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Hernia - Must Know Things About It!

Hernia - Must Know Things About It!

When an organ residing in a cavity such as the abdomen tries to push through the muscular layer it resides in, it is called as hernia

Though said to be genetic, hernias can be caused by things such as improper heavy lifting, incorrect posture, or chronic constipation and as a result of surgical complication or injury. Factors like obesitypregnancysmoking, chronic lung disease aggravate the severity of the hernia. It is believed that about 27% of all males and 3% of females can have a hernia during their lifetime.

Types of hernias:

  1. Inguinal hernia: The groin is the most common area, where the abdomen pushes through a weak spot in the lower abdominal wall, causing a protrusion into the inguinal canal. This is more common in men than women.
  2. Hiatal hernia: The abdomen has the diaphragm separating it from the thoracic cavity in the upper border. When it pushes through the diaphragm, a hernia is caused and there is almost always associated food reflux in these cases. Though the most common cause is associated old age, due to muscle weakness, there also are cases of congenital hiatal hernias.
  3. Umbilical hernia: The abdomen finds a weak layer along its length and protrudes through the skin on the stomach. Most commonly seen in babies around the bellybutton, it gradually corrects itself on its own. Quiet rare in adults, seen during pregnancy and in chronic obese people.
  4. Incisional: These are post-surgical, and happen when the organ protrudes through the weakened wall due to surgery. The abdomen is again the most common area and the hernia can happen either onto the external surface or internally, when they are called ventral hernias.

These are the most frequent types, though hernia affects other organs like the spine, brain, appendix, etc.

Treatment:

This includes a combination of constant monitoring followed by a decision to do surgical treatment. Hiatal hernias and umbilical hernias can be monitored for a while before deciding on surgery. Inguinal hernias may require surgery earlier in the stage. Post-surgery, a mesh is placed to hold back the tissue in its corrected place. The umbilical hernia in children could be self-limiting. If it does not get auto-corrected in the first year of life, that also would qualify for a surgical treatment. Hernias need to be managed under medical supervision.

Hernia - Know Types Of It!

Hernia - Know Types Of It!

When an organ residing in a cavity such as the abdomen tries to push through the muscular layer it resides, it is called as hernia.

Though said to be genetic, hernias can be caused by things such as improper heavy lifting, incorrect posture, or chronic constipation and as a result of surgical complication or injury. Factors like obesity, pregnancy, smoking, chronic lung disease aggravate the severity of the hernia. It is believed that about 27% of all males and 3% of females can have a hernia during their lifetime.

Types of hernias:

Inguinal hernia - The groin is the most common area, where the abdomen pushes through a weak spot in the lower abdominal wall, causing a protrusion into the inguinal canal. More common in men than women.

Hiatal hernia - The abdomen has the diaphragm separating it from the thoracic cavity in the upper border. When it pushes through the diaphragm, a hernia is caused and there is almost always associated food reflux in these cases. Though the most common cause is associated old age, due to muscle weakness, there also are cases of congenital hiatal hernias.

Umbilical hernia - The abdomen finds a weak layer along its length and protrudes through the skin on the stomach. Most commonly seen in babies around the bellybutton, it gradually corrects itself on its own. Quiet rare in adults, seen during pregnancy and in chronic obese people.

Incisional - These are post-surgical, and happen when the organ protrudes through the weakened wall due to surgery. The abdomen is again the most common area and the hernia can happen either onto the external surface or internally, when they are called ventral hernias.
These are the most frequent types, though hernia affects other organs like the spine, brain, appendix, etc.

Treatment - This includes a combination of constant monitoring followed by a decision to do surgical treatment. Hiatal hernias and umbilical hernias can be monitored for a while before deciding on surgery. Inguinal hernias may require surgery earlier in the stage. Post-surgery, a mesh is placed to hold back the tissue in its corrected place. The umbilical hernia in children could be self-limiting. If it does not get auto-corrected in the first year of life, that also would qualify for a surgical treatment.

