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Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Mucosal Resection Tips

Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How To Treat It?

MBBS , DNB MEDICINE, DM GASTRO
Gastroenterologist, Bhopal
Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How To Treat It?

Gastrointestinal bleeding, as the name suggests, is characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its accessory organs (esophagus, stomach, colon, small intestine, rectum, and anus). The bleeding also referred to as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is not a disease in itself. However, it may be an indication of a disease, injury or infection in the digestive tract of a person. The bleeding in the GI tract may be mild to chronic (often fatal), depending on the severity of the condition that triggers the bleeding.

What causes the gastrointestinal bleeding?
As stated, the gastrointestinal bleeding may be indicative of some digestive tract disorder. Some of the common conditions that may trigger the bleeding include

  • Tumors that are malignant in nature.
  • Hemorrhoids (a painful condition where veins around the anus, as well as the lower part of the rectum, swell up)
  • Peptic ulcers.
  • Diverticulosis (formation of diverticula or pouches in the walls of the large intestine).
  • Inflammatory bowel disorder.
  • Colon polyps (a small mass of cells that develop on the inner lining of the large intestine or colon).
  • There may be problems in the blood vessels (in the digestive tract).
  • Anal fissures.
  • Esophageal varices (the veins of the stomach or esophagus swell up due to a liver disorder, such as cirrhosis).
  • Angiodysplasia (it is a minute vascular malformation that takes place in the gut).
  • There may be an inflammation of the gastrointestinal lining.

Symptoms:
The appearance of blood in the stool and vomit is one of the characteristic symptoms of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms indicative of a bleeding include

  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • The stool appears black and tarry.
  • A person may complain of uneasiness and shortness of breath.
  • The skin appears pale. In some cases, prolonged bleeding that goes unattended may result in anemia.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • The stool may also appear maroon or bright red (often in the case of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal part).

Consult a doctor at the earliest if the symptoms persist for more than a week.Timely medical assistance can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Diagnosis and treatment:
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the colon or the stomach is easy to diagnose. However, the diagnosis of the bleeding that occurs in the small intestine may be tricky and often requires the use of advanced and sophisticated equipment. The diagnosis is often done by

Treatment:

  • Endoscopic injections (often diluted epinephrine) at the bleeding site provides great relief.
  • To close or clamp off a bleeding blood vessel, doctors may use Endoscopic clips.
  • Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection is used to treat varices in the stomach effectively.
  • There are medications available to treat GI bleeding triggered by ulcers.
  • In the case of an acute bleeding, a person may need surgery (Laparoscopy).

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1761 people found this helpful

Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How Can It Be Treated?

Dr. Jaikish Jayaraj 88% (33 ratings)
M.Ch - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery, MS (General Surgery), MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MRCPS
Gastroenterologist, Calicut
Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How Can It Be Treated?

Gastrointestinal bleeding, as the name suggests, is characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its accessory organs (esophagus, stomach, colon, small intestine, rectum, and anus). The bleeding also referred to as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is not a disease in itself. However, it may be an indication of a disease, injury or infection in the digestive tract of a person. The bleeding in the GI tract may be mild to chronic (often fatal), depending on the severity of the condition that triggers the bleeding.

What causes the gastrointestinal bleeding?
As stated, the gastrointestinal bleeding may be indicative of some digestive tract disorder. Some of the common conditions that may trigger the bleeding include

  • Tumors that are malignant in nature.
  • Hemorrhoids (a painful condition where veins around the anus, as well as the lower part of the rectum, swell up)
  • Peptic ulcers.
  • Diverticulosis (formation of diverticula or pouches in the walls of the large intestine).
  • Inflammatory bowel disorder.
  • Colon polyps (a small mass of cells that develop on the inner lining of the large intestine or colon).
  • There may be problems in the blood vessels (in the digestive tract).
  • Anal fissures.
  • Esophageal varices (the veins of the stomach or esophagus swell up due to a liver disorder, such as cirrhosis).
  • Angiodysplasia (it is a minute vascular malformation that takes place in the gut).
  • There may be an inflammation of the gastrointestinal lining.

