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Heart Attack Health Feed

Thrombolysis - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment Of It!

Dr. Susanta Pradhan 87% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Cardiology
Cardiologist, Bhubaneswar
Thrombolysis - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment Of It!

Formation of blood clots in the arteries of the lungs, heart or legs can actually kill a person. In such a case, the immediate medical action is necessary and the only way to deal with blood clots is thrombolysis.
Thrombolysis or thrombolytic therapy is a medical process that dissolves blood clots and facilitates blood flow to all parts of the body. Thus, it protects tissues and muscles from damage.

What are the causes of blood clots in the body?

• Poor blood circulation
• Conditions such as Deep Venous Thrombosis and atrial fibrillation
• Blood clots can also be formed because of dialysis catheters and by-pass grafts

How can you tell if you have blood clots?

• Swelling in one or more legs
• Cramp and tenderness in the legs
• Breathing trouble might indicate that blood clots have travelled to the lungs
Sweating and frequent chest pain may suggest that blood clots have travelled to the heart

How is Thrombolysis performed?

Thrombolytic drugs are injected into the body intravenously. They make their way to where the blood clots exist and dissolve them. If there is a medical emergency, the drugs are delivered to the exact location of the blood clots and immediately start dissolving them. Another method is inserting a device into the blood clot infested region to break the clots up. The drugs which on entering the body dissolve blood clots are called thrombolytics. There are many varieties of thrombolytics such as the following-

Streptokinase - It is a kind of enzyme. It is used when a person has just suffered a heart attack or pulmonary embolism. Doctors do not usually prescribe the second usage of this drug. It is injected into a vein and can be administered to pregnant women.

Tenecteplase - Also an enzyme, it is a plasminogen activator. When it binds to the surface of the blood clot, it makes the clot degenerate.

Reteplase - It is actually extracted from E-Coli. It is a sterile intravenous bolus injection

The leading cause of heart attacks and ischemic heart disorder is the formation of blood clots in the arteries that connect the heart and the brain. Thrombolysis is often employed as an emergency treatment for this purpose. Thrombolysis is also effective against blood clots formed in the lungs (which lead to acute pulmonary embolism). Sometimes blood clots are formed in the legs, upper extremities of the body, the pelvic region (deep vein thrombosis). These clots may travel to the lungs and heart.

Consult your doctor before undergoing the treatment.

What Is Bradycardia?

Dr. Radhika A (Md) 84% (13 ratings)
MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
What Is Bradycardia?

Bradycardia
The normal rate of heart beats for humans is from 60 to 100 beats per minute. This is when the person is in a normal situation or at rest. The rate goes higher in conditions like exercising, stress etc. However, when the person is at rest and still gets the beat count less than 60, then it could be due to the condition of Bradycardia. This does not mean that it is an alarming situation whenever the count goes below 60, but it could be just a sign that something is not right with the electrical system related to the heart function.

There are three major types of Bradycardia, described as follows:
-  Sinus Bradycardia: The sinus node is the natural pacemaker for the heart. Its normal function is to generate the electrical signals for 60-100 times in a minute. When this node fails to function or gets delayed in generating the signals, then it is the condition of Sinus Bradycardia. This kind of Bradycardia is more prominent among children and athletes. It could be very slightly present that many times it goes unnoticed. Most of the causes that are listed below apply to this kind of bradycardia.

-  Sick Sinus Syndrome: This category of bradycardia leads to the irregular or abnormal rhythm of the heart. When the person has irregular heart rates or when they feel a sudden rise and fall (or slow and fast) heart rates, they might be suffering from sick sinus syndrome. This category of bradycardia is not as prevalent as sinus bradycardia. People with existing heart diseases, or who have gone through heart surgeries are a bit susceptible to sick sinus syndrome since their sinus node might have got damaged or affected. Even though when people face usual wear and tear of heart tissues, it can lead to this disease.

