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Gastrointestinal Bleeding Tips

Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding - Common Reasons Behind It!

Dr. Himanshu Yadav 86% (37 ratings)
MBBS, M.S. (Gold Medalist), MCh - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery
Gastroenterologist, Agra
Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding - Common Reasons Behind It!

It is gastrointestinal bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, commonly defined as bleeding arising from the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum. Blood is often observed in vomit (hematemesis) or in stool (melena). Upper gastrointestinal bleeding denotes a medical emergency and typically requires hospital care for primary diagnosis and treatment. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is 50-150 individuals per 100,000 annually. Depending on its severity, it carries an estimated mortality risk of 11%.

The causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are as follows:

Esophageal causes (gastrorrhagia):

  • Esophageal varices
  • Esophagitis
  • Esophageal cancer
  • Esophageal ulcers
  • Mallory-Weiss tear

Gastric causes

Dieulafoy's lesions

  • Duodenal causes
  • Duodenal ulcer
  • Vascular malformation, including aorto-enteric fistulae
  • Hematobilia or bleeding from the biliary tree
  • Hemosuccus pancreaticus or bleeding from the pancreatic duct
  • Severe superior mesenteric artery syndrome

The signs and symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are as follows:

  • Hematemesis - Vomiting of blood
  • Melena - Blood in the stool
  • Hematochezia - Passage of fresh blood through the anus, usually in or with stools
  • Syncope - Loss of consciousness (fainting)
  • Presyncope - State of lightheadedness, muscular weakness, blurred vision, and feeling faint
  • Dyspepsia – IndigestionEpigastric painHeartburnDiffuse abdominal pain
  • Dysphagia - Difficulty in swallowing. Weight lossJaundice - Yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera

The diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is made when hematemesis is present. In the absence of hematemesis, an upper source of GI bleeding is likely in the presence of at least two factors among - Black stool, age < 50 years or blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio 30 or more

If these findings are absent, consider a nasogastric aspirate to determine the source of bleeding. If the aspirate is positive, an upper GI bleed is greater than 50%, but not high enough to be certain. If the aspirate is negative, the source of a GI bleed is likely lower. The accuracy of the aspirate is improved by using the Gastroccult test. Also, the following diagnostic tests are done:

  • Orthostatic blood pressure
  • Complete blood count with differential counts
  • Hemoglobin level
  • Type and crossmatch blood
  • Basic metabolic profile, BUN,
  • Coagulation profile
  • Serum calcium
  • Serum gastrin
  • Endoscopy
  • Chest radiography
  • Nasogastric lavageAngiography (if bleeding persists and endoscopy fails to identify a bleeding site)

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be managed in the following ways:

  • Airway management and fluid resuscitation using either intravenous fluids and or blood
  • Medications to stop the bleeding (Proton-pump inhibitors are often given in the emergency)
  • Surgical intervention
  • Treating the consequences (like anemia) that the bleeding may have caused
  • Precautions are taken to prevent rebleeding

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3632 people found this helpful

Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How Can It Be Treated?

Dr. Jaikish Jayaraj 88% (33 ratings)
M.Ch - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery, MS (General Surgery), MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MRCPS
Gastroenterologist, Calicut
Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How Can It Be Treated?

Gastrointestinal bleeding, as the name suggests, is characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its accessory organs (esophagus, stomach, colon, small intestine, rectum, and anus). The bleeding also referred to as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is not a disease in itself. However, it may be an indication of a disease, injury or infection in the digestive tract of a person. The bleeding in the GI tract may be mild to chronic (often fatal), depending on the severity of the condition that triggers the bleeding.

What causes the gastrointestinal bleeding?
As stated, the gastrointestinal bleeding may be indicative of some digestive tract disorder. Some of the common conditions that may trigger the bleeding include

  • Tumors that are malignant in nature.
  • Hemorrhoids (a painful condition where veins around the anus, as well as the lower part of the rectum, swell up)
  • Peptic ulcers.
  • Diverticulosis (formation of diverticula or pouches in the walls of the large intestine).
  • Inflammatory bowel disorder.
  • Colon polyps (a small mass of cells that develop on the inner lining of the large intestine or colon).
  • There may be problems in the blood vessels (in the digestive tract).
  • Anal fissures.
  • Esophageal varices (the veins of the stomach or esophagus swell up due to a liver disorder, such as cirrhosis).
  • Angiodysplasia (it is a minute vascular malformation that takes place in the gut).
  • There may be an inflammation of the gastrointestinal lining.