Symptoms:
The appearance of blood in the stool and vomit is one of the characteristic symptoms of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms indicative of a bleeding include

  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • The stool appears black and tarry.
  • A person may complain of uneasiness and shortness of breath.
  • The skin appears pale. In some cases, prolonged bleeding that goes unattended may result in anemia.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • The stool may also appear maroon or bright red (often in the case of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal part).

Consult a doctor at the earliest if the symptoms persist for more than a week.Timely medical assistance can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Diagnosis and treatment:
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the colon or the stomach is easy to diagnose. However, the diagnosis of the bleeding that occurs in the small intestine may be tricky and often requires the use of advanced and sophisticated equipment. The diagnosis is often done by

Treatment:

  • Endoscopic injections (often diluted epinephrine) at the bleeding site provides great relief.
  • To close or clamp off a bleeding blood vessel, doctors may use Endoscopic clips.
  • Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection is used to treat varices in the stomach effectively.
  • There are medications available to treat GI bleeding triggered by ulcers.
  • In the case of an acute bleeding, a person may need surgery (Laparoscopy).

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1989 people found this helpful

Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How It Can Be Treated?

MBBS, DNB - Internal Medicine, DNB - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Faridabad
Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How It Can Be Treated?

Gastrointestinal bleeding, as the name suggests, is characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its accessory organs (esophagus, stomach, colon, small intestine, rectum, and anus). The bleeding also referred to as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is not a disease in itself. However, it may be an indication of a disease, injury or infection in the digestive tract of a person. The bleeding in the GI tract may be mild to chronic (often fatal), depending on the severity of the condition that triggers the bleeding.

What causes the gastrointestinal bleeding?
As stated, the gastrointestinal bleeding may be indicative of some digestive tract disorder. Some of the common conditions that may trigger the bleeding include

  • Tumors that are malignant in nature.
  • Hemorrhoids (a painful condition where veins around the anus, as well as the lower part of the rectum, swell up)
  • Peptic ulcers.
  • Diverticulosis (formation of diverticula or pouches in the walls of the large intestine).
  • Inflammatory bowel disorder.
  • Colon polyps (a small mass of cells that develop on the inner lining of the large intestine or colon).
  • There may be problems in the blood vessels (in the digestive tract).
  • Anal fissures.
  • Esophageal varices (the veins of the stomach or esophagus swell up due to a liver disorder, such as cirrhosis).
  • Angiodysplasia (it is a minute vascular malformation that takes place in the gut).
  • There may be an inflammation of the gastrointestinal lining.

Symptoms:
The appearance of blood in the stool and vomit is one of the characteristic symptoms of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms indicative of a bleeding include

  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • The stool appears black and tarry.
  • A person may complain of uneasiness and shortness of breath.
  • The skin appears pale. In some cases, prolonged bleeding that goes unattended may result in anemia.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • The stool may also appear maroon or bright red (often in the case of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal part).

Consult a doctor at the earliest if the symptoms persist for more than a week.Timely medical assistance can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Diagnosis and treatment:
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the colon or the stomach is easy to diagnose. However, the diagnosis of the bleeding that occurs in the small intestine may be tricky and often requires the use of advanced and sophisticated equipment. The diagnosis is often done by

Treatment:

  • Endoscopic injections (often diluted epinephrine) at the bleeding site provides great relief.
  • To close or clamp off a bleeding blood vessel, doctors may use Endoscopic clips.
  • Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection is used to treat varices in the stomach effectively.
  • There are medications available to treat GI bleeding triggered by ulcers.
  • In the case of an acute bleeding, a person may need surgery (Laparoscopy).

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1874 people found this helpful

Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How To Treat It?

Dr. Sushil Narang 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Ahmedabad
Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How To Treat It?

Gastrointestinal bleeding, as the name suggests, is characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its accessory organs (esophagus, stomach, colon, small intestine, rectum, and anus). The bleeding also referred to as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is not a disease in itself. However, it may be an indication of a disease, injury or infection in the digestive tract of a person. The bleeding in the GI tract may be mild to chronic (often fatal), depending on the severity of the condition that triggers the bleeding.

