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Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia Tips

All About Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Dr. Meenu Goyal 88% (636 ratings)
DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
All About Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Gestational trophoblastic disease is a rare condition. It only happens when trophoblast cells abnormally grow inside the uterus. Also, this only happens after conception. These cells surround the egg which has been fertilized in the uterus. It is also worth note that the trophoblast cells usually connect the fertilized eggs to the uterus' walls and also form a part of the placenta. It is only when there is a tumor that this disease is diagnosed. There are many forms of gestational trophoblastic disease. Here they are:

Types:

  1. Complete hydatidiform moles
  2. Partial hydatidiform moles
  3. Invasive moles
  4. Choriocarcinomas
  5. Placental-site trophoblastic tumors (PSTT)
  6. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETT)

It is worth note that most of these diseases have different stages. The stage of how far the cancer has developed can be found out using the following techniques.
Testing for cancer:

  1. Chest X-ray: This is simply an X-ray of the chest.
  2. MRI: An MRI is an abbreviation of magnetic resonance imaging. It makes use of a form of magnet which transfers radio waves to a computer to find out what is going on within your body.
  3. CT scan: This is similar to an X-ray except that more detailed and larger pictures inside the body can be taken and the scan has a slightly different procedure. There are several ways to treat it depending on how far the cancer has spread into the body. Here they are:

Treatment:

  1. Surgery: Surgery is usually done while the mole is still non-cancerous. The chances of the mole becoming cancerous are increased by pregnancy. Therefore, it is crucial that you do not become pregnant until the surgery is complete.
  2. Chemotherapy: This is a less-ideal option but has to be taken if the mole has become cancerous.
4463 people found this helpful

Gestational Trophoblastic - How This Problem Can Be Treated?

Dr. Ekta Singh 95% (39 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Noida
Gestational Trophoblastic - How This Problem Can Be Treated?

Gestational trophoblastic disease is when there are trophoblastic cells which are growing abnormally inside the uterus. It is a pretty rare disease. Gestational trophoblastic disease mostly occurs after conception. The trophoblastic cells are a sort of tumorous cells which surround the fertilized egg in the uterus. It is a very serious and painful condition which can even become cancerous.

Here are the treatments for gestational trophoblastic disease.

  1. HysterectomyA hysterectomy is when the entire uterus is removed from the body using surgery. Hysterectomy is one of the most common methods to cure gestational trophoblastic disease. However, after the hysterectomy, a lot of beta human chorionic gonadotropin blood tests are administered every week. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin blood tests are sometimes shortened to B-HCG blood tests. Patients will also have to visit the doctor for up to 6 months every month following the hysterectomy. However, since a hysterectomy completely removes the uterus, it is probably a last resort option as the baby is kept in the uterus. Chemotherapy and dilation and curettage are perhaps better options if you have gestational trophoblastic disease.
  2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is usually done with one or more anti-cancer drugs. Chemotherapy is continued until the B-HCG or beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels are back to normal. If the chemotherapy does not reduce beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels or the tumor spreads to other parts of the body, then different treatment is required. This includes using chemotherapy for what is known as high-risk metastatic GTN for the gestational trophoblastic disease.
  3. Dilation and curettage: This is a much less drastic procedure and is usually done when the tumor has not spread as much. A D&C which is the short form of dilation and curettage is performed so that the inner parts of the lining of the uterus as well as abnormal tissues are all removed. This is performed by dilating the cervix so that the inner parts of the lining of the uterus as well as the abnormal tissue is all removed. However, a dilation and curettage is safe only when you have a molar pregnancy.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3832 people found this helpful

Gestational diabetes

Dr. Shradha Doshi 90% (176 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma in Diabetology, DDM, CCACCD
Diabetologist, Mumbai
Gestational diabetes
Pregnant women can reduce their risk of developing gestational diabetes by lifestyle modifications.
1 person found this helpful

Gestational Diabetes

Dr. Nutan Hegde 89% (149 ratings)
MBBS, DGO, MRCOG
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is also known as Gestational Diabetes Mellitus(GDM). It is a prevalent disorder which affects pregnant women and the main cause of this condition is the imbalance in the functioning of the insulin, which mainly happens due to the presence of human placental lactogen. Expecting mothers show a rise in their blood sugar level, especially during the last trimester of their pregnancy. Women who do not have a medical history of diabetes can also be affected with this condition.