Symptoms:
The appearance of blood in the stool and vomit is one of the characteristic symptoms of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms indicative of a bleeding include

  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • The stool appears black and tarry.
  • A person may complain of uneasiness and shortness of breath.
  • The skin appears pale. In some cases, prolonged bleeding that goes unattended may result in anemia.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • The stool may also appear maroon or bright red (often in the case of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal part).

Consult a doctor at the earliest if the symptoms persist for more than a week.Timely medical assistance can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Diagnosis and treatment:
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the colon or the stomach is easy to diagnose. However, the diagnosis of the bleeding that occurs in the small intestine may be tricky and often requires the use of advanced and sophisticated equipment. The diagnosis is often done by

Treatment:

  • Endoscopic injections (often diluted epinephrine) at the bleeding site provides great relief.
  • To close or clamp off a bleeding blood vessel, doctors may use Endoscopic clips.
  • Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection is used to treat varices in the stomach effectively.
  • There are medications available to treat GI bleeding triggered by ulcers.
  • In the case of an acute bleeding, a person may need surgery (Laparoscopy).

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1989 people found this helpful

Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How To Treat It?

MBBS , DNB MEDICINE, DM GASTRO
Gastroenterologist, Bhopal
Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How To Treat It?

Gastrointestinal bleeding, as the name suggests, is characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its accessory organs (esophagus, stomach, colon, small intestine, rectum, and anus). The bleeding also referred to as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is not a disease in itself. However, it may be an indication of a disease, injury or infection in the digestive tract of a person. The bleeding in the GI tract may be mild to chronic (often fatal), depending on the severity of the condition that triggers the bleeding.

What causes the gastrointestinal bleeding?
As stated, the gastrointestinal bleeding may be indicative of some digestive tract disorder. Some of the common conditions that may trigger the bleeding include

  • Tumors that are malignant in nature.
  • Hemorrhoids (a painful condition where veins around the anus, as well as the lower part of the rectum, swell up)
  • Peptic ulcers.
  • Diverticulosis (formation of diverticula or pouches in the walls of the large intestine).
  • Inflammatory bowel disorder.
  • Colon polyps (a small mass of cells that develop on the inner lining of the large intestine or colon).
  • There may be problems in the blood vessels (in the digestive tract).
  • Anal fissures.
  • Esophageal varices (the veins of the stomach or esophagus swell up due to a liver disorder, such as cirrhosis).
  • Angiodysplasia (it is a minute vascular malformation that takes place in the gut).
  • There may be an inflammation of the gastrointestinal lining.

Symptoms:
The appearance of blood in the stool and vomit is one of the characteristic symptoms of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms indicative of a bleeding include

  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • The stool appears black and tarry.
  • A person may complain of uneasiness and shortness of breath.
  • The skin appears pale. In some cases, prolonged bleeding that goes unattended may result in anemia.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • The stool may also appear maroon or bright red (often in the case of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal part).

Consult a doctor at the earliest if the symptoms persist for more than a week.Timely medical assistance can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Diagnosis and treatment:
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the colon or the stomach is easy to diagnose. However, the diagnosis of the bleeding that occurs in the small intestine may be tricky and often requires the use of advanced and sophisticated equipment. The diagnosis is often done by

Treatment:

  • Endoscopic injections (often diluted epinephrine) at the bleeding site provides great relief.
  • To close or clamp off a bleeding blood vessel, doctors may use Endoscopic clips.
  • Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection is used to treat varices in the stomach effectively.
  • There are medications available to treat GI bleeding triggered by ulcers.
  • In the case of an acute bleeding, a person may need surgery (Laparoscopy).

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1761 people found this helpful

Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How To Treat It?

Dr. Sushil Narang 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Ahmedabad
Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How To Treat It?

Gastrointestinal bleeding, as the name suggests, is characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its accessory organs (esophagus, stomach, colon, small intestine, rectum, and anus). The bleeding also referred to as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is not a disease in itself. However, it may be an indication of a disease, injury or infection in the digestive tract of a person. The bleeding in the GI tract may be mild to chronic (often fatal), depending on the severity of the condition that triggers the bleeding.

What causes the gastrointestinal bleeding?
As stated, the gastrointestinal bleeding may be indicative of some digestive tract disorder. Some of the common conditions that may trigger the bleeding include

  • Tumors that are malignant in nature.
  • Hemorrhoids (a painful condition where veins around the anus, as well as the lower part of the rectum, swell up)
  • Peptic ulcers.
  • Diverticulosis (formation of diverticula or pouches in the walls of the large intestine).
  • Inflammatory bowel disorder.
  • Colon polyps (a small mass of cells that develop on the inner lining of the large intestine or colon).
  • There may be problems in the blood vessels (in the digestive tract).
  • Anal fissures.
  • Esophageal varices (the veins of the stomach or esophagus swell up due to a liver disorder, such as cirrhosis).
  • Angiodysplasia (it is a minute vascular malformation that takes place in the gut).
  • There may be an inflammation of the gastrointestinal lining.