Dependent on each patient, hernias need to be managed under medical supervision.

Ventral Hernia - How To Handle It?

Ventral Hernia - How To Handle It?

A ventral hernia is a distinct condition that may happen after surgery. It occurs when there is a hole in the muscles of the abdominal wall.

A ventral hernia is easily identifiable as it is characterized by a protruding bulge in the abdominal area. Common spots for a ventral hernia include the area from the breastbone to the navel.

Causes:

A ventral hernia may occur to someone who has undergone recent surgery in the abdominal region; anyone with congenital deformity having thin abdominal walls; or a person with a previous history of abdominal hernias.

How to Identify Ventral Hernia?

Symptoms of a ventral hernia take weeks to develop. You should consult the doctor if you notice the following warning signs –

• Pain in the abdominal area especially while lifting any object
• Discomfort in the abdomen
Nausea
Vomiting
• Bulging of skin in the lower abdominal areas

Most prevalent methods of diagnosis include imaging tests like abdominal ultrasounds, CT Scans and MRI.

Surgical Treatments for Ventral Hernia:

If left unattended, a ventral hernia can lead to serious complications. Following are the treatment options available if one resorts to surgery.

• Mesh Placement surgery – In this process the surgeon pushes the bulging tissue back in place in a way so that it stays there. It is considered one of the safest and reliable modes of treatment. It also reduces the possibility of a recurrence.

• Laparoscopic Repair – During this process, a small camera is inserted through the incision. The surgeon identifies the damaged area and fixes it with or without a mesh. The benefit of this kind of surgery is that the cut is smaller which reduces the chance of infection. Postoperative pain is almost negligible and recovery time is much faster.

• Open Surgery or Non-Laparoscopic – In this kind of surgery, the doctor makes a medium size incision adjacent to the hernia and repositions the tissues. Here again, the mesh may or may not be used. However, in this process, the recovery period is slightly longer.

Long Term Effects of Surgical Treatments:

Surgical treatments of a ventral hernia rarely come with any complications. One needs to rest for only a few days before resuming an active life. In fact, surgery prevents chances of reoccurrence of a hernia in the future.

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Hernia Surgery - Things To Consider Before It!

Hernia Surgery - Things To Consider Before It!

Hernia may be defined as the protrusion of an organ into an adjacent connective tissue or muscle. The protrusion usually occurs through a tear or a weakened area in the muscle (Fascia). The hernia may be Inguinal Hernia, Umbilical Hernia, Hiatal Hernia or Femoral Hernia. The hernia can also originate from an incision (Incisional Hernia). The Inguinal Hernia is commonly observed in males. Here, the intestine squeezes through a tear in the abdominal wall into the groin (inguinal canal). At times, the small intestine bulges through the abdominal wall (weak spot) near the bellybutton. This results in Umbilical Hernia. In Hiatal Hernia, the upper part of the stomach passes into the chest through the diaphragm. Of all the hernia types, the Inguinal Hernia is the most common. 

     Severe strain and muscle tear or weakness can result in hernia. Obesity, chronic constipation, chronic coughing and sneezing, ageing, damage caused by injury, medical conditions like Cystic Fibrosis, contribute to increased incidences of hernia. In case of hernia, the affected area tends to protrude or bulge out. If left untreated; hernia can prove to be detrimental. One needs to consult a physician for proper diagnosis and treatment. Physical examination can help in the diagnosis of Inguinal Hernia. An ultrasound is needed to diagnose Umbilical Hernia. A Barium X -ray or endoscopy can be of great help in the diagnosis of Hiatal Hernia.  

     The severity of the hernia depends upon its size. In case the hernia is rapidly increasing in size, a surgery is needed for the repair. The surgery performed can be Open or Laparoscopic. In open surgery, hernia is identified through an incision. Once located, the hernia is removed from the adjacent tissues. In Laparoscopic Repair, small incisions are made in the affected region. Through these incisions, specialized instruments are inserted. It is through these instruments that the surgeon visualizes and performs the surgery.  In such repair, a mesh, held in place by sutures is used as a scaffold. This facilitates the growth of new tissues in the affected person. This technique significantly lowers the chances of a recurrence.     

