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Genetic Disorders Tips

Familial Polyposis - How To Get Rid Of It?

Familial Polyposis - How To Get Rid Of  It?

Some diseases are inherited genetically and familial polyposis is one such disease. It is a rare condition that typically affects the large intestines and the rectum. In some cases, it can also affect the upper gastrointestinal tract. People suffering from this condition develop extra tissues in the large intestine. If left untreated, it could turn cancerous at a later stage. Hence, surgery is usually recommended to remove the part of the large intestine that has been affected. In cases where it affects the duodenum and upper gastrointestinal tract, removal is usually not necessary, but the situation needs to be monitored closely.

Surgery is usually advised when the patient is in late teens or early twenties. Until then individual polyps may be removed during a routine colonoscopy exam. Surgery to remove the affected part is usually performed with minimally invasive techniques with laparoscopy being the most common. This surgery involves a few small cuts that each require only a stitch or two rather than a single long cut. This reduces the amount of time the patient must stay in the hospital after the procedure and speeds up the healing process.

There are three main types of surgeries that may be used to treat familial polyposis.

  1. J pouch or Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery: This is the most preferred form of surgery for this condition. It involves the removal of the colon and rectum without affecting the anus. As a result, the patient can have normal bowel movements after the surgery. It also does not have any effect on fertility.
  2. Total colectomy: If you do not have any polyps in the rectum, doctors may advise a total colerecomy. This involves the removal of only the colon. The rectum and anus are left untouched. This allows the patient to have normal bowel movements after the procedure.
  3. Continent ileostomyThis procedure is advised only as a last resort. In this case, the affected part of the large intestine, colon, and rectum are removed. The small intestine is then collected to a small opening in the abdomen known as a stoma. The stoma is attached to a waste bag. Instead of passing stool, all waste created is then removed from this bag.

Surgery does not cure this disease. Hence, even after the procedure, the patient will need regular follow up checks. You will need to be screened for new polyps as well as cancer and tumors. Hence, it is essential to consult a doctor you are comfortable with.

Causes & Treatment Of Keratosis Pilaris!

Causes & Treatment Of Keratosis Pilaris!

The skin has a protein called keratin that protects it from infections and other harmful toxins.  For various reasons, mostly unknown but likely genetic, there could be a buildup of this keratin leading to small, light-colored, hard bumps under the skin that can feel like sandpaper. This condition is medically known as keratosis pilaris.  These pillars of keratin block the hair follicles that open onto the surface of the skin, and when a number of follicles are blocked, it leads to dry, bumpy feeling. In common words, it is also referred to as chicken skin, chicken bumps, or goose bumps.

Occurrence

The onset is usually in the first decade of life, continues to grow in number in teenagers (80%), and slowly subsides as they grow older (40% of adults).  People with dry skin are more likely to have these bumps than people with oily skin.  The most commonly affected areas include upper arms, thighs, buttocks and very rarely on the face.

Causes

This is a genetic disorder, and the bumps are due to excessive formation and buildup of keratin due to faulty genes.  There could be surplus skin formation under these follicles or hair follicles trapped under these bumps. There could be a small area of inflammation and redness around the bumps.

Weather Correlation - Keratotis pilaris is more common and evident during the winter months when the skin is normally drier than in summer months.  Some people could have this condition lifelong, with only manifestation seen in winters and complete absence of bumps in the summer months. 

Symptoms

The condition is usually asymptomatic, except for the dryness, and does not cause itching or medical harm. The esthetic concern, especially if in upper arms, is the only concern.  Some people could be affected by the hard, bumpy feeling of the skin.  There are no long-term medical symptoms or harmful effects of this condition though.

Treatment

No treatment is required; however, moisturizers may be required to prevent the bumps from drying up. In very severe cases, creams may be used to remove dead skin cells and to prevent plugged follicles.  Alpha hydroxy acid, salicylic acid, or lactic acid containing creams can be used to remove the dead skin cells. These also help moisturize the skin and reduce dryness.  Vitamin A containing creams can be used to unplug the hair follicles.

