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Heart Failure Tips

Sudden Cardiac Arrest - Is It Preventable?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Medicine
General Physician, Pune
Sudden Cardiac Arrest - Is It Preventable?

Cardiac arrest is reported to be the number one cause of sudden death for people over the age of 40. As it strikes fast and without prior warning, it usually leaves no time for getting help to the patient. Many lives can be saved if the necessary first aid is given immediately by people who know what to do in case of a cardiac arrest.

So first let us know about the signs of a cardiac arrest:

  1. Loss of consciousness: A person may feel dizzy, sweat, faint or collapse suddenly. You can tell if someone has just fainted and not had a cardiac arrest if they are still breathing or have a pulse.
  2. No breathing
  3. No pulse
  4. Muscle twitching.

Now that you have recognized the signs; here is what you can do:

  1. Call the ambulance and try getting an emergency medical professional to attend to the person.
  2. If professional help isn't available, emergency resuscitation measures must begin. An automated external defibrillator (AED) can rapidly determine whether the person has an abnormal heart rhythm that can be treated by an electric shock (called defibrillation). AEDs are available in many public gathering places, such as stadiums and concert halls. An AED is used before calling for help and before attempting cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) because an AED is more likely to save lives. If the AED detects ventricular fibrillation, it provides an electrical shock (defibrillation) that can restore normal heart rhythm and start the heart beating again. Emergency medical care should be obtained even if the heart has started beating again. If a person remains in cardiac arrest after an AED is used, CPR should be done.
  3. If a person remains in cardiac arrest after an AED is used, other measures are begun, such as opening the airway and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
  4. CPR combines artificial respiration (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, or rescue breathing) to supply oxygen to the lungs with chest compressions, which circulate oxygen to the brain and other vital organs by forcing blood out of the heart.

To do CPR (artificial respiration), the rescuer's mouth covers the person's mouth and then rescuer slowly exhales air into the person's lungs (rescue breaths). The person's airway must remain opened during artificial respiration. To prevent air from escaping from the person's nose, the person's nose can be pinched shut as the rescuer exhales into the mouth.

Talk to your doctor to find out if you are at risk of a cardiac arrest.

4203 people found this helpful

Left Ventricular Assist Device - How Can It Affect Your Lifestyle?

Dr. Siddhartha Mani 89% (21 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Cardiology
Cardiologist, Kolkata
Left Ventricular Assist Device - How Can It Affect Your Lifestyle?

A left ventricular assist device is an electromechanical device used in cases of advanced heart failure. In later stages of heart failure when the heart is weakened and no longer able to pump the necessary amount of blood, a left ventricular assist device can be surgically implanted to assist the heart’s functions.

A left ventricular assist device is often used as a short term solution and is different from a pacemaker, which is a long term cardiac assist device. The cases in which a left ventricular assist device is often used are:

  • As a temporary solution while a cardiac failure patient is on a transplant list or otherwise waiting for a heart transplant.
  • During recovery from cardiac surgery when the heart is not strong enough to function on its own. The device would soon be removed as the patient recovers.
  • During recovery from heart attacks

Having a left ventricular assist device implanted gives the heart time to rest and recover, leading you to the point where your heart can go back to functioning on its own. However, there are cases where a left ventricular assist device can be implanted as a long term solution. This treatment is called Destination Therapy and requires implanting a left ventricular assist device for several months or several years.

How does a Left Ventricular Assist Device works?
A Left Ventricular Assist Device can only be surgically implanted. It has both internal and external components with a pump attached to your heart and a controller on the outside of the body. The pump is attached to the heart with a tube that directs blood into the aorta. The pump and the controller are connected through a cable called the driveline. Since the Left Ventricular Assist Device is powered by electricity or batteries, a power source is also worn outside the body and is attached to the controller, powering both the controller and the pump.

How a Left Ventricular Assist Device can affect your lifestyle?
Many people around the world have Left Ventricular Assist Devices implanted on both a temporary and permanent basis. While a person should be resting while recovering from a heart attack or cardiac surgery, it is possible to go about your normal daily life whilst having a Left Ventricular Assist Device implanted. While certain exercises and stress should be avoided when having a heart condition or when implanted with a Left Ventricular Assist Device, with carrying cases for power sources and controller that can operate from various different power sources, it is easy to live a normal productive life.