What causes the gastrointestinal bleeding?
As stated, the gastrointestinal bleeding may be indicative of some digestive tract disorder. Some of the common conditions that may trigger the bleeding include

  • Tumors that are malignant in nature.
  • Hemorrhoids (a painful condition where veins around the anus, as well as the lower part of the rectum, swell up)
  • Peptic ulcers.
  • Diverticulosis (formation of diverticula or pouches in the walls of the large intestine).
  • Inflammatory bowel disorder.
  • Colon polyps (a small mass of cells that develop on the inner lining of the large intestine or colon).
  • There may be problems in the blood vessels (in the digestive tract).
  • Anal fissures.
  • Esophageal varices (the veins of the stomach or esophagus swell up due to a liver disorder, such as cirrhosis).
  • Angiodysplasia (it is a minute vascular malformation that takes place in the gut).
  • There may be an inflammation of the gastrointestinal lining.

Symptoms:
The appearance of blood in the stool and vomit is one of the characteristic symptoms of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms indicative of a bleeding include

  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • The stool appears black and tarry.
  • A person may complain of uneasiness and shortness of breath.
  • The skin appears pale. In some cases, prolonged bleeding that goes unattended may result in anemia.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • The stool may also appear maroon or bright red (often in the case of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal part).

Consult a doctor at the earliest if the symptoms persist for more than a week.Timely medical assistance can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Diagnosis and treatment:
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the colon or the stomach is easy to diagnose. However, the diagnosis of the bleeding that occurs in the small intestine may be tricky and often requires the use of advanced and sophisticated equipment. The diagnosis is often done by

Treatment:

  • Endoscopic injections (often diluted epinephrine) at the bleeding site provides great relief.
  • To close or clamp off a bleeding blood vessel, doctors may use Endoscopic clips.
  • Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection is used to treat varices in the stomach effectively.
  • There are medications available to treat GI bleeding triggered by ulcers.
  • In the case of an acute bleeding, a person may need surgery (Laparoscopy).

8 Diseases that Can Cause Gastrointestinal Perforation

Dr. Nimesh Shah 84% (11 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Mumbai
8 Diseases that Can Cause Gastrointestinal Perforation

When a hole develops in the wall of the gallbladder, rectum, large bowel, small intestine, stomach or oesophagus, it is called gastrointestinal perforation. It is a medical emergency that needs urgent medical attention.

Symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation (GP) usually include

  1. Serious stomach pain
  2. Chills
  3. Fever
  4. Nausea
  5. Vomiting

Peritonitis (abdominal cavity lining inflammation) can also accompany the abovementioned condition. So in addition to the above symptoms, you may also experience peritonitis symptoms such as:

  • Fatigue
  • Passing less gas, urine or stools
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Fast heartbeats
  • Dizziness

Certain diseases can cause Gastro-intestinal perforation, such as:

  • Appendicitis
  • Diverticulitis (A type of digestive disorder)
  • Stomach ulcer
  • Gallstones
  • Gallbladder infection
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases (inflammation in the small intestine and the colon)
  • Swollen Meckel’s diverticulum (abnormal bulging of the small intestine at birth)
  • Gastrointestinal tract cancer

Besides diseases, the following conditions can also lead to Gastro-intestinal perforation:

  • Blunt abdominal trauma
  • Gunshot or knife wound to the abdomen
  • Abdominal surgery
  • Stomach ulcers caused by excessive consumption of steroids, anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin
  • Ingestion of caustic substances or foreign objects

Other than these, drinking alcohol, smoking and bowel injuries (caused by colonoscopy or endoscopy) can lead to GP as well.

Treatment options available

This condition is mostly treated with surgery. The goal of the surgery is to repair the anatomical problem and cause of peritonitis, along with removal of any foreign object in the abdominal socket, such as food, faeces and bile. However, if your doctor deems surgery unnecessary (in instances where the hole closes voluntarily) you will be only given antibiotics.
In some cases, a section of the intestine might need to be removed. An ileostomy or colostomy is performed where a portion of the large or small intestine is removed, which grants intestinal contents to empty or drain into a bag implanted on the wall of your abdomen.

The complications include:

  1. Bleeding
  2. Sepsis (Critical and fatal bacterial infection)
  3. Belly ulcers
  4. Wound infection
  5. Bowel infarction (impaired supply of blood to the bowels)
  6. Permanent colostomy or ileostomy

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general surgeon.