Prominent symptoms of gestational pregnancy include:

Gestational diabetes does not have any prominent symptoms; it can only be diagnosed through proper and professional screening of blood sugar level. You should immediately consult a doctor if you have any of the following symptoms:

  1. Increased level of blood sugar
  2. Trouble to concentrate
  3. Recurrent headaches
  4. Increased thirst
  5. Blurry vision
  6. Sudden weight loss
  7. Anxiety
  8. Dizziness
  9. Pangs of hunger
  10. Pale skin and dry skin
  11. Excessive sweating
  12. Persistent weakness

How can you manage gestational diabetes?

Modification of lifestyle pattern, healthy food habits and moderate physical exercise can help minimize the risk of gestational diabetes in expecting mothers.
In order to manage gestational diabetes, the following things should be followed:

  1. The treatment when accompanied with balanced diet and routine exercises, reduces the occurrence of health problems in both mother and child.
  2. A routine screening for type ii diabetes should be conducted throughout the pregnancy, to ensure early detection and treatment of the same.
  3. A diet rich in fiber and whole grains minimizes the risk of diabetes in pregnancy, fresh fruits and vegetables are also known to check the blood sugar level in expecting mother, minimizing the occurrence of the health problem in both mother and child.
  4. Giving up the use of cigarettes and other forms of tobacco may reduce the chances of gestational diabetes in female smokers.

How Does Gestational Diabetes affect Pregnancy?

Gestational diabetes is harmful to both the expecting mother and the child. It increases the risk of complications in pregnancy that can prove to be fatal. Potential risks of gestational diabetes in pregnancy include:

  1. Preterm birth
  2. Increased risk of needing a C-section
  3. Miscarriage
  4. Preeclampsia and high blood pressureConsult an expert & get answers to your questions!
3971 people found this helpful

Know About Gestational Hypothyroidism!

Dr. Amit Patil 87% (153 ratings)
Training in IVF / ICSI, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Pune
Know About Gestational Hypothyroidism!

During pregnancy, it is not uncommon for women to contract thyroid diseases like gestational hyperthyroidism and gestational hypothyroidism. The main problem, however, is that the symptoms of gestational hypothyroidism are very much similar to those which can be observed during a normal pregnancy. The difficulty in differentiating between the two is the sole reason why many pregnant women are caught unawares, eventually resulting in further complications after the first trimester.

If gestational thyroid diseases are left untreated, you and your baby may experience a ton of problems such as preeclampsia, low birth weight, miscarriage and pre-mature birth amongst others. Needless to say, if you already have a history of pre-existing hypothyroidism, then you will most certainly need more medical attention than is required.

Symptoms
Symptoms of gestational hypothyroidism, like high fatigue and excessive weight gain, are hardly distinguishable from those associated with a normal pregnancy. Other symptoms can also include:

  1. Severe constipation
  2. Goiter
  3. Muscle cramps
  4. Trouble sleeping
  5. Hair loss
  6. Dry skin
  7. Difficulty concentration
  8. Memory problems
  9. Anxiety
  10. Intolerance to cold temperatures

Causes
There may be a variety of causes that are responsible for the development of gestational hypothyroidism but the most common cause is usually an autoimmune disease known as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which stimulates the body's immune system to attack thyroid gland cells, leading to a deficiency in the number of active thyroid cells and enzymes, and ultimately resulting in a shortage of the thyroid hormone.

Treatment
Treatment for gestational hypothyroidism is normally uncomplicated, and follows just two simple steps:-

  1. Proper diagnosis, via the use of a synthetic hormone called levothyroxine, which is very much similar to the hormone T4 produced by the thyroid.
  2. Continuous monitoring of thyroid function tests held every four to six weeks during pregnancy.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

5363 people found this helpful

Gestational Diabetes

Dr. Anjuli Dixit 88% (693 ratings)
DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Faridabad
Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is also known as gestational mellitus diabetes (GDM). It is a prevalent disorder which affects pregnant women and the main cause of this condition is the imbalance in the functioning of the insulin, which mainly happens due to the presence of human placental lactogen. Expecting mothers show a raise in their blood sugar level, especially during the last trimester of their pregnancy. Women who do not have a medical history of diabetes can also be affected with this condition.