-  Heart block: The electrical signals in the heart need to flow to the chambers so that the oxygen-rich blood can flow properly. In case of heart block, the signals are not properly transferred among cells. In fact, the flow of the signal can completely stop in case of heart block. The medical term for this condition is Atrioventricular block. It depends on what degree it is present in. there is a mild degree or first degree which can cause no issues and is considered as closed to normal. Then, there is a third degree which is the most critical stage and is also referred to as “complete heart block”. In such a situation, the patient should be treated immediately. Generally, doctors don’t let the patients reach this stage provided patients take precautions and reports to the doctor timely. Though this disease can be by birth as well and it could also be caused by a heart attack. Other causes include inflammation of muscle in the heart, narrow arteries or coronary diseases and rheumatic fever. The rheumatic fever is very common in those children who don’t get proper treatment for strep throat.

Bradycardia Symptoms
Because of Bradycardia, the oxygen supply is not properly managed by the body, because of which some organs might not get enough of oxygen. Following are the symptoms of Bradycardia:

-  Fainting: Lack of oxygen can cause people to faint or feel the near-faint feeling.

-  Dizziness or light-headed feeling

-  Shortness of breath: Even when the physical work is done is not much, people with Bradycardia experience shortness of breath. This can also be accompanied by pain in the chest in some cases.

-  Misperceptions or difficulty in concentrating: The mind cannot focus well when the oxygen supply is not proper which leads to confusions and a non-alert mind.

-  Loss of memory: People can face a hard time remembering things.

-  Tiredness: Though some people get tired easily because of other reasons as well and one of the reasons could be Bradycardia.

Bradycardia Causes:
-  Ageing can cause heart tissues to damage which can lead to Bradycardia

-  The heart tissues can also get damaged because of some current/past heart disease or even heart attack.

-  It could also be by birth that the heart has this disorder.

-  The tissues in the heart can catch some infection-causing disorders of this kind. This is also known as Myocarditis.

-  If the person has gone through any heart surgery, then it might have left the heart vulnerable to Bradycardia.

-  Thyroid glands which do not produce enough hormones can also be a cause. This condition is called hypothyroidism.

-  Some chemicals like Calcium, potassium might not be present in the blood in balanced amounts, causing abnormal heart beat rates.

-  Disturbances in breathing while sleeping over a long time.

-  Fevers like rheumatic fevers or any such inflammatory condition can also cause Bradycardia.

-  Any drugs which can have an impact on blood pressure, heart rhythm or used to treat psychosis can affect the heartbeat leading to Bradycardia.

All the above factors can have some impact on the electrical signals which are generated by the sinus node. The sinus node is basically a pacemaker (which is biologically present in the heart) and generates signals which in turn makes the heart to beat. So, if the sinus node acts slower than usual, or fails to perform its action, then it causes abnormal heartbeats.

Another cause of Bradycardia is the blockage of electrical signals in the pathway to and from the heart. To understand or visualise the meaning of ‘pathway’, it is important to understand how the heart works. The heart consists of four chambers which are divided into lower and upper ones. The upper ones are also known as atria. This is where the sinus node is situated. When this node generates the electrical signals, it causes the atria to contract which pumps the blood into the lower chambers of the heart. Those electric impulses reach the AV, which is the atrioventricular node. This further transfers the signal to some cells which in turn sends them to right and left ventricle. The right ventricle is responsible for sending blood which does not have much oxygen in it to the lungs and left ventricle is responsible for sending blood full of oxygen to the body. This is how the signals play a vital role in the body and those signals can be affected by multiple factors stated above.

How Bradycardia is Diagnosed?
Bradycardia can be a bit tricky to diagnose because the symptoms might not be present all the time. They could come and go. The testing used to diagnose Bradycardia is an electrocardiogram. This testing, also known by the name EKG, helps in measuring the electrical signals generated in the heart.

The symptoms might or might not appear while testing. If they do appear, then the diagnose because apparent, otherwise, the doctors need to observe and investigate more. For that purpose, they sometimes recommend wearing a monitor which monitors the heart beats for 24 hours. Other ways by which doctors diagnose is closely examining the symptoms in different situations and asking about the family history of the patient. It is important for the patient to be able to provide all the information to the doctor to avoid any misdiagnosis.