A word of caution though - These creams can cause itching and redness.  Since this condition is prevalent in children, these creams need to be used only if absolutely essential and with medical prescriptions. The condition is harmless and self-limiting, so no treatment is mandatory.  Patient education is of utmost importance in these cases

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Bipolar Disorder - All You Should Be Knowing!

Bipolar Disorder - All You Should Be Knowing!

We all have mood swings but not all mood swings have the same intensity. People who have extreme mood swings ranging from depression to manic highs are said to be suffering from bipolar disorder. These extreme moods are known as episodes and usually, last for a few days or even a few weeks. A person suffering from bipolar disorder could have an episode several times a year. This is a very common psychological problem and can affect both children and adults. Though it cannot be cured, this disease can be managed with medication.

There are no known causes for bipolar disorder but genetics may play an important role in triggering Bipolar Disorder. Hence, if a parent or sibling suffers from this condition, you have a risk of developing it as well. An imbalance in the neurotransmitters in the brain may also play a part in the development of this condition. Stress or traumatic events like the loss of a loved one can also increase your risk of suffering from this condition. Given that mood swings affect almost each one of us, bipolar disorder can be difficult to diagnose. Some of the things to look out for are:

  1. Change in self-esteem
  2. Unusual talkativeness or quietness
  3. Being increasingly prone to distractions
  4. Decreased need for sleep
  5. Agitation
  6. Recklessness in terms of spending decisions, relationships etc

It must be kept in mind that a person must display at least 4 of the above symptoms simultaneously to be diagnosed as bipolar. Also, none of these symptoms should be a result or side effect of any kind of medication, drugs, alcohol or other intoxicants.

There are four main types of bipolar disorder:

  1. Bipolar I: In such cases, the person has at least one episode of elevated moods and associated abnormal behaviour in his or her life. This may be preceded or followed by depressive episodes.
  2. Bipolar II: In these cases, the person must have suffered from at least one depressive episode. It is very similar to bipolar I except that in bipolar II the highs never reach the manic stage.
  3. Rapid Cycling: Some people can have 4 or more manic and depressive episodes a year. In such cases, they are said to be rapid cycling. This condition affects 10-20% of bipolar cases.
  4. Mixed Bipolar: Usually, bipolar patients show mood swings that alternate between manic and depressive moods. However, sometimes a person may experience both elation and depression simultaneously or in rapid succession of each other. These cases are known as mixed bipolar.

Once diagnosed, bipolar disorder can be managed with a combination of medication and psychotherapy. In some cases, electroconvulsive therapy may also be needed.

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Suffering From Genetic & Chromosomal Anomalies - Know About PGD!

Suffering From Genetic & Chromosomal Anomalies - Know About PGD!

Chromosomal abnormality happens when a cell has too many or too few chromosomes. The most common form of chromosomal anomaly is Down’s syndrome. If a parent has a chromosomal anomaly, she/he will pass it on to the child. PGD or Pre-implantation Genetic Testing aims to select only the embryos with normal chromosomal count and only these embryos are implanted to achieve a healthy pregnancy and bring down the number of children affected with a chromosomal anomaly.

The risk of Aneuploid pregnancy:

The older a woman is when she tries to conceive (aged 35 or more), the higher the risk of Aneuploid pregnancy (carrying a baby with genetic or chromosomal abnormality). Most of these pregnancies end in miscarriages and the few that come to term produce babies with chromosomal abnormalities.

Causes of Chromosomal Abnormality:

Usually, chromosomal abnormalities occur due to an error in the cell division. Meiosis refers to the cell division, which the sperm and the egg undergo during the development procedure. Normally, meiosis breaks the chromosomal material into two equal halves, so that each of the parents contributes 23 chromosomes to the pregnancy. However, when the number of chromosomes in the cell goes up or down than the normal, it results in genetic/chromosomal anomalies.