Prominent symptoms of gestational pregnancy include:
Gestational diabetes does not have any prominent symptoms; it can only be diagnosed through proper and professional screening of blood sugar level. You should immediately consult a doctor if you have any of the following symptoms:

  1. Increased level of blood sugar
  2. Trouble to concentrate
  3. Recurrent headaches
  4. Increased thirst
  5. Blurry vision
  6. Sudden weight loss
  7. Decrease in low blood sugar level
  8. Anxiety
  9. Dizziness
  10. Pangs of hunger
  11. Pale skin and dry skin
  12. Excessive sweating
  13. Persistent weakness

How can you manage gestational diabetes?
Modification of lifestyle pattern, healthy food habits and moderate physical exercise can help minimize the risk of gestational diabetes in expecting mothers.
In order to manage gestational diabetes, the following things should be followed:

  1. The treatment when accompanied with balanced diet and routine exercises, reduces the occurrence of health problems in both mother and child.
  2. A routine screening for type ii diabetes should be conducted throughout the pregnancy, to ensure early detection and treatment of the same.
  3. A diet rich in fiber and whole grains minimizes the risk of diabetes in pregnancy, fresh fruits and vegetables are also known to check the blood sugar level in expecting mother, minimizing the occurrence of health problem in both mother and child.
  4. Giving up the use of cigarettes and other forms of tobacco may reduce the chances of gestational diabetes in female smokers.

How Does Gestational Diabetes affect Pregnancy?
Gestational diabetes is harmful for both the expecting mother and the child. It increases the risk of complications in pregnancy that can prove to be fatal.
Potential risks of gestational pregnancy include:

  1. Increased risk of needing a C-section
  2. Miscarriage
  3. Preeclampsia and high blood pressure
  4. Preterm chance of birth
3303 people found this helpful

Gestational Diabetes

Dr. Sunita Kothari 87% (637 ratings)
Ms - Gynae & Obs, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Jaipur

Get a glucose screening test done to get to know if you have gestational diabetes during the sixth month of your pregnancy. It will tell you if your body is able to produce enough amount of insulin to cope with a certain surge of sugar.

Gestational Hypothyroidism

Dr. K S Anamika 90% (327 ratings)
Advanced Infertility, MIS TRAINING, FICMCH, PGDS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS, Masters in Reproductive Medicine(UK)
Gynaecologist, Faridabad
Gestational Hypothyroidism

During pregnancy, it is not uncommon for women to contract thyroid diseases like gestational hyperthyroidism and gestational hypothyroidism. The main problem, however, is that the symptoms of gestational hypothyroidism are very much similar to those, which can be observed during a normal pregnancy. The difficulty in differentiating between the two is the sole reason why many pregnant women are caught unawares, eventually resulting in further complications after the first trimester.

If gestational thyroid diseases are left untreated, you and your baby may experience a ton of problems such as preeclampsia, low birth weight, miscarriage and premature birth amongst others. Needless to say, if you already have a history of pre-existing hypothyroidism, then you will most certainly need more medical attention than is required.

Symptoms:
Symptoms of gestational hypothyroidism, like high fatigue and excessive weight gain, are hardly distinguishable from those associated with a normal pregnancy. Other symptoms can also include:

  1. Severe constipation
  2. Goiter
  3. Muscle cramps
  4. Trouble sleeping
  5. Hair loss
  6. Dry skin
  7. Difficulty in concentration
  8. Memory problems
  9.  Anxiety
  10. Intolerance to cold temperatures

Causes:
There may be a variety of causes that are responsible for the development of gestational hypothyroidism but the most common cause is usually an autoimmune disease known as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which stimulates the body's immune system to attack thyroid gland cells, leading to a deficiency in the number of active thyroid cells and enzymes, and ultimately resulting in a shortage of the thyroid hormone.

Treatment:
Treatment for gestational hypothyroidism is normally uncomplicated, and follows just two simple steps:

  1. Proper diagnosis, via the use of a synthetic hormone called levothyroxine, which is very much similar to the hormone T4 produced by the thyroid.
  2. Continuous monitoring of thyroid function tests held every four to six weeks during pregnancy.
3319 people found this helpful

Gestational Surrogacy

Dr. Richika Sahay Shukla 92% (827 ratings)
DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Gestational Surrogacy

Gestational Surrogacy

We will help you evaluate the benefits of gestational surrogacy and provide you with information about cost, legal issues, and treatment protocols.