Bradycardia Prevention 
Prevention methods of Bradycardia are same as those of heart diseases. Take the necessary measures to avoid any kind of heart diseases. If you already have a heart disease of any kind, then you might need to monitor your heart beats during the day and even in the night. If there are any discrepancies found, you should consult the doctor immediately before Bradycardia takes over. Early detection can reduce the risk of having this disease. Following are the generic ways to keep your heart healthy and avoid any kind of heart diseases:

-  Adopt a diet which has low sodium content in it.

-  Maintain the body weight as per the BMI index. Being overweight is a very common reason for heart diseases. Keeping the weight under control will not ensure that you are safe from heart diseases, but greatly reduces the chances of catching them.

-  Stay active- do some form of physical activity every day for at least 30 minutes.

-  Quit smoking if you are a smoker.

-  Avoid processed sugars at all costs. Things like cakes, chocolates, brownies, cookies, candies etc. should be avoided. These things can be replaced by natural sugars like fruits or dried fruits like figs etc.

-  Eat lots of fruits and vegetables which aids a low-fat diet. Fruits are rich in vitamins and have good fibre which aids digestion and keeps the body hydrated.

-  Keep an eye on cholesterol and sugar levels and keep them under control always. Differentiate between good and bad cholesterol and get yourself checked timely to notice any changes and progress in your controlled diet. The cholesterol levels can be maintained by eating nuts and avoiding fried food like fries etc. Junk food of all kinds mostly have a good amount of bad cholesterol and should certainly be avoided.

-  Use of alcohol also needs to be monitored. If you must drink at all, the allowed dosage is one drink per day for women. It could be two drinks for men, but that applies to very healthy individuals and varies greatly from the condition of one individual to other. Based on your health condition, your doctor can advise the allowed limits of alcohol consumption.

-  Taking drugs (recreational) is strictly not recommended, irrespective of how small their quantity is or how less often they are taken.

-  Try to stay stress-free. Stress has a direct impact on heart and it also affects your gastrointestinal system.

Even while you practice all the above steps, going for regular check-ups and reporting any noticeable irregularities will be an ideal thing to do.

For people having a mechanical pacemaker, immediate consultation with the doctor is advisable since it could be the pacemaker which is not performing as expected.

Also, for people who already have any kind of heart disease, they should take their treatment plan very seriously and report to the doctor about any changes or unexpected events for further diagnoses. Neglecting the abnormalities by considering them a result of heart disease is not advisable.

Treatments for Bradycardia
The treatment plan is only devised by the doctors after careful examination. They base their decision on the original cause of Bradycardia. Treating the cause or the ‘underlying condition’ can heal this disease. This is like eliminating the disease from its roots. Also note that if there are no symptoms found but heartbeat is at times lower than 60, then the doctor might not take any action at all, also depending upon the person’s health history. But for most cases, the doctors will advise you to keep an eye on the heart rates in case if changes drastically or needs attention later.

If there are any medications which are causing the heart to slow down, the doctor might reduce the dosage to see if that positively impacts the heart. Doctors can also use a pacemaker, which keeps the heart rate in control.

Complications in Bradycardia
Below complications can be caused if the patient had symptoms of Bradycardia:

-  Fainting quite often.

-  Issues with heart when it tries to pump the required amount of blood- which can eventually lead to heart failures.

-  Sudden heart attack or even demise.

Myths
Myth #1:
It is often believed that if the heart rate is slow, it implies that the heart is weak. It is not always the case. There are certain reasons why people get this disease which is not related to the heart. For example, calcium content or disorders with Thyroid gland are also reasons for Bradycardia but they don’t imply a weak heart. When the heart tissues catch the infection, in those cases it can be said that heart is weak, but chances are that it is a temporary condition and can be fixed with the help of treatments.

Coronary Artery Disease - 7 Effective Ways To Prevent It Well!

