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Growth Retardation Tips

Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip - How Common It Is?

Dr. Ravi C V 90% (15 ratings)
DNB, Fellowship in Pediatric Orthopedics
Orthopedist, Visakhapatnam
Developmental Dysplasia Of Hip - How Common It Is?

What is Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip?

Developmental dysplasia of the hip or DDH, is a condition that affects the hip joint in newborns and young children. The hip is like a ball-and-cup, formed by the round top of the thigh bone - called the femur - and a cup-shaped socket in the pelvis. The hip joint is stable in spite of its large range of motion and is kept in place by ligaments and other soft tissue structures. The normal infant hip is not mature at birth but develops into a strong and stable joint as the child grows.

What happens in hip dysplasia?

In DDH, the hip does not develop normally as the cup and ball are either partially or completely out of alignment. DDH can vary from mild to severe depending on whether the cup is shallow, soft tissue structures are lax or a combination of all. These problems may cause the hip to become unstable, and even come out of the joint. This is known as a dislocated hip and is believed to occur in around one in 1000 infants. One or both hips can be affected. DDH isn't painful in babies and young children. Untreated DDH can result in limping in young children. This can progress to hip pain and arthritis at a later date.

How common is it?

DDH is more common in girls and first-born children. It's more likely to occur if there's a family history or if the baby was breech. Swaddling or wrapping a baby's legs too tightly can also lead to DDH. Certain traditional practices like wrapping the children, etc. are known to increase the risk, while carrying them with limbs separated apart is known to decrease the risk of dysplasia. All newborns should have both hips carefully examined by a health professional. 

Treatment options

Treatment depends on the child's age and the severity of the condition. Young babies with confirmed DDH are usually treated in a brace or harness that holds the legs apart. This helps the hip socket to deepen and the hip to become stable with growth. Regular monitoring of the hip position is necessary to ensure good outcomes. Surgery may be necessary if brace treatment is unsuccessful, or if a hip dislocation is first noticed when the child is older.

What is the long-term outlook?

Most infants who are diagnosed and treated early do not have any hip problems in later life. Earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome, as late diagnosis often requires surgical treatment and can mean a higher likelihood of ongoing hip problems.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3471 people found this helpful

Thumb-sucking Habit - 7 Things to Keep in Mind!

Dr. K R Parameshwar Reddy 90% (14 ratings)
MDS - Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, BDS
Dentist, Hyderabad
Thumb-sucking Habit - 7 Things to Keep in Mind!

The habit of thumb sucking is very common in many toddlers and babies, but often disturbs the parents to a great extent. Before dealing with this habit, it is very imperative for parents to understand the cause of this behavior. The tendency of thumb sucking is quite normal for the babies as it makes them feel comforting.

Problems that occur with thumb sucking
There are certain problems that occur if the baby develops the habit of prolonged thumb sucking. The problem that occurs mainly on sucking the thumb for longer time is with the teeth of the toddlers which may result in speech problems. Some babies get over this habit of thumb sucking on their own without any adverse after affects. However, sometimes prolonged thumb sucking may result in irritation on the skin or lead to peeling off of the skin, causing discomfort and pain to the child. There are chances that even the nails on the fingers grow in a crooked manner because of infection caused by thumb sucking.

How to get your child to leave thumb sucking habit?

  1. Parents must in any case not force their toddlers to stop this habit or get upset with them, as it can cause the toddler to develop this habit all the more.
  2. A child mainly sucks his thumb for comfort, and the habit can be stopped by diverting their mind and offering the child a soft toy or giving them a special blanket.
  3. It is better to give the toddler something to hold which makes him feel secure and comfortable.
  4. It is very important to assess whether it is a problem before stopping the habit of thumb sucking. But if the habit continues, it may affect the alignment of the teeth.
  5. It is always better to make use of ways like positive reinforcement and encouraging behavior change in your child. Parents must set up a reward system and take a note of the days the child does not suck his thumb. It is important that parents praise their child verbally and give them some reward at the end of the month.
  6. The best and simple way to quit the habit of thumb sucking is to cover the thumb with a thumb guard or mittens.
  7. The best way to help your child quit the habit would be to distract him or her and involve them in activities that would require the use of both the hands. Parents can keep their child busy by giving them puzzles or blocks to play. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can ask a free question.
3466 people found this helpful

Health During Pregnancy - 5 Ways To Monitor And Care For It!

