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Gastrointestinal Bleeding Health Feed

Upper Gastrointestinal Tract - How To Administer It?

Dr. Manash Ranjan Sahoo 85% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS (General Surgery), Fellowship in Surgical Gastroenterology
General Surgeon, Cuttack
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract - How To Administer It?

It is gastrointestinal bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, commonly defined as bleeding arising from the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum. Blood is often observed in vomit (hematemesis) or in the stool (melena). Upper gastrointestinal bleeding denotes a medical emergency and typically requires hospital care for primary diagnosis and treatment. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is 50-150 individuals per 100,000 annually. Depending on its severity, it carries an estimated mortality risk of 11%.

The causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are as follows:

Esophageal causes (gastrorrhagia):

  • Esophageal varices
  • Esophagitis
  • Esophageal cancer
  • Esophageal ulcers
  • Mallory-Weiss tear

Gastric causes

Dieulafoy's lesions

  • Duodenal causes
  • Duodenal ulcer
  • Vascular malformation, including aorto-enteric fistulae
  • Hematobilia or bleeding from the biliary tree
  • Hemosuccus pancreaticus or bleeding from the pancreatic duct
  • Severe superior mesenteric artery syndrome

The signs and symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are as follows:

  • Hematemesis - Vomiting of blood
  • Melena - Blood in the stool
  • Hematochezia - Passage of fresh blood through the anus, usually in or with stools
  • Syncope - Loss of consciousness (fainting)
  • Presyncope - State of lightheadedness, muscular weakness, blurred vision, and feeling faint
  • Dyspepsia – IndigestionEpigastric painHeartburnDiffuse abdominal pain
  • Dysphagia - Difficulty in swallowing. Weight lossJaundice - Yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera

The diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is made when hematemesis is present. In the absence of hematemesis, an upper source of GI bleeding is likely in the presence of at least two factors among - Black stool, age < 50 years or blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio 30 or more

If these findings are absent, consider a nasogastric aspirate to determine the source of bleeding. If the aspirate is positive, an upper GI bleed is greater than 50%, but not high enough to be certain. If the aspirate is negative, the source of a GI bleed is likely lower. The accuracy of the aspirate is improved by using the Gastroccult test. Also, the following diagnostic tests are done:

  • Orthostatic blood pressure
  • Complete blood count with differential counts
  • Hemoglobin level
  • Type and crossmatch blood
  • Basic metabolic profile, BUN,
  • Coagulation profile
  • Serum calcium
  • Serum gastrin
  • Endoscopy
  • Chest radiography
  • Nasogastric lavageAngiography (if bleeding persists and endoscopy fails to identify a bleeding site)

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be managed in the following ways:

  • Airway management and fluid resuscitation using either intravenous fluids and or blood
  • Medications to stop the bleeding (Proton-pump inhibitors are often given in the emergency)
  • Surgical intervention
  • Treating the consequences (like anemia) that the bleeding may have caused
  • Precautions are taken to prevent rebleeding
1615 people found this helpful

GI Bleeding - Everything You Must Know!

Dr. Tarun Bharadwaj 87% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Gastroenterology, Fellowship in Advanced endoscopy, Fellowship in Endoscopic Ultrasound(EUS), Observer fellowship in NBI and ESD, Fellowship in Hepatology
Gastroenterologist, Bhopal
GI Bleeding - Everything You Must Know!

1. Upper GI bleeding: Vomiting of blood, coffee-coloured vomitus, or the passing of black stools is called Hematemesis. It is a medical emergency and requires urgent admission to hospital and evaluation by a gastroenterologist. Medical stabilisation by medicines to stop bleeding and blood transfusion are required initially. Gastroscopy is required for finding the cause of bleeding as well as treatment. Gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer requires injection adrenaline or hemoclips. Esophageal varices require Banding (Endoscopic variceal ligation EVL) and bleeding from Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) require Argon plasma coagulation. Severe variceal bleeding requires Metal stenting (Covered SEMS Dennis Ella stent). Occasional If the endoscopy is not able to control the bleeding the patient requires Surgery or Interventional Radiologist for further management. New clips such as OVESCO are very effective for ulcer bleeding. Gastric Varices require GLUE injection or Endosonography guided coil embolisation.