Dr. Ripen Gupta 90% (183 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Medicine, DM - Cardiology, Fellowship In Interventional Cardiology, Interventional Cardiology & Cardiac Electrophysiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
Coronary Artery Disease - 7 Effective Ways To Prevent It Well!

The heart pumps pure blood to all parts of the body through a network of arteries. These are thicker in the beginning and become finer and thinner as they reach the various organs. These arteries are lined by a layer of epithelial tissues and as blood flows through them, the heavier cholesterol / fat molecules settle down along the walls.

This attracts more and more fat molecules to settle down. This is known as atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). Over a period of time, the vessels circumference reduces and the blood supply to the target organ reduces. This impacts proper functioning of these organs and when this happens to the major organs like the heart, kidney or the brain, conditions like stroke or thrombosis or heart attack can occur.

This condition, known as coronary artery disease, is becoming a major cause of deaths.  While that is the bad news, the good news is that it is largely lifestyle dependent, and if steps are taken, it can be prevented, and in the early stages, the damage completely reversed.

Preventive measures:

1. Diet: A low-fat, high-fiber, heart-healthy diet consisting of Omega-3 fatty acids is recommended by doctors, especially to people who are prone to develop heart disease.  This also requires reduced salt, increased unsaturated fats, reduced triglycerides and reduced sugar.  Include loads of fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts and seeds and fish oils. Include multivitamins or other supplements after checking with your doctor.

2. Exercise:  Regular exercise in any form increases the efficiency of the circulatory system, keeps the cholesterol levels in check and helps in blood pressure management.  Exercise in any form is advisable, based on individual preference. A moderate physical activity of 30 to 45 minutes per day is advisable.

3. Smoking: This is one of the major risk factors for smoking, and quitting or controlling smoking is one of the best methods to prevent coronary artery disease.

4. Alcohol consumption:  While moderate alcohol consumption is believed to be healthy for the heart, excessive alcohol consumption is a strict no-no.  Binge drinking especially is shown to cause heart attacks.

5. Weight management: Check with your doctor on what is ideal BMI for you and work out a plan to keep your weight under check.

6. Regular medications: If you are on blood pressure or diabetes medications, ensure you do not miss them.  Keep a constant check to ensure your readings are managed well.

7. Watch out:  Ask your doctor if there are specific symptoms that you need to watch out and seek medical support if you see any of them.

Coronary disease is not treatable fully, but can be prevented and managed effectively to improve the overall quality of life.

2179 people found this helpful

My mother had undergone angioplasty in October as she suffered from a mild heart attack. Doctors have advised her to walk for at least 30 minutes. She is suffering from Diabetes as well. Her age is 57 years. Both diabetes and BP is under control. But when she walks for 3 rounds in the park, she gets a mild pain near chest and shoulder for a few seconds. When she sits, it goes off and after that she can walk for another 3 rounds without pain. Any cause of concern?

Dr. Shobhit Tandon 89% (1004 ratings)
MBBS, PG-Diploma In Clinical Pathology
Sexologist, Sri Ganganagar
My mother had undergone angioplasty in October as she suffered from a mild heart attack. Doctors have advised her to ...
Stamina develops slowly so ask your mom to go to park daily and if she becomes tired she can sit and again start walking, give her 4 garlic with Luke warm water daily on empty stomach.
1 person found this helpful
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In recently blood test CRP value is 7 mg/l, please suggest is it too high? I read on net that 7 mg/l is high & may lead to heart attack in future. Kindly suggest how to reduce it.

Dr. Sajeev Kumar 92% (29133 ratings)
C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
In recently blood test CRP value is 7 mg/l, please suggest is it too high?
I read on net that 7 mg/l is high & may le...
You are at low risk of developing cardiovascular disease if your hs-CRP level is lower than 1.0 mg/L. You are at average risk of developing cardiovascular disease if your levels are between 1.0 mg/L and 3.0 mg/L. You are at high risk for cardiovascular disease if your hs-CRP level is higher than 3.0 mg/L.. ote that these values are or hs CRP and not normal CRP A wide variety of inflammatory conditions can cause elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, including the following: autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), lupus, and certain types of inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
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Sudden Cardiac Arrest - What Should You Do?