1 person found this helpful

Congestive Heart Failure - Factors That Make It Fatal!

Dr. Sachin Hundekari 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Medicine, DNB (Cardiology)
Cardiologist, Pune
Congestive Heart Failure - Factors That Make It Fatal!

Our survival is solely reliant on the working of the heart. It is this that makes the prospect of a heart failure so fatal and so terrifying. Notwithstanding what the heart evokes, a heart failure is not indicative of a defunct heart; but only a situation when the heart pumps weaker than what is generally deemed as natural. Consequently, the blood flows at a slower rate to the heart and the body that in turn increases pressure in the heart. The oxygen that is produced by the heart in such a scenario is scanty and insufficient for the body.

body responds with its own defense mechanism, as the heart, in an attempt to hold more blood, stretches its chambers. Though this strenuous effort may keep the blood moving, it would gradually and inevitably weary the heart with all the effort. Subsequently, the kidney responds by retaining more salt and fluid in the body. These fluids may accumulate in different parts of the body, mainly in the legs, feet, ankles leading to congestion in the body. This very condition in medical terminology is referred to as congestive heart failure

Different causes can contribute to the onset of such a fatal condition. Some of them are:

  1. Coronary artery diseaseIn such a condition, the arteries supply insufficient amount of oxygen and blood to the heart. Subsequently, the heart receives scanty amount of nutrients and oxygen.
  2. Heart attackThe sudden, unanticipated blockage of the coronary artery and the ensuing stoppage of the flow of the blood lead to a heart attack. The heart muscles are damaged in such a case and prevent the proper functioning.
  3. Diseases: Though the term may be generic and over expansive, most of the ailments which people suffer from tend to manifest themselves by posing a potential threat to the functioning of the heart. A high blood pressure, kidney disease, even a thyroid disease can cause congestive heart failure.

Every disorder is preceded by certain symptoms, and congestive heart failure is no different. Some of them are:

  1. FatigueThis is one of the most perceptible symptoms of congestive heart failure. One of the earliest premonitions of an impending heart failure is a nagging sense of weariness and lethargy.
  2. SwellingAs the condition is characterized by accumulation and build-up of fluids in various part of the body, swelling is an inevitable symptom of this condition and a clear indication of the ailment.
1571 people found this helpful

Congestive Heart Failure - How To Identify It?

Dr. Rajiv Agarwal 90% (74 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Medicine, DM - Cardiology, Fellowship in Interventional Cardiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
Congestive Heart Failure - How To Identify It?

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a chronic and progressive condition that reduces the pumping efficiency of the heart. There will be a buildup of fluid around the heart over a period of time. This fluid accumulation then will be seen in the abdomen, legs, lungs, and liver. This could be a life-threatening situation that requires immediate attention. Read to know to more about stages, causes, symptoms, and treatment of this condition.

Stages

There are 4 stages of heart failure, which is based on history and present.

  • Stage A: These people have a strong family history of hypertension, diabetes, or heart problems and have a fat-rich diet and history of alcohol or drug abuse, smoking.
  • Stage B: These people have the disease but have no symptoms. They may have hypertension, which needs to be controlled.
  • Stage C: They have definite cardiac symptoms like fatigue and shortness of breath even with walking or bending over. These patients need to monitor lifestyle including diet, exercise, and alcohol usage.
  • Stage D: Even after treating CHF, these patients continue to have symptoms and require lifestyle changes, medications, and even surgical intervention in some.

Symptoms 

In its initial stages, CHF will not present with any symptoms. Gradually, there will be symptoms which can be constant or intermittent.

  • General fatigue and weakness: Reduced blood supply to the vital organs reduces overall energy levels in the patient.
  • Faster heart beats: Since the efficiency has reduced, the heart muscles work harder to meet the body demands, causing faster heart rate.
  • Shortness of breath: Due to congestion of the lungs, their efficiency is reduced and so the person gets short of breath much easily than before. There is also difficulty breathing, especially when lying flat or at rest. There could be associated with dry cough and wheezing, especially at night.
  • Fluid retention: The abdomen, ankles, and legs could be swollen, also resulting in weight gain, nausea, increased nocturnal urination. The internal examination would reveal fluid in the liver and other vital organs too.