2. Lower GI bleeding: Bleeding through motions is called lower GI bleeding and can be due to Ulcers, cancers, Angioectasia, Polyps, Diverticulitis, Varices, Piles, Fissures, etc. Urgent colonoscopy is required to find the cause of bleeding. Depending on the cause, specific treatment is given by gastroenterologists.

1326 people found this helpful

Rectum Bleeding - How To Administer It?

Dr. Suddhasattwa Sen 95% (10 ratings)
MBBS (Gold Medalist), MS- General Surgery (Gold Medalist), DNB - General Surgery (Gold Medalist), DNB - GI surgery, Fellow Minimal Access Surgeon, Fellowship in Hepato Biliary, Pancreatic Surgery & Liver Transplantation, MRCS
Gastroenterologist, Kolkata
Rectum Bleeding - How To Administer It?

If you notice blood in the stool or the toilet bowl, it could be a case of rectal bleeding. There are many reasons why rectal bleeding can occur, the most common one being haemorrhoids. If the rectal bleeding is not significant then it is not a cause for concern. But if you lose a lot of blood then it can be a major problem.

What are the signs?

The most obvious one, in this case, is the presence of blood in your stool. But it's not just the presence of blood that is important here, the colour of the blood is also a very important indicator of what is wrong.

  • Black colour indicates that you are bleeding from the upper region of the small intestine

  • A bright red colour is an indication of the blood loss from the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract – rectum or colon

  • Dark red indicates that the bleeding is taking place at the initial region of the colon

Some other symptoms you may experience are –

Causes of rectal bleeding

Causes of rectal bleeding can be divided into mild and serious. 

Mild causes – 

  1. Constipation 

  2. Small tears in the anal lining (anal fissures)

  3. Haemorrhoids

  4. Small growths of tissue in the rectum or colon

Serious causes –

  1. Cancer of the colon and anus

  2. Inflammatory bowel disease

  3. An infection of the intestine such as salmonella

How is it treated?

If you lose a lot of blood, then it is a medical emergency. You should rush to the doctor if you experience the following – fainting, intense pain in the stomach, confusion, and rapid breathing.

The doctor will prescribe treatment based on the cause of your rectal bleeding. For example, if the cause is haemorrhoids then warm baths will help soothe the pain. If the haemorrhoids are large then invasive methods such as laser treatments and surgery are prescribed. 

Or if it is constipation then stool softeners are a good option. In addition, you may have to eat a high fibre diet and exercise regularly to normalize your bowel movements. 

Rectal bleeding can be a minor inconvenience or a major problem depending on the cause. So it is best to consult a doctor and seek immediate treatment.

1536 people found this helpful

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Gastrointestinal Bleeding!

Dr. Radhakrishna Patta 89% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery
Gastroenterologist, Chennai
Diagnosis And Treatment Of Gastrointestinal Bleeding!

Gastrointestinal bleeding, as the name suggests, is characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its accessory organs (esophagus, stomach, colon, small intestine, rectum, and anus). The bleeding also referred to as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is not a disease in itself. However, it may be an indication of a disease, injury or infection in the digestive tract of a person. The bleeding in the GI tract may be mild to chronic (often fatal), depending on the severity of the condition that triggers the bleeding.

What causes the gastrointestinal bleeding?
As stated, the gastrointestinal bleeding may be indicative of some digestive tract disorder. Some of the common conditions that may trigger the bleeding include

  • Tumors that are malignant in nature.
  • Hemorrhoids (a painful condition where veins around the anus, as well as the lower part of the rectum, swell up)
  • Peptic ulcers.
  • Diverticulosis (formation of diverticula or pouches in the walls of the large intestine).
  • Inflammatory bowel disorder.
  • Colon polyps (a small mass of cells that develop on the inner lining of the large intestine or colon).
  • There may be problems in the blood vessels (in the digestive tract).
  • Anal fissures.
  • Esophageal varices (the veins of the stomach or esophagus swell up due to a liver disorder, such as cirrhosis).
  • Angiodysplasia (it is a minute vascular malformation that takes place in the gut).
  • There may be an inflammation of the gastrointestinal lining.