Dr. Aman Makhija 88% (10 ratings)
DM - Cardiology, MBBS, MD - Medicine, Training in Electrophysiology
Cardiologist, Delhi
Sudden Cardiac Arrest - What Should You Do?

A sudden cardiac arrest is not same as a normal heart attack. While a heart attack refers to the blocking of blood flow to the heart, a sudden cardiac arrest refers to when the heart stops beating unexpectedly. Sudden cardiac arrests occur without warning and often this condition is triggered by electrical malfunctioning in the heart that causes arrhythmia.

When the heart stops beating, blood cannot be pumped to the brain and other organs and the person loses consciousness. If a patient does not receive immediate treatment, this could be fatal. Hence it is important to know what first aid a person experiencing a sudden cardiac arrest requires.

Help

Do not wait for someone else to help a person experiencing a sudden cardiac arrest. The first few moments after such an experience are critical and hence your decision to help is what could save the person’s life.

Call a Doctor

The first thing to do when you see someone experiencing a cardiac arrest is to call emergency and request an ambulance. If you do not have a phone available, ask someone else to do it.

CPR

After a cardiac arrest, it is essential to get the heart to start beating again as soon as possible. CPR or Cardiopulmonary resuscitation can save lives in this situation. If you are trained in this procedure, start with 30 chest compressions before checking the patient’s airway and performing rescue breathing. If you are not trained in CPR, ask the people around if anyone else is.

If no one around can perform CPR, start hands-only CPR. Make the person lie flat on their back and kneel next to their shoulders. Place the heel of one palm in the centre of the person’s chest with the other hand over it. Keep your elbows straight and position your elbows such that they are directly over your hands. Use your upper body weight to push down straight on the person’s chest and release. Try and achieve a rate of 100 compressions a minute. Continue until the person starts breathing again or medical help arrives.

Use an Automated External Defibrillator (AED)

If an AED is available, place the electrode pads on the person’s chest as shown in the diagrams that come along with the AED. Follow the visual and voice prompts. Do not worry if the AED shocks the patient as this electrical therapy can help restart the heart.

2662 people found this helpful

Hello Doctor, Doctor My question is :-Why in our country We have maximum No. Of Sugar patient 2) Why Nowadays Majority of Our people dying due to Heart attack before they could attain Average 60 years Of life 3) What is the Treatment to Avoid it.

Dr. Nitin Sahu 93% (413 ratings)
MD - General Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Endocrinologist, Indore
The good news is that there are steps to take to reduce your risk for heart disease if you have diabetes If you have diabetes, heart disease can be a serious concern. In fact, cardiovascular disease leading to heart attack or stroke is by far the leading cause of death in both men and women with diabetes, says Control your weight. One of the most important things you can do if you have diabetes is maintain a healthy weight. If you are overweight, talk to a registered dietitian about healthy ways to lose weight. Get regular physical activity. There is a significant body of research that proves the myriad cardiovascular benefits of regular physical activity (that goes beyond weight loss). Start off slowly, and build a plan that works well for you and meets your needs. Don’t smoke. If you already do, make plans to begin a smoking cessation program. "Nicotine narrows and restricts blood vessels; diabetes will also do the same thing to your blood vessels. You can't change having diabetes. But you can stop damage caused by nicotine, Maintain tight control over glucose. Tight control can prevent many complications from diabetes and also protects your heart. Shoot for an A1C reading of less than 7%. Lower your LDL cholesterol (the "bad" type). Both the American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association recommend an LDL cholesterol goal of less than 100 mg/dl. Control your blood pressure. All people with diabetes should aim for a blood pressure reading of less than 130/80, advises Dr. Ganda.
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Heart Disease - How Men And Women Do Not Face Equal Risks?

Dr. Tejas V Patel 90% (16 ratings)
DM - Cardiology, MD - Medicine, MBBS, Observership
Cardiologist, Ahmedabad
Heart Disease - How Men And Women Do Not Face Equal Risks?

