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Last Updated: Jan 10, 2023

Gynecomastia - Knowing The Causes & Treatment Of It!

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Dr. Sharad DagaGeneral Surgeon • 13 Years Exp.MBBS, DNB - General Surgery
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Gynecomastia is a hormonal condition that causes swelling of the breast tissues in men and boys. This condition usually arises as a result of hormonal imbalance. Breasts do not form in the same pattern in males as they do in females but all males are naturally born with tiny quantities of the breast tissues. The male body produces the testosterone hormone, which plays an important role for growth during the stage of puberty. However, they also make the hormone estrogen that is instrumental for developing sexual growth in females.

When a male passing through the stage of puberty makes lesser amounts of testosterone then there is an imbalance of the hormones. As a result of the higher amount of estrogen present in men leads to swelling of the breast tissues.

Cause of imbalance-

Aside from the common reason which is the lesser production of testosterone, there are a few other reasons that can put into effect this imbalance. They are-

• Injury to the testicles that are responsible for producing testosterone
Obesity which leads to greater production of estrogen
• Taking illegal drugs
• Liver disorder
• Failure of the kidney
• Thyroid problems that result in throwing off your hormonal balance
• Medications that you might be taking for illnesses such as cancer, depression, heart disorders and ulcers

Treatment of Gynecomastia

The treatment of gynecomastia involves a general surgery which reduces the size of breasts by flattening and enhancing the contours of the chest. If in very severe cases the weight of the breast tissue has sagged and stretched the areola region, then the areola size can be improved surgically by reducing the excess skin.

• Mammaplasty

Plastic surgery, known as Mammaplasty, is also sometimes put into effect in order to treat the condition of gynecomastia.


In the case of liposuction, the procedure of the treatment first starts with a set of medications that need to be consumed. These medications help to reduce pain during the surgery. There are two ways of taking this medication, either through intravenous sedation or via general anaesthesia. The liposuction technique involves the insertion of a hollow tube with the help of several incisions. Liposuction technique is generally prescribed if the cause of gynecomastia is excess of fatty tissues. During the procedure, the cannula or the tube will be moved back and forth in order to loosen up the excess fat. This fat is then removed via vacuum suction.

• Excision Technique

The excision technique is prescribed when the glandular breast tissue needs to be removed in order to rectify gynecomastia. In this procedure, the nipple will either be repositioned to a manlier contour or the areola size will either be lessened. In some other cases, the general surgery of gynecomastia can also involve a combination of both the excision technique as well as the liposuction technique.

Gynecomastia is a condition that can severely damage the emotional balance of a man and lessen their self-confidence. It has been also seen that many men suffering from this condition tend to avoid physical intimacy or sexual activities as a result of body-image issues. Therefore, treatment is highly recommended for those suffering from gynecomastia.

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