PGD Procedure for a Chromosomal Anomaly:

If a couple elects to go for Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis, they have to undergo ICSI Cycle. ICSI cycle initiates a fertilization cycle to produce embryos. When the embryos reach upto day 5 and blastocyst are formed, they are biopsied and further sent to genetic lab for detecting the chromosomal abnormalities. The embryos are incubated for the entire duration of the genetic screening. Only the embryos that the genetic test clears are implanted. PGD never reveals the gender of the embryo.

PGD can help detect the single genetic disorders that may lead to the following ailments:

Cystic fibrosis
• Muscular dystrophy
• Tay-Sachs
• Sickle cell anaemia
Thalassemia
Turner syndrome

PGD is a revolutionary science that can help root out incurable disorders linked to genetics. It ensures that pregnancy is sustained until term and a healthy baby is born.

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Schizophrenia - Do Biochemical Factors Lead To This Problem?

Schizophrenia - Do Biochemical Factors Lead To This Problem?

Schizophrenia is a disease of the mind that is usually degenerative in nature. The complex disorder is generally characterized by symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations (both auditory and visual) and disturbances in speech and is usually chronic in nature. The symptoms are not regular and can appear at any point of time. So it is highly possible that a person suffering from schizophrenia may sometimes bear resemblance to any other normal person and all of a sudden, might exhibit symptoms typical of Schizophrenia.

The causes of Schizophrenia include:

  1. Brain Dysfunction: Abnormalities in the cerebral cortex (the cerebrum’s outer covering that is vital in regulating consciousness) of the brain is the most common cause of this disorder. This is due to the presence of abnormally enlarged ventricles in that region. The decreased brain size owing to the enlarged ventricles is often related to the hallucinations and delusions experienced by schizophrenics.
  2. Genetic Factors: Studies have also stated ‘genetics’ to be an important cause behind this disorder. Closer the family ties, higher the risks of transmitting the disorder.
  3. Biochemical Factors: More than one neurotransmitter is being targeted by recent drugs to control schizophrenia.


Symptoms which most people do not experience normally, but are found in people diagnosed with schizophrenia are said to be positive symptoms. They are:

  1. Hallucinations: These are sensory experiences of things that do not exist outside the mind. Hallucinations usually manifest in the form of auditory or visual images.
  2. Delusions: Delusions on the other hand are false beliefs one has about oneself. Delusions are of 3 major types:
    • Grandeur: Wherein the person imagines himself to be a famous personality
    • Persecution: The belief that somebody somewhere is plotting against you and the whole world is going to get you.
    • Control: The belief that a larger force, let’s say a witch, a demon or even a duck for that matter is controlling your actions.

These positive symptoms generally respond well to medications.
In addition to this, schizophrenics think and speak differently than the rest of the society. They jump from idea to idea, lose track of speech mid-way and often speak in fragmented and haphazardly joined sentences. They are, in fact, unable to fix their attention on anything in particular.
Examples of the most common negative symptoms include:

  1. The flat effect: The individual basically shows no facial expression and always has a flat emotionless mask on while staring into space. At times, they have inappropriate reactions to situations. Example - they might laugh at somebody's death and cry ad get angry when something good happens. 
  2. Avolition: This condition occurs when the individual just sit for hours doing nothing as well as behaves in a way lacking any motivation or enthusiasm.
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Which Are The Genetic Disorders That IVF Can Help?

Which Are The Genetic Disorders That IVF Can Help?

In vitro fertilization is a procedure where a doctor extracts eggs from a woman’s ovaries, fertilizes it and implants an embryo in her uterus. But before the implantation, the embryos are tested for genetic disorders.
These tests are conducted to find out if there are any genetic disorders in the embryo. Genetic problems lead to failed implantation and even if implantation is successful, there is a high risk of miscarriage.

The embryos that are revealed to have defects are rejected and only the healthiest embryo is implanted. So screening during IVF actually increases the likelihood of the woman becoming pregnant.

The two chief benefits of these tests are-

• No risks of transferring your genetic abnormalities to your child
• A safe and healthy pregnancy

The genetic disorders that these procedures look for are-

• Huntington’s disease: It causes degeneration of the brain’s nerve cells. It results in cognitive impairments, involuntary movements of the limbs and twitches, muscle dystonia, unnatural eye movement etc.