Certain factors needs to be well addressed before performing hernia operation

-    Hernia operations, Laparoscopic in particular, should be performed by experienced surgeons. Inexperienced surgeons will do you more harm than good.
-    Laparoscopic hernia operation should be avoided in case a patient has adhesions from previous surgery.
-    Extreme care should be taken while performing a hernia operation in infants and children.
-    In some cases, hernia surgery might affect or injure the vas deferens in men. This in turn can affect fertility in men.
 

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Hernia - Know Types Of It!

Hernia - Know Types Of It!

When an organ residing in a cavity such as the abdomen tries to push through the muscular layer it resides, it is called as hernia.

Though said to be genetic, hernias can be caused by things such as improper heavy lifting, incorrect posture, or chronic constipation and as a result of surgical complication or injury. Factors like obesity, pregnancy, smoking, chronic lung disease aggravate the severity of the hernia. It is believed that about 27% of all males and 3% of females can have a hernia during their lifetime.

Types of hernias:

Inguinal hernia - The groin is the most common area, where the abdomen pushes through a weak spot in the lower abdominal wall, causing a protrusion into the inguinal canal. More common in men than women.

Hiatal hernia - The abdomen has the diaphragm separating it from the thoracic cavity in the upper border. When it pushes through the diaphragm, a hernia is caused and there is almost always associated food reflux in these cases. Though the most common cause is associated old age, due to muscle weakness, there also are cases of congenital hiatal hernias.

Umbilical hernia - The abdomen finds a weak layer along its length and protrudes through the skin on the stomach. Most commonly seen in babies around the bellybutton, it gradually corrects itself on its own. Quiet rare in adults, seen during pregnancy and in chronic obese people.

Incisional - These are post-surgical, and happen when the organ protrudes through the weakened wall due to surgery. The abdomen is again the most common area and the hernia can happen either onto the external surface or internally, when they are called ventral hernias.
These are the most frequent types, though hernia affects other organs like the spine, brain, appendix, etc.

Treatment - This includes a combination of constant monitoring followed by a decision to do surgical treatment. Hiatal hernias and umbilical hernias can be monitored for a while before deciding on surgery. Inguinal hernias may require surgery earlier in the stage. Post-surgery, a mesh is placed to hold back the tissue in its corrected place. The umbilical hernia in children could be self-limiting. If it does not get auto-corrected in the first year of life, that also would qualify for a surgical treatment.

Dependent on each patient, hernias need to be managed under medical supervision.

4029 people found this helpful

Hernia - Know Types Of It!

Hernia - Know Types Of It!

When an organ residing in a cavity such as an abdomen tries to push through the muscular layer it resides, it is called as hernia.
Though said to be genetic, hernias can be caused by things such as improper heavy lifting, incorrect posture, or chronic constipation and as a result of surgical complication or injury. Factors like obesity, pregnancy, smoking, chronic lung disease aggravate the severity of the hernia. It is believed that about 27% of all males and 3% of females can have a hernia during their lifetime.

Types of hernias:

1. Inguinal hernia - The groin is the most common area, where the abdomen pushes through a weak spot in the lower abdominal wall, causing a protrusion into the inguinal canal. More common in men than women.

2. Hiatal hernia - The abdomen has the diaphragm separating it from the thoracic cavity in the upper border. When it pushes through the diaphragm, a hernia is caused and there is almost always associated food reflux in these cases. Though the most common cause is associated with old age, due to muscle weakness, there also are cases of congenital hiatal hernias.

3. Umbilical hernia - The abdomen finds a weak layer along its length and protrudes through the skin on the stomach. Most commonly seen in babies around the belly button, it gradually corrects itself on its own. Quite rare in adults, seen during pregnancy and in chronic obese people.