Treatment: CHF requires a combination of lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases surgical intervention.

  • Changes like quitting smoking, dietary modifications, exercise based on the severity of CHF would be essential.
  • Medications like beta blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors to improve blood pressure, cholesterol-controlling drugs, and diuretics to manage fluid retention would be advised.
  • Angioplasty or value repair surgeries may be required if more severe abnormalities are detected.

Though it cannot be cured, the onset can be delayed and the severity of symptoms reduced with lifestyle changes. Talk to your doctor to know more.

2765 people found this helpful

Blockages Of Heart Arteries - What Causes It?

Dr. Sanjib Patra 92% (18 ratings)
Fellowship In Electrophysiology, Fellowship In Interventional Cardiology, DM - Cardiology, MD - Medicine, MBBS
Cardiologist, Kolkata
Blockages Of Heart Arteries - What Causes It?

Blockage in heart is a common term used for narrowing of coronary arteries. Coronary arteries are vessels, which supply blood and thus oxygen and food) to continuously working heart muscles. Heart muscles which are not tired working from the birth till death, however, cannot sustain long without blood supply.

A reduction in blood supply gives rise to ischemia of heart muscles commonly manifested as chest discomfort or angina. The sudden complete shutdown of blood supply leads to heart attack leading to permanent damage to heart (if blood flow not reestablished promptly).

But what causes these arteries to block? Deposition of LDL cholesterol (low-density cholesterol) in the inner surface of coronary arteries is the primary reason of these blockages. LDL a normal component of blood (up to certain limit) starts depositing in arteries as early as 10 years of age!

Deposition of billions of LDL molecules over several years on the inner surface of arteries gives rise to visible narrowings in these arteries. Flow ahead of these narrowings is reduced in proportion to the narrowing. At a level of 70 % narrowing, the flow is reduced to give ischemia (and angina) during exercise. Gradually increasing degree of narrowing reduces the exercise needed for ischemia and angina; a narrowing of more than 90 % can give symptoms at rest. A sudden clot formation at any of these stages can block the flow suddenly giving a heart attack.

If LDL is a normal component of blood, why it is deposited in the arteries at first place?

LDL above a certain limit in blood starts depositing in the arteries. Diabetes, Hypertension, smoking, less exercise and genetics makes it more sticky thus making narrowing faster. This is why these risk elements need to be properly attended for prevention from heart disease. For treatment medicines are important for stopping the progression of narrowings; angioplasty is a method of fast resolution of blockage, and bypass surgery is the method of creating a whole new blood supply for the affected part of the heart.

1051 people found this helpful

Ex-CM Of Delhi Sheila Dikshit Died Of Sudden Cardiac Arrest - An Overview About The Ailment!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Faridabad
Ex-CM Of Delhi Sheila Dikshit Died Of Sudden Cardiac Arrest - An Overview About The Ailment!

Multiple cardiac arrests be the reason behind the sudden demise of former CM of Delhi Mrs. Sheila Dikshit at the age of 81. Her last breath on 20th July at 3:55 pm was at Fortis Escorts Heart Institute, in Delhi. 

Certain cardiac arrests followed her way since a year or two now. Being well a day before and waking up with breathlessness was the initial symptom noticed by Sheila Dikshit on Saturday morning, after which she was admitted to Fortis. She was in critical condition with Cardiac Arrhythmia, said the doctor.

The unfortunate demise of Mrs. Sheila Dikshit has shaken the roots of Delhi. Many renowned politicians offered condolences on her demise. Current CM Mr. Arvind Kejriwal said Dikshit's death is a huge loss for Delhi and her contribution will always be remembered.

Let's know more about Sudden Cardiac Arrest!

Blocked arteries stop oxygen-rich blood from reaching the heart chamber and cause a heart attack. In case the blockage is not removed, it can kill the artery taking blood to the heart, which can stop the nourishment of the heart chamber. 

A heart attack may have immediate and intense symptoms, which initiate slowly and can last for hours to days in some situations. But in case of Sudden Cardiac Arrest, the heart stops beating at once. 