Dr. Nimmi Rastogi 89% (35 ratings)
DGO, MBBS, Advanced Infertility
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Health During Pregnancy - 5 Ways To Monitor And Care For It!

Pregnancy brings with it a new set of additional responsibilities. The mother has to be extra vigilant about monitoring and caring for her health. This ensures that sufficient nutrition is being provided to the growing infant, at the same time, ensuring no harm comes through you. Listed below are some simple ways to do the same.

  1. Prenatal care: As soon as you realize that you are pregnant, it is advisable to consult to a doctor or a midwife about proper prenatal care. This could include anything and everything from prenatal vitamins to food habits to exercise to sleeping habits to periodic scanning – the whole hog.
  2. Diet: You need to ensure two things: that you are eating enough for two people, and also that everything is healthy and not harmful for the little one that gets all its nutrition through you. The diet should be healthy, nutritious, wholesome, and of course free of junk. Some pointers to a healthy diet include:
    • Include a good amount of fruits and vegetables every day; break it into five small portions.
    • Sufficient amount of carbohydrates should be the basis of each meal.
    • Whole grains are preferred to white grains, which also give good amount of fiber.
    • A good amount of proteins including fish, eggs, meat, nuts, pulses, milk, and other dairy products.
    • Ensure adequate amount of iron, calcium, and other minerals are included in the diet.
    • Avoid eating non-pasteurized dairy products, uncooked or undercooked food, and smoked seafood.
    • Folic acid is compulsory for the first trimester as it helps to protect your unborn baby from developing neural tube defects such as spina bifida. Also, it helps to prevent other birth defects, such as a cleft palate . 
  3. Weight gain: If your weight was normal for your age and height before pregnancy, expect to add about 12 to 15 kg during your pregnancy. Consult with your doctor on weight changes and nutritional aspects to monitor weight throughout pregnancy. This could change based on if it is twins, your weight before pregnancy, and body type.
  4. Exercise: There are specific exercises designed to benefit the pregnant women. Whether it is walking or swimming aimed at improving overall health or Kegel exercises aimed at improving vaginal and perineal muscles, your doctor should be able to draw up a routine. Exercising while pregnancy is being increasingly encouraged for the following reasons:
    • Improved energy levels
    • Controls back pain
    • Improved sleep pattern
    • Improves constipation
    • Improves muscles strength and endurance
  5. Lifestyle changes: With pregnancy setting in, it is time to bid goodbye to smoking and drinking alcohol. Continued smoking after onset of pregnancy has many serious complications, including growth retardation, low birth weight. Alcohol can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, and premature delivery.

These are simple ways to monitor and care for your and of course, the baby’s health throughout pregnancy.

2685 people found this helpful

All About Congenital Hypothyroidism!

Dr. Richa Arora Agarwal 88% (43 ratings)
Visiting Consultant - Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Hospital, Saroj Super Speciality Hospital, D.N.B. PEDIATRICS, MD - Paediatrics, MBBS, Bhagwati Hospital, Rainbow Hospital- Panipat
Pediatrician, Delhi
All About Congenital Hypothyroidism!

What is congenital hypothyroidism?
Newborn babies who are unable to make enough thyroid hormone have congenital hypothyroidism, meaning they are born with an underactive or absent thyroid gland.  If the condition is not found and treated, children can have mental retardation and growth failure. But the good news is that early diagnosis and proper treatment can prevent these problems. In most cases, the condition is permanent and your child will need lifelong treatment. 

What causes congenital hypothyroidism?
 The most common causes are

  1. An underdeveloped thyroid gland
  2. A thyroid gland that’s not located where it should be (in the neck below the voice box or larynx)  
  3. A missing thyroid gland

 Other possible causes include

  1. Defective production of thyroid hormone (an inherited condition)
  2. Problems with the pituitary gland (located at the base of the brain), which tells the thyroid to make thyroid hormone
  3. Less commonly, a mother’s thyroid disease or medicines taken during pregnancy can cause congenital hypothyroidism.

