk of suffering from bone fractures.

Don't rely entirely on medication as the only treatment for your osteoporosis. These practices also are important:

  1. Exercise. Weight-bearing physical activity and exercises that improve balance and posture can strengthen bones and reduce the chance of a fracture. The more active and fit you are as you age, the less likely you are to fall and break a bone.
  2. Good nutrition. Eat a healthy diet and make certain that you're getting enough calcium and vitamin D. Being underweight or losing a lot of weight unintentionally is associated with poorer bone health and a higher risk of fracture — even if you're taking a bisphosphonate.
  3. Quit smoking. Smoking cigarettes speed up bone loss.
  4. Limit alcohol. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women of all ages and men older than age 65, and up to two drinks a day for men age 65 and younger.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2658 people found this helpful

Babies Born From IVF - Are They At Risk Of Heart Problems?

Ivf Nashik 87% (20 ratings)
IVF Specialist, Nashik
Babies Born From IVF - Are They At Risk Of Heart Problems?

Babies who are born through IVF, have greater risk of developing heart related problems as researchers believe that manipulation of nature in this manner is ought to have some adverse results. There were some Swiss scientists, who had compared 64 children taking birth through IVF techniques and 57 children taking birth in natural manner, found that among those 64 children, 30% of them had high pulmonary arterial pressure and greater amount of rigidity in the blood vessel at high altitude.

While considering all the things, the parents who have gone through IVF should not be concerned. To a large extent, IVF has ensured that parents get healthy children. Now, if IVF goes ahead to signal a problem, then it will suggest that all those children would have premature heart disease when they attain the ages of 50s and 60s, rather than in their 70s and 80s. Now, if one compares the premature heart disease with the gift, IVF presents parents with newborn babies, then in that regard, none of the parents should be too concerned at the moment.

A Swiss research team, which has been led by scientists at Bern University Hospital, is of the opinion that the increased risk of heart problems in latter half of life is a result of chemical processes, till the time, the embryo still remains in the Petri dish. The expression of some genes tends to get influenced by the chemicals in the cultures. The team members had pointed out that a lot of non-IVF people also tend to have the same kind of genetic markers.

One of the researchers said that they could not come to any conclusion about the study of 65 IVF children. At the time of IVF, doctors get hold of an egg from the ovaries and then they co-incubate that with sperm in the test tube. They can even directly inject a sperm into the egg to help with the process of fertilization.

One of the professors claimed that this particular phase was an extremely critical phase of development. The first ten days after sperm and the egg collide to form an embryo, a lot happens for determining normal health and then even slight bit of changes in the chemical as well as the physical environment can lead to important developmental changes in babies at the end of gestation period.

The cellular stress which the embryos could experience, might well be caused by a couple of reasons: The physical stress of getting lifted, injected or manipulated and the other reason could well be the chemical stress related to chemicals within the environment of the test tube or modifications in the level of oxygen.

As the study was relatively small, so it did not come up with conclusive evidence if babies born through IVF would suffer heart problems in the form of heart attacks or strokes. The study does indicate that in all likelihood a person will have high blood pressure, diabetes and possible heart attack or stroke in the middle age. The ideal precaution would be to take all possible healthy measure, with regard to diet, exercise and check-ups on a regular basis. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2999 people found this helpful

Breast Cancer - Evaluate The Risk Before Development

Motherhood 88% (259 ratings)
Speciality Birthing Care
Gynaecologist, Bangalore
Breast Cancer - Evaluate The Risk Before Development

Medical science constantly challenges the boundaries by finding not only the cures to the most dangerous diseases, but finds a way to prevent them even before they occur. With years of research, practice and data available for analysis, scientists are using advanced technology in combination with years of research to create a predicting mechanism for often fatal diseases like cancer.

Breast cancer screening has always been done with mammographyThe fact is that this method is only 75% accurate, laden with false positives and misses a whole set of women totally- and that too when cancer has already developed. Part of the problem comes from the dense breast tissue which one in three women have. This tissue masks the lumps, which makes it difficult for mammograms to accurately screen cancer.

Some breakthrough scientific methods are changing this by drawing on years of research to predict this deadly disease, years before it can manifest itself.

A genetic test to predict cancer 10-11 years ahead of time
This test was performed to see how environmental factors could influence cancer, along with habits like smoking, abusing alcohol or hormones, genetic changes that occur and are put a large percentage of the women at a high risk of developing this disease.

A simple blood test is used for the genetic analysis of hereditary cancer. Researchers found a biological marker, methylation of the ATM gene, which has a very high ability to predict the risk of developing cancer, several years before diagnosis. 'Methylation' concluded that when one biological indicator is exposed to carcinogenic substances, or other abusive substances like tobacco and alcohol, it may trigger the development of cancer. On the flip side, this test will take time to reach the commercial market and even then cannot give an exact timeline as to when someone may develop the disease.

A simple blood test to predict breast cancer 5 years before it develops
This is the kind of medical miracle the world is looking for. Last year in April, researches in Denmark identified a simple blood test that can predict breast cancer five years before it actually develops with an accuracy of a whopping 80%.

It works by "measuring all of the compounds in the blood to build a 'metabolic profile' of an individual, in order to detect changes in the way chemicals are processed, during a pre-cancerous stage," says Laura Donnelly, health editor at The Telegraph, which covered this development. Danish researchers observed 57,000 participants over 20 years, gathering blood samples along the way, specifically comparing a set of 800 women who remained healthy or developed breast cancer within 7 years of their first blood sample. The researchers found they were able to predict, with 80 percent accuracy, which patients would be affected by the disease, just by looking at the metabolic profiles they built from the participants' blood samples. The results have been published in Metabolomics. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.


5721 people found this helpful

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