What is Sudden Cardiac Arrest (Arrhythmia)?

A sudden arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat) complications faced by heart causing breathlessness due to an electrical malfunction of the heart is a reason behind Sudden  Cardiac Arrest. The interrupted blood flow to the brain, lungs and other organs makes a person unconscious and lose pulse. 

Causes of Cardiac Arrest -

  • Ventricular Fibrillation - On inefficient pumping of blood by lower chambers of the heart called ventricles, leads to abnormal blood flow and finally no blood flow in the body causing a sudden heart attack. 

  • Atrial Fibrillation - The upper two chambers of the heart called atria stops beating after an arrhythmia. The SA node (sinoatrial) located on the right atrium doesn't send proper electrical impulses, which regulates the flow of blood in the body. During atrial fibrillation, ventricles don't pump blood leading to sudden cardiac arrest.

Symptoms of Sudden Cardiac Arrest -

  1. Dizziness 

  2. Shortness of breath 

  3. Fatigue

  4. Nausea 

  5. Palpitation

  6. Chest Pain 

  7. Pulse loss

  8. Sudden Collapse

Risks of Sudden Cardiac Arrest -

Emergency treatment -

CPR in case of sudden cardiac arrest can be helpful as it aims at delivering oxygen-rich blood to all vital organs of the body before any other treatment can be initiated.

2 people found this helpful

Pleural Effusion - What Is It?

Dr. Vivek Patil 87% (10 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases (DTCD), AFIH
Pulmonologist, Navi Mumbai
Pleural Effusion - What Is It?

During breathing activity, chest wall moves out & in, lungs expand & relax. For the smooth movement of the lungs inside the chest cavity, they are lined by pleura.

Pleura includes two thin linings, the layer lining lungs is called visceral pleura and the one lining chest wall is called parietal pleura. The cavity formed between these two layers is called Pleural cavity. It contains a small amount of lubricant called Pleural fluid which helps smooth sliding of two pleural surfaces. Any condition which results in inflammation of the pleural surfaces or accumulation of excessive fluid in the pleural cavity gives rise to symptoms attributable to pleural involvement or disease.

Pleural effusion is nothing but the collection of excess fluid in the pleural cavity. Excess fluid in the pleural space is not normal and can occur due to a variety of reasons. Depending on the chemical composition it is broadly divided into two categories, transudate and exudate.
 

What Causes Pleural Effusion? 

  • 1. Transudate pleural effusions 

  • 2. Exudate pleural effusions 

    • Exudate pleural effusion is caused by inflammation of the pleura itself and are often due to diseases involving the lung. Following are some common illnesses giving rise to exudate pleural effusion.

Symptoms of Pleural Effusion -

  1. Chest Pain: Chest pain is mainly due to irritation of the pleural lining. The pain is sharp, localized and worsens with a deep breath, yawning, coughing which is usually described as pleuritic. If the effusion causes inflammation of the diaphragm the pain may be referred to the shoulder or the upper abdomen. As the pleural effusion increases in size, the pain may increase or disappear altogether due to the separation of inflamed pleural surfaces.

  2. Shortness of breath: As the effusion grows larger with more fluid, the harder it is for the lung to expand and the more difficult it is for the patient to breathe resulting in shortness of breath.

  3. Other Symptoms: Other symptoms are generally attributable to the underlying disease process.

Diagnosis of Pleural Effusion -

Patient’s Detailed History and Clinical Examination are the mainstays of diagnosing pleural effusion and it’s the underlying cause. Following investigative modalities are generally opted for working out the final diagnosis before instituting appropriate therapy.

  • Chest X-ray: X-ray will help indicate the presence of fluid. 
  • Chest Ultrasound(USG): will help in confirming the presence of the fluid and it’s localization which in turn can guide the physician about its quantity and its capability.
  • CT Scan: CT scan of the chest may at times be required to ascertain the underlying cause or to know about any other co-morbid conditions.
  • Thoracentesis: Thoracentesis is a procedure used to sample the fluid from the pleural effusion. Using a long thin needle, fluid can be removed and sent for testing to confirm the diagnosis.
  • This can be just for diagnostic purposes or can even be used as a therapeutic procedure.
  • Chemical analysis of the fluid will help determine the type of pleural effusion.