Symptoms:
The appearance of blood in the stool and vomit is one of the characteristic symptoms of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms indicative of a bleeding include

  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • The stool appears black and tarry.
  • A person may complain of uneasiness and shortness of breath.
  • The skin appears pale. In some cases, prolonged bleeding that goes unattended may result in anemia.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • The stool may also appear maroon or bright red (often in the case of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal part).

Consult a doctor at the earliest if the symptoms persist for more than a week.Timely medical assistance can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Diagnosis and treatment:
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the colon or the stomach is easy to diagnose. However, the diagnosis of the bleeding that occurs in the small intestine may be tricky and often requires the use of advanced and sophisticated equipment. The diagnosis is often done by

Treatment:

  • Endoscopic injections (often diluted epinephrine) at the bleeding site provides great relief.
  • To close or clamp off a bleeding blood vessel, doctors may use Endoscopic clips.
  • Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection is used to treat varices in the stomach effectively.
  • There are medications available to treat GI bleeding triggered by ulcers.
  • In the case of an acute bleeding, a person may need surgery (Laparoscopy).
4226 people found this helpful

Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding - Common Reasons Behind It!

Dr. Himanshu Yadav 88% (47 ratings)
MBBS, M.S. (Gold Medalist), MCh - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery
General Surgeon, Agra
Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding - Common Reasons Behind It!

It is gastrointestinal bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, commonly defined as bleeding arising from the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum. Blood is often observed in vomit (hematemesis) or in stool (melena). Upper gastrointestinal bleeding denotes a medical emergency and typically requires hospital care for primary diagnosis and treatment. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is 50-150 individuals per 100,000 annually. Depending on its severity, it carries an estimated mortality risk of 11%.

The causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are as follows:

Esophageal causes (gastrorrhagia):

  • Esophageal varices
  • Esophagitis
  • Esophageal cancer
  • Esophageal ulcers
  • Mallory-Weiss tear

Gastric causes

Dieulafoy's lesions

  • Duodenal causes
  • Duodenal ulcer
  • Vascular malformation, including aorto-enteric fistulae
  • Hematobilia or bleeding from the biliary tree
  • Hemosuccus pancreaticus or bleeding from the pancreatic duct
  • Severe superior mesenteric artery syndrome

The signs and symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are as follows:

  • Hematemesis - Vomiting of blood
  • Melena - Blood in the stool
  • Hematochezia - Passage of fresh blood through the anus, usually in or with stools
  • Syncope - Loss of consciousness (fainting)
  • Presyncope - State of lightheadedness, muscular weakness, blurred vision, and feeling faint
  • Dyspepsia – IndigestionEpigastric painHeartburnDiffuse abdominal pain
  • Dysphagia - Difficulty in swallowing. Weight lossJaundice - Yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera

The diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is made when hematemesis is present. In the absence of hematemesis, an upper source of GI bleeding is likely in the presence of at least two factors among - Black stool, age < 50 years or blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio 30 or more

If these findings are absent, consider a nasogastric aspirate to determine the source of bleeding. If the aspirate is positive, an upper GI bleed is greater than 50%, but not high enough to be certain. If the aspirate is negative, the source of a GI bleed is likely lower. The accuracy of the aspirate is improved by using the Gastroccult test. Also, the following diagnostic tests are done:

  • Orthostatic blood pressure
  • Complete blood count with differential counts
  • Hemoglobin level
  • Type and crossmatch blood
  • Basic metabolic profile, BUN,
  • Coagulation profile
  • Serum calcium
  • Serum gastrin
  • Endoscopy
  • Chest radiography
  • Nasogastric lavageAngiography (if bleeding persists and endoscopy fails to identify a bleeding site)

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be managed in the following ways:

  • Airway management and fluid resuscitation using either intravenous fluids and or blood
  • Medications to stop the bleeding (Proton-pump inhibitors are often given in the emergency)
  • Surgical intervention
  • Treating the consequences (like anemia) that the bleeding may have caused
  • Precautions are taken to prevent rebleeding

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3632 people found this helpful

Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How Can It Be Treated?