• Sickle cell anaemia: The body produces sickle-shaped rigid red blood cells that are unable to carry the requisite amount of oxygen to all parts of the body. It is not curable and causes excruciating pain, inflammation of hands and feet, infections and problems with eyesight.

• Muscular dystrophy: The body cannot utilize proteins to strengthen muscles and this leads to loss of muscle mass, extreme weakness, muscle cramps, unsteady gait and breathing problems.

Cystic Fibrosis: It interrupts the function of the lungs and that causes persistent infections. The mucous isn’t drained and blocks the airways of the body which results in inflammation of the lungs, respiratory distress or failure, asthma and even pneumonia and bronchitis.

• BRCA Mutation: BRCA 1 and 2 genes produce proteins that are cancer tumour suppressors. They keep the structure and composition of the cell stable. They can also repair damaged DNA. Mutations of these vital genes can increase risks of breast and ovarian cancer.

• Fragile X syndrome: this disorder affects a child’s ability to learn and impairs their speech, control their impulses and learn how to walk. Boys are more prone to it than girls are.

• Tay-Sachs disease: This disorder damages the nerve cells of the brain and the spinal cord and leads to motor disabilities, seizures, loss of sight or hearing, rupture of blood vessels in the eyes etc.
Screening for genetic disorders can ensure that your baby is born healthy with no genetic abnormalities.

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Hair Loss - Know Classifications Of It!

Hair Loss - Know Classifications Of It!

Loss of hair from the scalp, one of the most common problems plaguing the world today, can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, disorders and environmental factors. There are a number of homeopathic treatments that are used to treat hair loss. These treatments focus on the cause of the disease rather than just treating the symptoms. 

Hair loss can be classified as -

1. Telogen effluvium: This is a disorder of the hair growth cycle where the telogen phase (where the hair falls out) becomes dominant. 


2. Alopecia aorta: This is an autoimmune disorder where the immune cells of the body destroy the hair. Hair loss tends to occur in patches.


3. Androgenic alopecia: This type of disorder is caused by hormonal and genetic factors resulting in a receding hairline. 

The various homeopathic treatments for hair loss are -

1. Silica
Silica is used to treat a number of diseases in homeopathy. Besides being an effective remedy for hair loss, it is also treat symptoms of vitiligo, nail problems and eczema.


2. Phosphorus
Phosphorus is another homeopathic treatment that is used to treat hair loss. It promotes hair growth in spots where hair loss has occurred.


3. Kaliumcarbonicum
This treatment is used for brittle and thinning hair as it enhances hair growth. It is usually recommended for people with various forms of alopecia.


4. Lycopodium
This treatment is prescribed for people who suffer from premature balding. It is also recommended for pregnant women if they suffer from hair loss.


5. Natrummuriaticum
This homeopathic remedy is made from sodium chloride and used to treat hair problems resulting from skin complications. It is also recommended for women who face hair loss from menstrual problems. It treats dandruff and hair disorders due to hormonal imbalances.


6. Sulfur
Sulfur is an excellent homeopathic remedy to treat hair loss as it promotes hair growth. It also eliminates dandruff from the scalp.

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Prevention From Genetic Diseases!

Prevention From Genetic Diseases!