4. Incisional - These are post-surgical, and happen when the organ protrudes through the weakened wall due to surgery. The abdomen is again the most common area and the hernia can happen either onto the external surface or internally, when they are called ventral hernias.

These are the most frequent types, though hernia affects other organs like the spine, brain, appendix, etc.

Treatment - This includes a combination of constant monitoring followed by a decision to do surgical treatment. Hiatal hernias and umbilical hernias can be monitored for a while before deciding on surgery. Inguinal hernias may require surgery earlier in the stage. Post-surgery, a mesh is placed to hold back the tissue in its corrected place. The umbilical hernia in children could be self-limiting. If it does not get auto-corrected in the first year of life, that also would qualify for surgical treatment.

Dependent on each patient, hernias need to be managed under medical supervision.

1767 people found this helpful

Hernia Treatment - Know Why Is It Important To Treat Hernia Surgically!

Hernia Treatment - Know Why Is It Important To Treat Hernia Surgically!

A hernia occurs when an organ or fatty tissue pushes through a weak opening in the muscle that holds it in place. Hernias are common in the abdomen, but can also develop in the upper thigh, belly button and the genitals. The common types of hernia are the ones that occur in the groin viz (inguinal, femoral, obturator) around the belly button (umbilical), incisional (after a previous surgery) and hiatal (causes acid reflux) and are caused by muscle weakness. This weakness or increase in pressure in the abdomen can be triggered by lifting heavy objects without stabilizing abdominal muscles, diarrhea or constipation and chronic coughing (smokers and asthmatics) or straining to pass urine.

How can you treat hernia?

As hernia is a mechanical defect in the abdominal wall, the only definitive treatment is surgical repair of the defect. The type of surgery required depends on the size of the hernia and the severity of its symptoms. The defect may be repaired with stitches but the best option with least recurrence is to use a mesh. The Hernias that are small and don't cause discomfort can be observed and managed conservatively with regular follow up with the surgeon. All hernias have the risk of intestines getting trapped and strangulation.

Lifestyle changes-

Avoiding heavy meals, not bending over immediately after a meal and managing your body weight can reduce the incidence of hernias. Also, you should avoid foods causing heartburn and quit smoking. If these dietary changes do not relieve your discomfort, you may need surgery to treat the hernia.
 
Medication-

Prescription medication given by your doctor that reduces stomach acid can relieve your soreness and improve the symptoms.

So when do you need surgery?

If your hernia is gradually growing in size, looks unsightly and is causing pain,  you should seek help and the doctor may advise you to effectively treat it through surgery. But with a hernia, there is always a risk of bowel obstruction and strangulation which may need an emergency operation.

A hernia can be repaired using two different surgical methods - open surgery or laparoscopic surgery.

In case of open surgery, an incision is made in the skin near the bulging area. It requires a longer recovery process.
Laparoscopic surgery uses a camera and miniaturized surgical equipment to repair the hernia by making two to four small incisions in the abdomen. This method is less damaging to the surrounding tissue and has much shorter recovery time.

Almost all of the hernias can be treated Laparoscopically, but as many surgeons are not well trained in Laparoscopic hernia repair they do not recommend the procedure. So it's imperative you seek out a good minimally invasive surgical specialist.

Is there an alternative to surgery?

There is no other treatment apart from surgery for a hernia (imagine you have a hole in a cloth, the only way to repair it is with a thread (darning) or a patch).

Exercising regularly, losing weight or taking medications will not eliminate a hernia. Some patients feel that wearing a hernia belt will help ease the discomfort, but it will not help your hernia go away. It will only provide temporary relief. Only surgery provides a permanent and effective solution.

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Hernia - Causes, Treatment, And Prevention!

Hernia - Causes, Treatment, And Prevention!