2873 people found this helpful

8 Diseases that Can Cause Gastrointestinal Perforation

Dr. Ashok Gupta 92% (5463 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Delhi
8 Diseases that Can Cause Gastrointestinal Perforation

When a hole develops in the wall of the gallbladder, rectum, large bowel, small intestine, stomach or oesophagus, it is called gastrointestinal perforation. It is a medical emergency that needs urgent medical attention.

Symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation (GP) usually include

  1. Serious stomach pain
  2. Chills
  3. Fever
  4. Nausea
  5. Vomiting

Peritonitis (abdominal cavity lining inflammation) can also accompany the abovementioned condition. So in addition to the above symptoms, you may also experience peritonitis symptoms such as:

  • Fatigue
  • Passing less gas, urine or stools
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Fast heartbeats
  • Dizziness

Certain diseases can cause Gastro-intestinal perforation, such as:

  • Appendicitis
  • Diverticulitis (A type of digestive disorder)
  • Stomach ulcer
  • Gallstones
  • Gallbladder infection
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases (inflammation in the small intestine and the colon)
  • Swollen Meckel’s diverticulum (abnormal bulging of the small intestine at birth)
  • Gastrointestinal tract cancer

Besides diseases, the following conditions can also lead to Gastro-intestinal perforation:

  • Blunt abdominal trauma
  • Gunshot or knife wound to the abdomen
  • Abdominal surgery
  • Stomach ulcers caused by excessive consumption of steroids, anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin
  • Ingestion of caustic substances or foreign objects

Other than these, drinking alcohol, smoking and bowel injuries (caused by colonoscopy or endoscopy) can lead to GP as well.

Treatment options available

This condition is mostly treated with surgery. The goal of the surgery is to repair the anatomical problem and cause of peritonitis, along with removal of any foreign object in the abdominal socket, such as food, faeces and bile. However, if your doctor deems surgery unnecessary (in instances where the hole closes voluntarily) you will be only given antibiotics.
In some cases, a section of the intestine might need to be removed. An ileostomy or colostomy is performed where a portion of the large or small intestine is removed, which grants intestinal contents to empty or drain into a bag implanted on the wall of your abdomen.

The complications include:

  1. Bleeding
  2. Sepsis (Critical and fatal bacterial infection)
  3. Belly ulcers
  4. Wound infection
  5. Bowel infarction (impaired supply of blood to the bowels)
  6. Permanent colostomy or ileostomy

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general surgeon.

2 people found this helpful

Gastrointestinal Perforation - What You Need To Know?

Dr. Manish Joshi 92% (13 ratings)
Fellowship In Colorectal Surgery, DNB - Surgical Gastroenterology, Fellowship In Minimal Access Surgery, Fellowship In HPB Surgery, Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS), MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Bangalore
Gastrointestinal Perforation - What You Need To Know?

When a hole develops in the wall of the gallbladder, rectum, large bowel, small intestine, stomach or oesophagus, it is called gastrointestinal perforation. It is a medical emergency that needs urgent medical attention.

Symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation (GP) usually include

  1. Serious stomach pain
  2. Chills
  3. Fever
  4. Nausea
  5. Vomiting

Peritonitis (abdominal cavity lining inflammation) can also accompany the abovementioned condition. So in addition to the above symptoms, you may also experience peritonitis symptoms such as:

  1. Fatigue
  2. Passing less gas, urine or stools
  3. Breathing difficulties
  4. Fast heartbeats
  5. Dizziness

Certain diseases can cause Gastro-intestinal perforation, such as:

  1. Appendicitis
  2. Diverticulitis (A type of digestive disorder)
  3. Stomach ulcer
  4. Gallstones
  5. Gallbladder infection
  6. Inflammatory bowel diseases (inflammation in the small intestine and the colon)
  7. Swollen Meckel’s diverticulum (abnormal bulging of the small intestine at birth)
  8. Gastrointestinal tract cancer

Besides diseases, the following conditions can also lead to Gastro-intestinal perforation:

  1. Blunt abdominal trauma
  2. Gunshot or knife wound to the abdomen
  3. Abdominal surgery
  4. Stomach ulcers caused by excessive consumption of steroids, anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin
  5. Ingestion of caustic substances or foreign objects

Other than these, drinking alcohol, smoking and bowel injuries (caused by colonoscopy or endoscopy) can lead to GP as well.