HOW  TO PREVENT TRANSMISSION OF  Autism, Thalassemia, Muscular Dystrophy, Dysphasia, CANCER, DOWN SYNDROME  & other GENETIC DISEASES?
Rare diseases are a diverse set of over 7,000 different conditions that afflict an estimated 1 in 20 Indians and 350 million people worldwide, which are incurable with 40% mortality. Put simply, it means that every bus on the road with a full complement of passengers possibly has two people with a rare disease. : In terms of estimates of IORD [Indian Organization For Rare Diseases-with Indo American sponsorship] we have [in India] 10 million children/adults suffering from 700 rare diseases, which are incurable. Muscular Dystrophy, Autism, Thalassemia, Parkinson’s Syndrome, Cancer, Brain & Spinal Cord affected Disorders, Down Syndrome, etc., are some such genetically transmitted incurable diseases. Only 10% of offspring may be affected by predecessor-victims. 
1. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention and disorganization, with or without hyperactivity-impulsivity, causing impairment of physiological functioning. ADHD persists into adulthood in approximately 20 percent of individuals.
2. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are conditions in which people have difficulty developing normal social relationships, use inappropriate language, and behave in compulsive and ritualistic ways.
3. Intellectual disability (ID) is significantly sub-average normal intellectual functioning present from birth or early infancy, impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors. Rett syndrome.
4. Learning disorders involve an inability to retain, or broadly use specific skills or information, resulting from deficiencies in attention, memory, or reasoning which affects academic performance.
5. Rett syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a female child who had normal development in the initial 6-month period of her life.

ROOT CAUSE: FIRST & FOREMOST SYMPTOM: DELAYED MILESTONES IN INFANTS & CHILDREN.

Prevention & Remedy

1.PREVENTION: 
A.  No sex with a pregnant mother after formation of the fetus in the 3rd month of pregnancy. Because, in coitus, there shall be severe vibrations in the mother’s uterus affecting the brain and spinal cord of the fetus in the offing. [7]. In the  3rd month of pregnancy, the fetus takes full shape and PRANA is infused by the Gods [BRAHMA, VISHNU & MAHESHWERAHA] through Brahma Randhra-an aperture in the middle of the head. What Indian Mythology says that @ that auspicious time, somebody must read out loudly epics like Ramayana, Bhagawata, Siva/Vishnu Puranas, Bhavadgeeta,etc. so that the 3 Gods shall be pleased to implant the best seed with “no genetically transmitted disorders” into the fetus in the offing. So that genetic diseases can be prevented. Mothers of other religions like Christians/Muslims/Jainism/Buddhism, etc., can seek benefit from Bible, Quoran, preachings of Vardhan Mahaveer, Gautam Buddha, etc., respectively.
B.  The first & foremost symptom is 'delayed mile-stones' in a growing infant/child. 

C. Instant Remedy for Delayed Milestones:
For any INFANT/CHILD/PET* ANIMAL- ACUPRESSURE RENDERS IMMENSE BENEFITS: Acupressure techniques may be applied safely to every human/animal, right from 1-day old infant to a 100 years old man. Acupressure may come to rescue infants/kids + growing children. There are more than 1000 acupressure points [remote control points to regulate the functioning of all internal organs/systems] spread on the human body. Take 1 or 2 tsp of Johnson &Johnson Baby massage oil/olive oil [til oil, mustard/soybean oil in winter], massage the entire body with your thumb & fingers and then give a bath with warm water. Acupressure is more helpful for infants/children suffering from ‘delayed milestones’ & all-around improvements [including constipation issues] can be noted in his/her metabolism. If feasible, any mother can do massage, a lady from barber’s community maybe engaged, since she is, genetically, trained. 
Benefits: All internal & external organs shall be grown up to produce handsome/pretty boys/girls with robust health. In India, women from Barber community are genetically trained to apply professional massages. 

HOMOEOPATHIC THERAPEUTICS

Homeopathy is known to act on patients of different constitution, temperament and diathesis. There are many medicines in homeopathy which produce and hence cure various mental symptoms. Acting on such constitutions and affecting such mental state it can cure many neurodevelopmental disorders when given along with psychosocial therapies.

A. Agaricus Muscaris: These children are late in learning to talk and walk, but it is due to mental defect, a slowly developing mind. Other indications for giving Agaricus being, children with twitching and early fainting or nervous girls prior to puberty who have convulsions from being scolded, or from excitement and shock. Children are slow in learning, make mistakes and cannot remember. They are nervous patients who find out mistakes in writing and spelling after going over their own manuscripts.