Treatment of Pleural Effusion -

  1. Treatment of underlying Disease: The treatment of a pleural effusion usually requires that the underlying illness or disease is treated and controlled to prevent the accumulation of the pleural fluid. Like anti-TB therapy for Tubercular etiology or treatment of Cancer in malignant pleural effusion, etc.

  2. Thoracentesis: As discussed earlier Thoracentesis can be used as a therapeutic procedure to remove excess fluid and help lung expand and function properly.

  3. Tube thoracostomy: Thoracostomy or chest tube insertion may be done to drain and treat fluids which cannot be removed by needle aspirations, e.g. empyemas (pus collections).

  4. Pleurodesis: Some pleural effusions reoccur multiple times; sclerosing agents that induce scarring such as talc or tetracycline was used to prevent a recurrence.

  5. Decortication: If sclerosing agents fail, surgery may be required, called Decortication.

2600 people found this helpful

Sudden Cardiac Arrest - Know Signs And How To Handle It!

Dr. Tejas V Patel 91% (16 ratings)
DM - Cardiology, MD - Medicine, MBBS, Observership
Cardiologist, Ahmedabad
Sudden Cardiac Arrest -  Know Signs And How To Handle It!

Cardiac arrest is reported to be the number one cause of sudden death for people over the age of 40. As it strikes fast and without prior warning, it usually leaves no time for getting help to the patient. Many lives can be saved if the necessary first aid is given immediately by people who know what to do in case of a cardiac arrest.

So first let us know about the signs of a cardiac arrest:

  1. Loss of consciousness: A person may feel dizzy, sweat, faint or collapse suddenly. You can tell if someone has just fainted and not had a cardiac arrest if they are still breathing or have a pulse.
  2. No breathing
  3. No pulse
  4. Muscle twitching.

Now that you have recognized the signs; here is what you can do:

  1. Call the ambulance and try getting an emergency medical professional to attend to the person.
  2. If professional help isn't available, emergency resuscitation measures must begin. An automated external defibrillator (AED) can rapidly determine whether the person has an abnormal heart rhythm that can be treated by an electric shock (called defibrillation). AEDs are available in many public gathering places, such as stadiums and concert halls. An AED is used before calling for help and before attempting cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) because an AED is more likely to save lives. If the AED detects ventricular fibrillation, it provides an electrical shock (defibrillation) that can restore normal heart rhythm and start the heart beating again. Emergency medical care should be obtained even if the heart has started beating again. If a person remains in cardiac arrest after an AED is used, CPR should be done.
  3. If a person remains in cardiac arrest after an AED is used, other measures are begun, such as opening the airway and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
  4. CPR combines artificial respiration (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, or rescue breathing) to supply oxygen to the lungs with chest compressions, which circulate oxygen to the brain and other vital organs by forcing blood out of the heart.

To do CPR (artificial respiration), the rescuer's mouth covers the person's mouth and then rescuer slowly exhales air into the person's lungs (rescue breaths). The person's airway must remain opened during artificial respiration. To prevent air from escaping from the person's nose, the person's nose can be pinched shut as the rescuer exhales into the mouth.

Talk to your doctor to find out if you are at risk of a cardiac arrest.

1069 people found this helpful

Low Heart Rate - How Dangerous It Can Be?

Dr. Gaurav Tripathi 94% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Cardiology
Cardiologist, Raipur
Low Heart Rate - How Dangerous It Can Be?

The heart is a muscular organ and beats at regular intervals. This is known as the heart rate, which indicates a person’s overall health. In a normal healthy individual, it ranges from 60 to 100 depending on overall health status. A heart rate outside of these ranges is usually a cause for concern.

Bradycardia is when the heart rate is below 60. While this could be a sign of fitness and health in some, it could also mean an underlying cardiac condition in others. Low heart rate is seen in many athletes, who normally have a heart rate below 60, with no symptoms or problems.

However, in others, a slow heart rate can be an indication of an underlying heart problem. The electrical system in the heart could be affected, leading to alteration in blood supply to the heart and other vital organs. This needs further investigation and management to restore normal cardiac function.