Symptoms:
The appearance of blood in the stool and vomit is one of the characteristic symptoms of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms indicative of a bleeding include

  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • The stool appears black and tarry.
  • A person may complain of uneasiness and shortness of breath.
  • The skin appears pale. In some cases, prolonged bleeding that goes unattended may result in anemia.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • The stool may also appear maroon or bright red (often in the case of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal part).

Consult a doctor at the earliest if the symptoms persist for more than a week.Timely medical assistance can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Diagnosis and treatment:
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the colon or the stomach is easy to diagnose. However, the diagnosis of the bleeding that occurs in the small intestine may be tricky and often requires the use of advanced and sophisticated equipment. The diagnosis is often done by

Treatment:

  • Endoscopic injections (often diluted epinephrine) at the bleeding site provides great relief.
  • To close or clamp off a bleeding blood vessel, doctors may use Endoscopic clips.
  • Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection is used to treat varices in the stomach effectively.
  • There are medications available to treat GI bleeding triggered by ulcers.
  • In the case of an acute bleeding, a person may need surgery (Laparoscopy).

Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How It Can Be Treated?

MBBS, DNB - Internal Medicine, DNB - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Faridabad
Gastrointestinal Bleeding - How It Can Be Treated?

Gastrointestinal bleeding, as the name suggests, is characterized by bleeding in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and its accessory organs (esophagus, stomach, colon, small intestine, rectum, and anus). The bleeding also referred to as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is not a disease in itself. However, it may be an indication of a disease, injury or infection in the digestive tract of a person. The bleeding in the GI tract may be mild to chronic (often fatal), depending on the severity of the condition that triggers the bleeding.

What causes the gastrointestinal bleeding?
As stated, the gastrointestinal bleeding may be indicative of some digestive tract disorder. Some of the common conditions that may trigger the bleeding include

  • Tumors that are malignant in nature.
  • Hemorrhoids (a painful condition where veins around the anus, as well as the lower part of the rectum, swell up)
  • Peptic ulcers.
  • Diverticulosis (formation of diverticula or pouches in the walls of the large intestine).
  • Inflammatory bowel disorder.
  • Colon polyps (a small mass of cells that develop on the inner lining of the large intestine or colon).
  • There may be problems in the blood vessels (in the digestive tract).
  • Anal fissures.
  • Esophageal varices (the veins of the stomach or esophagus swell up due to a liver disorder, such as cirrhosis).
  • Angiodysplasia (it is a minute vascular malformation that takes place in the gut).
  • There may be an inflammation of the gastrointestinal lining.

Symptoms:
The appearance of blood in the stool and vomit is one of the characteristic symptoms of the gastrointestinal bleeding. Other symptoms indicative of a bleeding include

  • Weakness and fatigue.
  • The stool appears black and tarry.
  • A person may complain of uneasiness and shortness of breath.
  • The skin appears pale. In some cases, prolonged bleeding that goes unattended may result in anemia.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • The stool may also appear maroon or bright red (often in the case of bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal part).

Consult a doctor at the earliest if the symptoms persist for more than a week.Timely medical assistance can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Diagnosis and treatment:
Gastrointestinal bleeding in the colon or the stomach is easy to diagnose. However, the diagnosis of the bleeding that occurs in the small intestine may be tricky and often requires the use of advanced and sophisticated equipment. The diagnosis is often done by

Treatment:

  • Endoscopic injections (often diluted epinephrine) at the bleeding site provides great relief.
  • To close or clamp off a bleeding blood vessel, doctors may use Endoscopic clips.
  • Endoscopic intravariceal cyanoacrylate injection is used to treat varices in the stomach effectively.
  • There are medications available to treat GI bleeding triggered by ulcers.
  • In the case of an acute bleeding, a person may need surgery (Laparoscopy).

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1874 people found this helpful

Peptic Ulcer - How Homeopathy is an Effective Way of Treating it?

Dr. Deepanjli 90% (571 ratings)
BSc (Life Science), DHMS (Diploma in Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery), NDDY(Naturopathy and Yoga), Punjabi University.
Homeopath, Mohali
Peptic Ulcer - How Homeopathy is an Effective Way of Treating it?