Treatment options available
This condition is mostly treated with surgery. The goal of the surgery is to repair the anatomical problem and cause of peritonitis, along with removal of any foreign object in the abdominal socket, such as food, faeces and bile. However, if your doctor deems surgery unnecessary (in instances where the hole closes voluntarily) you will be only given antibiotics.
In some cases, a section of the intestine might need to be removed. An ileostomy or colostomy is performed where a portion of the large or small intestine is removed, which grants intestinal contents to empty or drain into a bag implanted on the wall of your abdomen.

The complications include:

  • Bleeding
  • Sepsis (Critical and fatal bacterial infection)
  • Belly ulcers
  • Wound infection
  • Bowel infarction (impaired supply of blood to the bowels)
  • 6. Permanent colostomy or ileostomy

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3356 people found this helpful

Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor - Things You Must Know!

MBBS, DNB - Internal Medicine, DNB - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Faridabad
Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor - Things You Must Know!

A Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor is a condition characterized by the formation of malignant tumor in the gastrointestinal tract. It may also affect the esophagus, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus (the accessory organs).

In Gastrointestinal carcinoid, the tumor is commonly the neuroendocrine tumor (the abnormal growth of cells and tissues originate from the nervous and the endocrine system).

Causes of Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor:
Several factors may be responsible for gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor, the most common of which include

  • Zollinger Ellison syndrome: It is a condition whereby multiple tumors (gastrinomas) may develop on the duodenum (mainly the upper part) and the pancreas. This abnormal condition leads to increased secretion of the hormone gastrin, which, in turn, triggers the stomach to produce acids in excess amounts. More than often, the syndrome results in peptic ulcers. Research suggests that people with Zollinger Ellison syndrome (if left unattended and untreated for long) may suffer from the gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor.
  • Multiple Endocrine: Neoplasia Type-1 (formation of tumor in the endocrine gland as well as in parts of the stomach and small intestine) can also trigger Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor (though rare).

Symptoms:
The symptoms associated with Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor include

  • Unexplained weight loss.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Extreme tiredness, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Stomach upset (a person may throw up), diarrhea.
  • There is a loss of appetite. A person feels full all the time (even after eating only a small morsel of food).
  • Difficulty in swallowing the food (in the case of the tumor in the esophagus).
  • The stool may appear black and tarry (due to bleeding into the small intestine and the stomach). The stool may also appear red (if the bleeding is into the large intestine).

Women are more likely to be affected by than their male counterparts. The aged people are slightly more susceptible to Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors.

Diagnosis and treatment:
Diagnosis of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors include

  • Physical examination.
  • Urine and blood tests play a pivotal role in determining the protein and hormone levels, thus making the diagnosis more efficient and accurate.
  • Certain imaging tests such as MRI, CTscan, X-rays, PET.
  • Biopsy.
  • Endoscopy and Colonoscopy.
  • OctreoScan is the scan, the doctor injects a substance called octreotide (in combination with a radioactive material) into the body and monitors the amount of octreotide absorbed by the body. Absorption of large amounts of octreotide indicates the presence of a tumor.
  • MIBG scan: The test is identical to OctreoScan except the substance used here is MIBG.


As with most cases of cancer, the treatment for Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor include

  • Surgery: Depending on the stage and the severity, surgery may be needed to remove the tumor.
  • Radiation Therapy: High beam rays are used to kill the cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy: Drugs are administered orally or intravenously to get rid of the cancer cells.
  • Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy may be used to treat gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. Here, doses of synthetic hormones (Lanreotide and Octreotide) are given to the patients. These hormone work by blocking the hormones produced by the tumor cells.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a minimally invasive procedure to assess digestive (gastrointestinal) and lung diseases. A special endoscope uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the lining and walls of your digestive tract and chest, nearby organs such as the pancreas and liver, and lymph nodes.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2135 people found this helpful

Gastrointestinal Perforation - 8 Diseases that Can Cause it

Dr. Parthasarathy G 91% (30 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, M.Ch - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery, Fellowship in Hepatobiliary Surgery & Liver Transplantation, International Visiting Scholar
Surgical Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Gastrointestinal Perforation - 8 Diseases that Can Cause it

When a hole develops in the wall of the gallbladder, rectum, large bowel, small intestine, stomach or oesophagus, it is called gastrointestinal perforation. It is a medical emergency that needs urgent medical attention.

Symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation (GP) usually include
1. Serious stomach pain
2. Chills
3. Fever
4. Nausea
5. Vomiting

Peritonitis (abdominal cavity lining inflammation) can also accompany the abovementioned condition. So in addition to the above symptoms, you may also experience peritonitis symptoms such as:
1. Fatigue
2. Passing less gas, urine or stools
3. Breathing difficulties
4. Fast heartbeats
5. Dizziness

Certain diseases can cause Gastro-intestinal perforation, such as:
1. Appendicitis
2. Diverticulitis (A type of digestive disorder)
3. Stomach ulcer
4. Gallstones
5. Gallbladder infection
6. Inflammatory bowel diseases (inflammation in the small intestine and the colon)
7. Swollen Meckel’s diverticulum (abnormal bulging of the small intestine at birth)
8. Gastrointestinal tract cancer

Besides diseases, the following conditions can also lead to Gastro-intestinal perforation:

1. Blunt abdominal trauma
2. Gunshot or knife wound to the abdomen
3. Abdominal surgery
4. Stomach ulcers caused by excessive consumption of steroids, anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin
5. Ingestion of caustic substances or foreign objects
Other than these, drinking alcohol, smoking and bowel injuries (caused by colonoscopy or endoscopy) can lead to GP as well.

Treatment options available
This condition is mostly treated with surgery. The goal of the surgery is to repair the anatomical problem and cause of peritonitis, along with removal of any foreign object in the abdominal socket, such as food, faeces and bile. However, if your doctor deems surgery unnecessary (in instances where the hole closes voluntarily) you will be only given antibiotics.
In some cases, a section of the intestine might need to be removed. An ileostomy or colostomy is performed where a portion of the large or small intestine is removed, which grants intestinal contents to empty or drain into a bag implanted on the wall of your abdomen.

The complications include:
1. Bleeding
2. Sepsis (Critical and fatal bacterial infection)
3. Belly ulcers
4. Wound infection
5. Bowel infarction (impaired supply of blood to the bowels)
6. Permanent colostomy or ileostomy 

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

3049 people found this helpful

Tadpol Endoscope

Dr. R.S. Saini 90% (8931 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine
Internal Medicine Specialist, Faridabad
Tadpol Endoscope
The new device called the tadpole endoscope (te) takes inspiration from the mechanics that tadpoles use to swim and is like a micro-robot fish with a camera which is swallowed by the patient.

The tadpole endoscope stands out from existing wireless capsule endoscopes with its addition of a soft tail that allows it to be guided around the stomach remotely by a doctor, allowing for more comprehensive imaging and accurate location of problems within the body.

Cancers of the gastrointestinal (gi) tract, including esophagus cancer, stomach cancer and colon cancer, rank as the second most prevalent among all types of cancers in the world.

Three procedures are required for the traditional method of diagnosing cancers in the gi tract: esophagus cancer and stomach cancer can be diagnosed using gastroscopy; intestinal cancer can be diagnosed using capsule endoscopy; and colorectal cancer can be diagnosed using colonoscopy. All of these diagnostic procedures are expensive and put a lot of stress on the human body.

Created by engineers from the institute of precision engineering at the chinese university of hong kong, the te attempts to improve these existing methods by offering a reliable, non-invasive diagnosis procedure for the gi tract.

The process will work by the patient going to the hospital and swallowing the te which starts working immediately. Once the te is in the stomach, the doctor can control the te to swim around to gather images. By adjusting the posture of the patient, the doctor can view the whole stomach.

The te will then move into the lower gi tract depending on natural peristalsis. The patient can then be sent home wearing a sensor pad to record these images which the doctor can subsequently use to make a diagnosis.

So far, the te has been tested in a stomach model and a pig stomach without the image system. The authors hope that the viability of the propulsion model will take one step closer to the next stage of experiments before the device can be used in a working medical context. The research was published in the journal hkie transactions.
50 people found this helpful
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