B, Baryta Carbonica: These children are late in coming into usefulness, with their studies, to take on their activities and to do their work. They are late in learning to talk, to read, to make the combinations that enter into life; to take in images and form perceptions etc. They have late in learning how to walk, even with good limbs. Baryta carbonica, Borax and Natrum muriaticum, all three have “late learning to walk”  due to a peculiar kind of tardiness in the development of the brain, so that they are late in learning to do things; late in developing. But Baryta carbonica leads them in this late coming into the activities.

C. Calcarea Carbonica: These children have “Late learning to walk,” because the legs are so weak. Actually, it is not late learning to walk, but it is late walking. A child knows how to walk, but it can’t walk due to a defect in bone or weakness. Calcarea carbonica has very weak limbs, flabby muscles and poor bones, and hence he is late in learning to walk.

D. Calcarea Phosphorica: Here the child is losing flesh along with slow learning to do things and walk, or the legs are not strong enough to support the body, or it is due to defective mental development.

E. Medorrhinum: These children are rachitic, stunted in growth, dwarfed and mentally dull and weak. They usually have constitutional effects of maltreated and suppressed gonorrhea.

F. Natrum Muriaticum: These children have “late learning to walk” but this is actually because of brain trouble due to which child is late in learning to do things.

G. Phosphorus:  Phosphorus is suited to feeble constitutions, who have been born sick, grown-up slender and too rapidly. They are emaciated or are rapidly emaciating; especially children who are going into marasmus, and in persons who have a tubercular history.

H. Silicea Terra: These children are slow in learning to walk due to deficient nutrition not because the food is lacking in quality or quantity but from improper assimilation.

CONCLUSION

After using Homoeopathy for various acute and chronic diseases, we should focus on the present scenario of genetic and lifestyle disorders, where other systems of treatment do not have many roles to play. Homeopathy works well both as a therapeutic and constitutional approach. We may select different homeopathic medicine according to the type of developmental delay and cause behind it. Developmental disorders of few medicines and their probable causes have been described below in Table 1.

Table 1.Summary of various developmental disorders in different medicines and their causes

MEDICINES    DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER    CAUSE
1. Agaricus muscarius - Late in learning to talk and walk, Due to mental defect3
2. Baryta carbonica - Late in learning to talk, to read, late in learning how to walk, even with good limbs. Tardiness in the development of the brain
3. Calcarea carbonica - Late learning to walk. Because the legs are so weak
4. Calcarea phosphorica - Slow learning to do things and walk. Legs are not strong enough and defective mental development3.
5. Medorrhinum Rachitic, stunted in growth, dwarfed and mentally dull and weak. Suppressed and maltreated gonorrhea3
6. Natrum muriaticum - Late learning to walk. Because of brain trouble3
7. Phosphorus - Born sick, grown-up slender, grow too rapidly, are emaciated or are rapidly emaciating. Tubercular history3
8. Silicea Terra - Slow in learning to walk. Due to deficient nutrition from improper assimilation
 

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Autoimmune Disorders - How Ayurveda Can Help?

Autoimmune Disorders - How Ayurveda Can Help?

When the immune system of the body reacts against the tissues of its own body, it is called an autoimmune disorder. To put it more dramatically, the body becomes its own enemy. The immune system of your body keeps fighting disease causing germs and bacteria, but in rare cases, the immune system might malfunction and fight its own body causing different disorders. These disorders may be caused due to genetic issues or due to mutations. According to ayurveda, autoimmune disorders are a result of constant unhealthy lifestyle and diet. Ayurveda works at the root cause of the disease where it starts treating the malfunctioning immune system.

Here is how ayurveda treats autoimmune disorders:

1. Toxin removal: Ayurveda starts working on removing the toxins from the body. According to ayurveda, toxins or ama in the body interfere with the proper functioning of the immune system, which often leads to autoimmune diseases. Usually shunthi, haritaki, pippali, maricha, hingu and saindhav lavan are used to detoxify the body.

2. Metabolism correction: Not only will ayurveda detoxify the body, but it will also correct the metabolism which gets messed up when afflicted with an autoimmune disorder. Neem, guggulu, guduchi, vasa, patola patra and ghrita are used to correct the metabolism.