Dr. Jaikish Jayaraj 91% (41 ratings)
M.Ch - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery, MS (General Surgery), MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MRCPS
Gastroenterologist, Calicut
Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How Can It Be Treated?

Gastrointestinal bleeding, as the name suggests, is characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its accessory organs (esophagus, stomach, colon, small intestine, rectum, and anus). The bleeding also referred to as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is not a disease in itself. However, it may be an indication of a disease, injury or infection in the digestive tract of a person. The bleeding in the GI tract may be mild to chronic (often fatal), depending on the severity of the condition that triggers the bleeding.

What causes the gastrointestinal bleeding?
As stated, the gastrointestinal bleeding may be indicative of some digestive tract disorder. Some of the common conditions that may trigger the bleeding include

  • Tumors that are malignant in nature.
  • Hemorrhoids (a painful condition where veins around the anus, as well as the lower part of the rectum, swell up)
  • Peptic ulcers.
  • Diverticulosis (formation of diverticula or pouches in the walls of the large intestine).
  • Inflammatory bowel disorder.
  • Colon polyps (a small mass of cells that develop on the inner lining of the large intestine or colon).
  • There may be problems in the blood vessels (in the digestive tract).
  • Anal fissures.
  • Esophageal varices (the veins of the stomach or esophagus swell up due to a liver disorder, such as cirrhosis).
  • Angiodysplasia (it is a minute vascular malformation that takes place in the gut).
  • There may be an inflammation of the gastrointestinal lining.

Symptoms:
The appearance of blood in the stool and vomit is one of the characteristic symptoms of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms indicative of a bleeding include

  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • The stool appears black and tarry.
  • A person may complain of uneasiness and shortness of breath.
  • The skin appears pale. In some cases, prolonged bleeding that goes unattended may result in anemia.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • The stool may also appear maroon or bright red (often in the case of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal part).

Consult a doctor at the earliest if the symptoms persist for more than a week.Timely medical assistance can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Diagnosis and treatment:
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the colon or the stomach is easy to diagnose. However, the diagnosis of the bleeding that occurs in the small intestine may be tricky and often requires the use of advanced and sophisticated equipment. The diagnosis is often done by

Treatment:

  • Endoscopic injections (often diluted epinephrine) at the bleeding site provides great relief.
  • To close or clamp off a bleeding blood vessel, doctors may use Endoscopic clips.
  • Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection is used to treat varices in the stomach effectively.
  • There are medications available to treat GI bleeding triggered by ulcers.
  • In the case of an acute bleeding, a person may need surgery (Laparoscopy).

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1989 people found this helpful

Can GI bleedings may happen from reasons other than hemorrhoids/piles/anal fissure/fistula.

Dr. Praveen Sharma 91% (52 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Delhi
Can GI bleedings may happen from reasons other than hemorrhoids/piles/anal fissure/fistula.
Yes there are number of other reasons but you need assessment whether bleeding is from upper or lower part of intestine.
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Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How To Treat It?

MBBS , DNB MEDICINE, DM GASTRO
Gastroenterologist, Bhopal
Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How To Treat It?

Gastrointestinal bleeding, as the name suggests, is characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its accessory organs (esophagus, stomach, colon, small intestine, rectum, and anus). The bleeding also referred to as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is not a disease in itself. However, it may be an indication of a disease, injury or infection in the digestive tract of a person. The bleeding in the GI tract may be mild to chronic (often fatal), depending on the severity of the condition that triggers the bleeding.

What causes the gastrointestinal bleeding?
As stated, the gastrointestinal bleeding may be indicative of some digestive tract disorder. Some of the common conditions that may trigger the bleeding include

  • Tumors that are malignant in nature.
  • Hemorrhoids (a painful condition where veins around the anus, as well as the lower part of the rectum, swell up)
  • Peptic ulcers.
  • Diverticulosis (formation of diverticula or pouches in the walls of the large intestine).
  • Inflammatory bowel disorder.
  • Colon polyps (a small mass of cells that develop on the inner lining of the large intestine or colon).
  • There may be problems in the blood vessels (in the digestive tract).
  • Anal fissures.
  • Esophageal varices (the veins of the stomach or esophagus swell up due to a liver disorder, such as cirrhosis).
  • Angiodysplasia (it is a minute vascular malformation that takes place in the gut).
  • There may be an inflammation of the gastrointestinal lining.