When an organ residing in a cavity such as the abdomen tries to push through the muscular layer it resides, it is called as hernia.
Though said to be genetic, hernias can be caused by things such as improper heavy lifting, incorrect posture, or chronic constipation and as a result of surgical complication or injury. Factors like obesity, pregnancy, smoking, chronic lung disease aggravate the severity of the hernia. It is believed that about 27% of all males and 3% of females can have a hernia during their lifetime.

Types of hernias:

  1. Inguinal hernia - The groin is the most common area, where the abdomen pushes through a weak spot in the lower abdominal wall, causing a protrusion into the inguinal canal. More common in men than women.

  2. Hiatal hernia - The abdomen has the diaphragm separating it from the thoracic cavity in the upper border. When it pushes through the diaphragm, a hernia is caused and there is almost always associated food reflux in these cases. Though the most common cause is associated old age, due to muscle weakness, there also are cases of congenital hiatal hernias.
     
  3. Umbilical hernia - The abdomen finds a weak layer along its length and protrudes through the skin on the stomach. Most commonly seen in babies around the bellybutton, it gradually corrects itself on its own. Quiet rare in adults, seen during pregnancy and in chronic obese people.
     
  4. Incisional - These are post-surgical, and happen when the organ protrudes through the weakened wall due to surgery. The abdomen is again the most common area and the hernia can happen either onto the external surface or internally, when they are called ventral hernias.
    These are the most frequent types, though hernia affects other organs like the spine, brain, appendix, etc.


Treatment - This includes a combination of constant monitoring followed by a decision to do surgical treatment. Hiatal hernias and umbilical hernias can be monitored for a while before deciding on surgery. Inguinal hernias may require surgery earlier in the stage. Post-surgery, a mesh is placed to hold back the tissue in its corrected place. The umbilical hernia in children could be self-limiting. If it does not get auto-corrected in the first year of life, that also would qualify for a surgical treatment.
Dependent on each patient, hernias need to be managed under medical supervision.

Umbilical Hernia - How To Manage It?

Umbilical Hernia - How To Manage It?

Umbilical Hernia is a common condition in infants in which the intestine protrudes or pokes out through the abdominal muscles in the navel area, where generally the Umbilical cord is located. Umbilical Hernia is generally harmless if not sore and is evident when the bellybutton protrudes. During childhood, Umbilical Hernia closes on its own, but sometimes when it does not, it might require a surgical correction during adulthood. This condition is commonly seen in premature babies and can be diagnosed through physical examination alone.

Symptoms

Umbilical Hernia causes swelling or bulging near the navel and is generally visible under normal circumstances. However, in some cases, the protrusion occurs only when the baby strains, coughs or cries. Though this condition is painless, it can cause discomfort during adulthood. To avoid complications, it is advisable to seek professional help even if the condition initially seems harmless. There might be symptoms of pain, swelling, discoloration, and tenderness in the navel, accompanied by vomiting sometimes.

Causes

When the fetus is still unborn and in womb, the umbilical cord passes abdominal muscles of the baby through a small opening, which generally closes post birth. But in case muscles fail to completely join the midline of abdominal wall, this condition appears post birth, and sometimes later in life.

During adulthood, when there is too much pressure on the abdomen, it leads to this condition. This pressure might build up due to a number of causes like multiple pregnancies, obesity, previous abdominal surgery, ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity), and long-term dialysis for kidney function.

Complications

Complications might be caused when the protruding part of the intestine gets incarcerated or trapped and fails to push itself back into the abdominal cavity, reducing the blood supply. This leads to tissue damage and umbilical pain. If the blood supply totally fails, tissue death leads to gangrene, causing infection, and posing a life-threatening situation. In such cases, surgery might have to be performed in an emergency.

Treatment

Most of the times, abdominal tissue pushes itself back but sometimes, it has to be done by an experienced medical professional. When this cannot happen, surgery has to be performed to correct the situation. The surgery can be open or laparoscopic.