Heart disease doesn't affect all women in the same way and neither does it have the same warning signs as heart diseases in men. For women, heart disease is a bigger threat than breast cancer. Cardiovascular diseases also kill more women than men as the disease progresses differently in men and women. Here are a few things you should know about heart diseases.

Women have more atypical symptoms of heart attacks: The classic symptoms of heart attacks are pain in the left arm, chest pain and heart palpitations. Though women may exhibit these symptoms, they are more likely to have atypical symptoms. These include nausea, stomach aches, pain in the shoulders and upper back and extreme fatigue.

Preeclampsia and gestational diabetes can increase risks of heart disease: Even though your blood pressure may go back to normal and conditions like preeclampsia or gestational diabetes may go away post pregnancy, their effects linger on. The risk of heart disease for a woman who suffered from preeclampsia doubles while gestational diabetes can cause glucose intolerance leading to obesity or other such conditions which are risk factors for heart diseases.

Hot flashes could be a sign of heart problems: Hot flashes are usually associated with menopause but may also be a symptom of underlying heart problems. Hot flashes that occur after a exerting a strenuous effort on something can be a sign of angina in women.

Men and women do not face equal risks: Traditional risks to heart diseases such as cholesterol, obesity and high blood pressure affect both men and women but some factors such as diabetes, stress, depression and smoking affect women more than they affect men. Since women tend to lead a more sedentary lifestyle than men, a lack of exercise also affects them more than it affects men. In addition, a low level of estrogen can also increase the risk of cardiovascular conditions. This is usually seen after menopause.

Metabolic syndrome increase your risk of getting a stroke:

There are five metabolic risk factors for heart disease. If you have 3 or more of them, it is termed as metabolic syndrome. These risk factors are:

  1. A waist circumference of more than 35". This is also called abdominal obesity
  2. A triglyceride level higher than 150 mg/dL
  3. A low level of good cholesterol i.e. HDL cholesterol that is less than 50mg/dL
  4. High blood pressure
  5. High blood sugar. This could also be a sign of diabetes.

While some factors like genetics are out of our control, most of these factors can be controlled by conscious lifestyle changes. Your doctor may also prescribe medication for the same. Heart disease can occur at any time so do not take your heart for granted.

1800 people found this helpful

I have undergone angioplasty in 1996 @ bangalore. Taking regular medicine morning clopilet A75. concern 5 mg cardace 5 mg esam 5 mg and night rosuvas 20 but now I have been transferred to a remote area where doctor facility is available at 50 km distance and take almost one day shall I continue this medicine.

Dr. Col V C Goyal 92% (10378 ratings)
CCEBDM, PG Diploma In Clinical Cardiology, MBBS
General Physician, Ghaziabad
Regularly monitor your BP, do 1.no alcohol 2. Reduce body wt 3. No smoking/ tobacco 4. Diet - no ghee/ butter, have mix of vegetable oils - mustard, til, ground nut, olive oil, have more green vegetables and fruits, have whole grain atta, no fried. Fast. Spicy / processed/ junk food. Less sugar, potato, rice 5. 30 mts brisk walk daily 6. Deep breathing exercise for 10 mts daily 7. Meditation daily for 10 mts. 6-8 hrs of sleep at night 8. Expose your body to sun for 15-20 mts daily after some oil massage to get vit d. 9. Take more water Medicine can not be advised for open question ,for medicine contact on private chat.
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It is advised to eat plenty fruit and other fibre food to prevent heart deceases. However sugar level is likely to increase due to fruit intake what is the remedy?

Dr. Prabhakar Laxman Jathar 94% (15526 ratings)
MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Hello, Thanks for the query. Intake of fruits is good in persons who have no diabetes. Even in those with diabetes when blood glucose is well controlled some fruits in limited quantity are good enough. For a person without diabetes there is absolutely no problem at all. As regards other fiber containing foods, intake of those foods does not cause a marked increase in glucose. The restrictions are specifically for a person with diabetes only. Thanks.
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