Causes: Some of the reasons for reduced heart rate include:

  1. The normal aging process, as with all body functions, aging slows down the heart’s electrical function, leading to reduced heart rate
  2. Heart conditions like coronary artery disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart attack, and infections of the heart muscles (endocarditis or myocarditis)
  3. Pulmonary conditions like sleep apnea
  4. Hormonal conditions like hypothyroidism
  5. Metabolic conditions like increased potassium
  6. Increased iron accumulation in the body
  7. Medications like beta-blockers and digoxin

Symptoms: While bradycardia does not cause symptoms in some, in others, where it has an associated medical condition, the following would be seen too:

  1. Extreme levels of fatigue, with near-fainting episodes
  2. Regular bouts of dizziness
  3. Shortness of breath with even minimal activity
  4. Weakness, tiredness, and low energy levels
  5. Chest pain bouts
  6. Lack of mental energy and confusion
  7. Memory problems

Complications: If left untreated, bradycardia can cause:

  1. Fainting spells, where the patient may just collapse in the midst of an activity
  2. Heart failure, where the heart is not able to pump enough blood
  3. Sudden cardiac death

Risk factors: If you have any or some of the following, do not ignore bradycardia.

  1. Age (more common in older adults)
  2. Hypertension
  3. Diabetes
  4. Smoking
  5. Heavy alcohol abuse
  6. High levels of emotional stress

Treatment: Once the diagnosis of bradycardia and underlying disease is confirmed, treatment will be two-pronged.

  1. Correct underlying condition like hypothyroidism, electrolyte imbalance and infections.
  2. Work on managing chronic conditions like coronary disease, diabetes, and obesity.
  3. Prepare the patient to watch for episodes of bradycardia and ways to manage them.

While bradycardia per se is not a concern, other conditions should be managed so the heart keeps working to its optimal level.

2676 people found this helpful

Sudden Cardiac Arrest - What Needs To Be Done?

Dr. Sachin Hundekari 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Medicine, DNB (Cardiology)
Cardiologist, Pune
Sudden Cardiac Arrest - What Needs To Be Done?

Cardiac arrest is reported to be the number one cause of sudden death for people over the age of 40. As it strikes fast and without prior warning, it usually leaves no time for getting help to the patient. Many lives can be saved if the necessary first aid is given immediately by people who know what to do in case of a cardiac arrest.

So first let us know about the signs of a cardiac arrest:

  1. Loss of consciousness: A person may feel dizzy, sweat, faint or collapse suddenly. You can tell if someone has just fainted and not had a cardiac arrest if they are still breathing or have a pulse.
  2. No breathing
  3. No pulse
  4. Muscle twitching.

Now that you have recognized the signs; here is what you can do:

  1. Call the ambulance and try getting an emergency medical professional to attend to the person.
  2. If professional help isn't available, emergency resuscitation measures must begin. An automated external defibrillator (AED) can rapidly determine whether the person has an abnormal heart rhythm that can be treated by an electric shock (called defibrillation). AEDs are available in many public gathering places, such as stadiums and concert halls. An AED is used before calling for help and before attempting cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) because an AED is more likely to save lives. If the AED detects ventricular fibrillation, it provides an electrical shock (defibrillation) that can restore normal heart rhythm and start the heart beating again. Emergency medical care should be obtained even if the heart has started beating again. If a person remains in cardiac arrest after an AED is used, CPR should be done.
  3. If a person remains in cardiac arrest after an AED is used, other measures are begun, such as opening the airway and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
  4. CPR combines artificial respiration (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, or rescue breathing) to supply oxygen to the lungs with chest compressions, which circulate oxygen to the brain and other vital organs by forcing blood out of the heart.

To do CPR (artificial respiration), the rescuer's mouth covers the person's mouth and then rescuer slowly exhales air into the person's lungs (rescue breaths). The person's airway must remain opened during artificial respiration. To prevent air from escaping from the person's nose, the person's nose can be pinched shut as the rescuer exhales into the mouth.

Talk to your doctor to find out if you are at risk of a cardiac arrest.

2823 people found this helpful
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