A small incision is made at the base of the bellybutton during surgery, which is a small and quick procedure. The hernia is corrected and sutures close the incision. For adults, sometimes mesh is used for strengthening the abdomen during open surgery.

Take Away

Umbilical Hernia is a condition in which the intestine or abdominal tissue protrudes through the abdominal muscles in the navel area, where generally the Umbilical cord is located. It is a harmless condition but sometimes painful. Generally, it corrects itself but when it fails to do so, corrective surgery is required which can be open or laparoscopic.

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All You Need To Know About Hernia!

All You Need To Know About Hernia!

Hernia are bulges protruding form a weak point on belly (abdomen) through which intestine and abdominal fat comes out to lie just below the skin. It can also be found in groin, upper thigh and chest. There are several types of hernia like inguinal hernia (direct and indirect), femoral hernia, umbilical hernia, umbilical hernia, epigastria hernia and incision hernia.

Who get hernia?

Conditions that lead to increased abdominal pressure are at more risk of developing hernia –

o Persistent cough

o Being overweight or pregnant

o Lifting, carrying or pushing heavy loads

o Straining on the toilet

What are the symptoms of hernia?

o Mostly they are asymptomatic/ no symptoms.

o People just notice a swelling or bulge which gets bigger while standing or straining and disappear while lying down/sleeping.

o Some might feel a dragging/aching sensation.

o The swelling tends to get bigger with time.

o Symptoms develop when there is a complication like strangulation. This happens when the content of abdomen (intestine) come out and can not go back. There will be severe pain in the region and vomiting. Overlying skin will become red. Urgent surgery is needed in this situation otherwise the blood supply to intestine gets cut-off and the intestine in hernia might die (gangrene).

How are hernia treated?

Surgery is the only treatment for hernia. Now a days, most of the hernias are operated laparoscopically (key hole or minimally access technique)

Minimally Invasive Hernia Repair - The surgery is done with a laparoscope which has a small tiny camera, hernia mesh and small tool with it. So the patient can return back to their normal routine earlier as the incision made is smaller.

Advantages of Laparoscopy:

Laparoscopy has clear advantage over open repair in the way of less pain, less complications like wound infection, small and more cosmetic scar, shorter hospital stay, early return to work and daily activities and less chance of recurrence (repeat formation of hernia after surgery).

Before undergoing hernia surgery:

* One week before surgery it is much essential to stop taking drugs that are causing the thinning of the blood. Drugs like Clpodogrel and Acitrome or Warfarin should be stopped with the doctor’s advice. 
* Stop herbal supplements and check the fitness of your cardio and diabetes
* Gain adequate knowledge about surgery and be prepared for post surgical care.

After hernia surgery:

* Avoid heavy weight lifting, exercises, and physical works with excessive strain a few weeks after surgery 
* Cough or laugh loud only with support to the surgical site until one week after surgery

DO’s & DON’T’s in patients of Hernia:

DO’s:

1. Increased intake of fibers in diet. ( Fruits, vegetables and grains)

2. Drink plenty of water and other fluid to prevent constipation.

3. Exercise regularly: sweat and loose excess weight and toxins.

4. Eat small meals more frequently in place of one or two large meals

DON’T’s:

1. Stop smoking and drinking

2. Don’t reduce the amount of food you eat

3. Avoid lying down or bending after meal

4. Avoid wearing tight clothes

5. Avoid food difficult to digest

6. Avoid strenuous activities like heavy weight lifting

Types of Hernias:

Incisional hernia:

This happens at the site of previous surgery. This occurs as a result of poor wound healing at the time of previous surgery or as a result of complications like in infection. It is rare after laparoscopic or key hole surgery.

Umbilical hernia:

This occurs through or around belly button (umbilicus). It can be present at the time of birth and needs no repair as most of them resolve by the end of one year. If it persists or appears after 5 years of age then operation is required.

Inguinal hernia:

These are most common hernias and occur in groin region. They are more common in men.

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