What are the signs and symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism?

Many babies with congenital hypothyroidism appear normal at birth or for several months after birth.  But others may have these signs and symptoms:

  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
  • Constipation
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Sluggishness
  • A hoarse cry
  • They might also have
  • Feeding problems
  • A thick, large tongue
  • A puffy-looking face
  • A swollen abdomen, sometimes with “outpouching” of the belly button
  • Large soft spots of the skull

Thyroid hormone deficiency can also occur in older babies or young children, even if test results at birth were normal.

Treatment
Early diagnosis is very important. Most of the effects of hypothyroidism are easy to reverse. For this reason, doctors always ask to get screening for hypothyroidism of your newborn.

Thyroxine is usually given to treat hypothyroidism. Once the child starts taking this medicine, blood tests are regularly done to make sure thyroid hormone levels are in a normal range.

When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if:

  • You feel your infant shows signs or symptoms of hypothyroidism
  • You are pregnant and have been exposed to antithyroid drugs or procedures

Prevention
If a pregnant woman takes radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer, the thyroid gland may be destroyed in the developing fetus. Infants whose mothers have taken such medicines should be observed carefully after birth for signs of hypothyroidism. Also, pregnant women should not avoid iodine-supplemented salt. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist.

2682 people found this helpful

Miscarriage - Can You Prevent it?

Dr. (Mrs.) Pulkit Nandwani 90% (86 ratings)
MRCOG, Laparoscopic Suturing Skills in Surgical Disciples, Medical Writing Course, Laparoscopic Training, Diploma in Gyanecology Endoscopy, Diploma in Minimal Access Surgeries, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, Fellowship in Basic Endoscopy Training, FOGSI Ethi Skills Course, Training Course in Ultrasound-Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Miscarriage - Can You Prevent it?

The most devastating period for any pregnant women is a miscarriage. This normally happens because of genetic abnormality noticed in the fetus caused due to tripling of a chromosome. This is also called ‘spontaneous abortion’ because the body rejects the random genetic abnormality. Apart from this, there are many other reasons for miscarriage namely blood clotting, deshaped uterus, uterine fibroids, unhealthy cervix and so on. Now, this could lead you to the next question - What can we do to prevent miscarriage?

Time to meet the gynaecologist:
When there is tripling of chromosomes or genetic mismatch, the body actually rejects the fetus, thereby preventing birth of an unhealthy baby. But, if the miscarriage repeats several times, then you have to meet your gynaecologist for further tests and appropriate medical intervention.

Symptoms of miscarriage:
In the normal course, when miscarriage occurs, the women would experience back pain or vaginal bleeding or blood in the vaginal mucus or cramping or abdominal pain. Ironically, sometimes the miscarriage may happen without any of these symptoms. It would get noticed only during routine scanning. However, in the normal course, the chance of a miscarriage is highest before the 12th week. But if miscarriage happens after the 12th week and before the 24th week, then it is called spontaneous abortion. Thereafter, it is known as a ‘still born’ baby.

However, there are some steps that can help women prevent a miscarriage. These steps are briefly explained here.

  • Nicotine retards growth of fetus and it is for this reason the couple should shun smoking, months before they plan pregnancy. This change in lifestyle has remarkable effects in preventing miscarriage. Similarly, caffeine can also be the cause of miscarriage. Therefore, women should regulate their intake of coffee as per the advice given by the gynaecologist.
  • Women suffering from chronic ailments like lupus, problems with thyroid, epilepsy and such other ailments are prone to a miscarriage. Similarly, it is also advisable that women should get tested for STD/HIV because these ailments can cause a miscarriage. Women suffering from such ailments should be under constant medical care.
  • In addition to these, the women should take food rich in vitamins, proteins, Omega-3 and fibres. Further, they should also do physical exercises as per the instructions given by the gynaecologist. One should drink enough water so as to keep oneself sufficiently hydrated. Women must practice meditation, which helps in reducing stress.

The causes of a miscarriage are many; women should discuss about the issues relating to a miscarriage with a gynecologist. This helps them take appropriate preventive steps against this unwanted situation.

2810 people found this helpful
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