3. Increase in ojus production: Ojus is the component which helps in the nourishment of the immune system. It is generally received from the food you eat. Due to dysfunctional immune system causing the impairment of metabolism, production of ojas decreases to almost nil. Hence ayurveda increases its production. Guduchi, haridra, manjishtha, amalaki, nirgundi, yashtimadhu and pippali are used to increase ojha production.

4. Immune system correction: Lastly, ayurveda works at correcting the immune system. If the immune system is not corrected, then the above treatment procedure will just be useless. Ghrita, haritaki, bahera, amalaki, ela and dadim are used generally to calm the immune system and rejuvenate it. They help correct the immune system for normal functioning.

Autoimmune disorders may not be easily treated, but that doesn't mean you cannot expect it to cure or witness a miracle. You just need some faith and confidence alongside proper treatment and you are ready to roll.

Causes And Treatment Of Uterine Fibroids!

Causes And Treatment Of Uterine Fibroids!

Uterine fibroids, also known as leiomyoma or myoma, are benign growths on the uterus, occurring mostly during the years of childbearing. Few of the common symptoms of fibroids are leg pain or backache, constipation, difficulty in emptying the bladder, frequent urination, pain or pressure in the pelvic region, menstrual periods stretching over a week and excessive menstrual bleeding.

Causes:

  1. Certain genetic changes of the uterus which are different from the ones normally present in the muscle cells of the uterus can cause this disorder.

  2. Certain hormones such as progesterone and estrogen that prepare the body for pregnancy are even responsible for triggering the development of fibroids.

  3. Substances which help the body maintain its tissues trigger fibroid growth as well.

  4. Family history, excessive consumption of alcohol and red meat while going low on foods such as dairy products, fruits, green vegetables and vitamin D, obesity, usage of birth control pills and early onset of the menstruation cycle are other factors that may escalate the risks of one suffering from fibroids.

Treatment:

  1. Be careful and take a closer look: Fibroids are fundamentally non-cancerous and they hardly interfere with pregnancy. Often, they do not exhibit notable symptoms and are prone to shrinkage after menopause. Hence giving them and yourself some time might be the best option.

  2. Medications generally aim at the hormones controlling the menstrual cycle and treating symptoms such as pelvic pressure and excessive menstrual bleeding. However, they do not treat fibroids completely but work towards contracting them. They include-

    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) agonists to block estrogen and progesterone production

    • Progestin-releasing intrauterine device (IUD) to alleviate severe bleeding caused due to fibroids

    • Tranexamic acid to ease excessive menstrual periods

    • Progestins or oral contraceptives to regulate menstrual bleeding

    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to ease pain associated with fibroids

Surgeries to Treat Fibroids:

Depending on symptoms and whether medical therapy has failed, the patient may have to undergo surgery. The following surgical procedures may be considered:

  1. Hysterectomy: removing the uterus. This is only considered if the fibroids are very large, or if the patient is bleeding too much. Hysterectomies are sometimes an option to prevent fibroids coming back.

  2. Myomectomy: fibroids are surgically removed from the wall of the uterus. This option is more popular for women who want to get pregnant.

  3. Endometrial ablation: removing the lining of the uterus. This procedure may be used if the patient's fibroids are near the inner surface of the uterus; it is considered an effective alternative to a hysterectomy.

  4. UAE (Uterine artery embolization): this treatment cuts off the fibroid's blood supply, effectively shrinking the fibroid.

  5. Magnetic-resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery: an MRI scan locates the fibroids, and sound waves are used to shrink the fibroids.

Latest Advancements:

Mifepristone: It, also known as RU-486, reduces heavy menstrual bleeding and imporves fibroid-specific quality of life. It competitively binds and inhibitsprogesterone receptors.

Ulipristal acetate: It is a progesterone receptor modulator that acts as a postcoital contraceptive. As progesterone promotes the growth of uterine fibroids, blocking its receptor may reduce their size.

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