In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate is pregnant with her own biological child, but this child will be raised by others. In gestational surrogacy, the surrogate becomes pregnant via embryo transfer with a child that is not biologically her own. The surrogate mother may be called the gestational carrier.

Once a suitable surrogate has been identified, and the screening process is complete, the cycle can begin. Timing depends on the surrogate’s and intended parents/donors menstrual cycle .

Surrogacy Cycle Overview

Evaluation Cycle

The surrogate needs to prepare her uterus for implantation with natural estrogen and progesterone. Because each woman is a little different, the dose, duration, and method of administering these hormones may need to be individualized. This can be determined ahead of time by conducting an evaluation cycle. This is a “dry run” in which we duplicate each part of the cycle except the actual transfer of embryos in order to determine how to maximize the chances of success. The evaluation cycle can be completed anytime before the actual procedure. In some circumstances, the evaluation cycle can be waived when the response of the uterus to hormonal stimulation is well known. This is fairly common for women who have undergone many treatment cycles in the past.

Cycle Synchronization

It is necessary to synchronize the menstrual cycles of the surrogate and the intended parent in order to obtain mature eggs and embryos and transfer these back into a perfectly prepared endometrium (uterine lining) to maximize the chances of pregnancy success. This is done using a variety of hormonal manipulations .We will determine which technique will work best for each circumstance. Once both women’s (surrogate and intended parent) ovarian function is suppressed and their cycles synchronized, they can begin the process of preparing for pregnancy.

Hormonal Therapy

On about the same day, the surrogate and intended parent will begin hormonal therapies to prepare the appropriate target for pregnancy success. The surrogate will begin taking estrogen to stimulate endometrial (uterine lining) growth and the intended parent will begin taking FSH to stimulate egg production. These treatments are monitored with ultrasound and blood estrogen levels until the eggs are ready to be retrieved and the uterus is ready to accept an embryo. Usually these treatments will take approximately two to three weeks and require five office visits for ultrasounds and blood tests.

Subsequently IVF and embryo transfer is done.

Pregnancy Success!

In successful cycles, the hormonal supplements are continued through the first trimester (12 weeks) of the pregnancy. Once the first trimester is completed and the placenta has matured to the point where it can provide for all the hormonal needs of the pregnancy, no further supplements are required. We will monitor blood levels of estrogen and progesterone at the end of the first trimester and taper off the hormone supplements gradually. Once the hormone supplements are stopped, the rest of the pregnancy is indistinguishable from any other pregnancy!

Gestational Surrogacy

Dr. Richika Sahay Shukla 92% (827 ratings)
DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Gestational Surrogacy

Gestational Surrogacy

Cycle Synchronization

It is necessary to synchronize the menstrual cycles of the surrogate and the intended parent in order to obtain mature eggs and embryos and transfer these back into a perfectly prepared endometrium (uterine lining) to maximize the chances of pregnancy success. This is done using a variety of hormonal manipulations .We will determine which technique will work best for each circumstance. Once both women’s (surrogate and intended parent) ovarian function is suppressed and their cycles synchronized, they can begin the process of preparing for pregnancy.

Hormonal Therapy

On about the same day, the surrogate and intended parent will begin hormonal therapies to prepare the appropriate target for pregnancy success. The surrogate will begin taking estrogen to stimulate endometrial (uterine lining) growth and the intended parent will begin taking FSH to stimulate egg production. These treatments are monitored with ultrasound and blood estrogen levels until the eggs are ready to be retrieved and the uterus is ready to accept an embryo. Usually these treatments will take approximately two to three weeks and require five office visits for ultrasounds and blood tests.

Subsequently IVF and embryo transfer is done.

Pregnancy Success!

In successful cycles, the hormonal supplements are continued through the first trimester (12 weeks) of the pregnancy. Once the first trimester is completed and the placenta has matured to the point where it can provide for all the hormonal needs of the pregnancy, no further supplements are required. We will monitor blood levels of estrogen and progesterone at the end of the first trimester and taper off the hormone supplements gradually. Once the hormone supplements are stopped, the rest of the pregnancy is indistinguishable from any other pregnancy!

If you wish to discuss any other problem, Consult an IVF Specialist.

1 person found this helpful
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