Symptoms:
The appearance of blood in the stool and vomit is one of the characteristic symptoms of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms indicative of a bleeding include

  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • The stool appears black and tarry.
  • A person may complain of uneasiness and shortness of breath.
  • The skin appears pale. In some cases, prolonged bleeding that goes unattended may result in anemia.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • The stool may also appear maroon or bright red (often in the case of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal part).

Consult a doctor at the earliest if the symptoms persist for more than a week.Timely medical assistance can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Diagnosis and treatment:
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the colon or the stomach is easy to diagnose. However, the diagnosis of the bleeding that occurs in the small intestine may be tricky and often requires the use of advanced and sophisticated equipment. The diagnosis is often done by

Treatment:

  • Endoscopic injections (often diluted epinephrine) at the bleeding site provides great relief.
  • To close or clamp off a bleeding blood vessel, doctors may use Endoscopic clips.
  • Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection is used to treat varices in the stomach effectively.
  • There are medications available to treat GI bleeding triggered by ulcers.
  • In the case of an acute bleeding, a person may need surgery (Laparoscopy).

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1761 people found this helpful

I am suffering from gastro bleeding since last few months. What could be the possible reasons.

MBBS
General Physician, Mumbai
Per rectal bleeding can be due to fissures or fistula or heamorrhoids and needs to be evaluated after clinical examination.

Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How To Treat It?

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Ahmedabad
Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How To Treat It?

Gastrointestinal bleeding, as the name suggests, is characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its accessory organs (esophagus, stomach, colon, small intestine, rectum, and anus). The bleeding also referred to as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is not a disease in itself. However, it may be an indication of a disease, injury or infection in the digestive tract of a person. The bleeding in the GI tract may be mild to chronic (often fatal), depending on the severity of the condition that triggers the bleeding.

What causes the gastrointestinal bleeding?
As stated, the gastrointestinal bleeding may be indicative of some digestive tract disorder. Some of the common conditions that may trigger the bleeding include

  • Tumors that are malignant in nature.
  • Hemorrhoids (a painful condition where veins around the anus, as well as the lower part of the rectum, swell up)
  • Peptic ulcers.
  • Diverticulosis (formation of diverticula or pouches in the walls of the large intestine).
  • Inflammatory bowel disorder.
  • Colon polyps (a small mass of cells that develop on the inner lining of the large intestine or colon).
  • There may be problems in the blood vessels (in the digestive tract).
  • Anal fissures.
  • Esophageal varices (the veins of the stomach or esophagus swell up due to a liver disorder, such as cirrhosis).
  • Angiodysplasia (it is a minute vascular malformation that takes place in the gut).
  • There may be an inflammation of the gastrointestinal lining.

Symptoms:
The appearance of blood in the stool and vomit is one of the characteristic symptoms of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms indicative of a bleeding include

  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • The stool appears black and tarry.
  • A person may complain of uneasiness and shortness of breath.
  • The skin appears pale. In some cases, prolonged bleeding that goes unattended may result in anemia.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • The stool may also appear maroon or bright red (often in the case of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal part).

Consult a doctor at the earliest if the symptoms persist for more than a week.Timely medical assistance can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Diagnosis and treatment:
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the colon or the stomach is easy to diagnose. However, the diagnosis of the bleeding that occurs in the small intestine may be tricky and often requires the use of advanced and sophisticated equipment. The diagnosis is often done by

Treatment:

  • Endoscopic injections (often diluted epinephrine) at the bleeding site provides great relief.
  • To close or clamp off a bleeding blood vessel, doctors may use Endoscopic clips.
  • Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection is used to treat varices in the stomach effectively.
  • There are medications available to treat GI bleeding triggered by ulcers.
  • In the case of an acute bleeding, a person may need surgery (Laparoscopy).
1952 people found this helpful
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