Most likely you are suffering from duodenal ulcer if there is pain in the upper abdomen which is relieved by eating. If it increases after eating, it may be because of gastric ulcer. Gastric ulcers and Duodenal ulcer come under the category of Peptic ulcer disease (PUD). It is a lesion in the mucosal lining of the digestive tract, typically in the stomach as gastric ulcer or duodenum (1st part of the intestines) as Duodenal ulcers. These are caused by the digestive action of pepsin (a digestive enzyme) and stomach acid. 

Nearly 70–90% cases of such ulcers are linked to a spiral-shaped bacterium called H. PYLORI that thrives in the acidic environment of the stomach. The incidence of peptic ulcers occurring in the duodenum (the initial tract of the small intestine) is four times higher than those arising in the stomach.

Causes of Peptic Ulcer:

The underlying process that results in Peptic ulcer formation is an excess of acid production in the stomach and damage to the protective barrier inside the stomach. Certain things that can trigger excess acid production or can cause damage to the protective lining of the stomach are:

  1. Emotional stress
  2. Foods (spices, pungent foods, etc)
  3. Overuse of certain drugs, especially NSAIDs (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
  4. Infections (H-Pylori)
  5. Hereditary
  6. Smoking

Symptoms

Symptoms of peptic ulcers include:

  1. vomiting tendencies
  2. nausea
  3. pain in the upper and middle portions of the stomach after a meal and at night
  4. blood in the stool
  5. weight loss
  6. bleeding in the gastrointestinal region
Gastric Ulcer Common to Both Duodenal Ulcer Symptoms
More likely to be felt immediately after eating. Bloating More likely to be felt after few hours of eating
  Heartburn  
  Nausea  
  Loss of appetite  
  Burping  
  Pain when eating high fat food  
  Pain when stomach is empty  
  Pain in the stomach that may feel like burning  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Complications:

  1. Hemorrhage
  2. Perforation of ulcer
  3. Gastric outlet obstruction (obstruction in terminal part of stomach)

How to Prevent Peptic Ulcers
Certain lifestyle choices and habits can reduce your risk of developing peptic ulcers. These include:

  • not drinking more than two alcoholic beverages a day
  • not mixing alcohol with medication
  • washing your hands frequently to avoid infections
  • limiting your use of ibuprofen, aspirin, and naproxen sodium

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle through a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and quitting smoking and other tobacco use will also help you prevent developing a peptic ulcer.

Homeopathic Treatment For Peptic Ulcers
Homeopathy offers some very good medicines for peptic ulcer disease. But for a homeopath, the symptoms of the disease are much more important than the ulcer itself. This is because to select the right medicine a homeopath needs to differentiate between the finer presentations of a disease which, vary from person to person. A homeopath not only tries to heal the ulcer but also tries to remove the general predisposition to acquire it. The homeopath not only tries to find ‘What is wrong?’, but also ‘Why it went wrong?’; ‘Where it started going wrong?’; ‘How it evolved to the current stage?’ etc. To find the answers to all these questions, a homeopath tries to gather as much information as possible regarding the past and present medical history of the patient, the family history, general, physical and psychological characteristics, etc. This hard work on the part of homeopath not only helps in removing the acute symptoms and the ulcer but also is usually able to remove the tendency for relapse. The ‘on-again/off-again’ nature of the disease is often removed and the general health of the person also improves as a result.

Effective Homeopathic Medications For Peplic Ulcer
Some of the most effective homeopathic medications used in the treatment of peptic ulcers are mentioned below. However, you shouldn’t try to self-medicate as it is best to consult with a doctor who can properly diagnose the problems and prescribe medication which are specifically tailored for you.

  1. Argentum Nitricum – One of the most effective medications in treating ulcers, Argentum Nitricum is usually prescribed when you experience sharp burning pains from peptic ulcers that radiate to different areas of the abdomen. The pain is akin to the feeling of gnawing inside the stomach. Other symptoms such as vomiting, belching and nausea may also be present. 
  2. Nux Vomica – If you have peptic ulcers and even eating the slightest amount of food causes pain, then Nux vomica may be a good option and thus be prescribed by your doctor. Another indication in such cases is where the abdominal region is very sensitive and you may feel pain even with the slightest touch. Nux Vomica is also very effective if your peptic ulcer symptoms tend to get worse after the consumption of tea, coffee, spicy foods or alcoholic beverages.
  3. Kali Bichromicum – Sometimes, peptic ulcers may cause the food in your stomach to sit like a heavy load immediately after meals. This can make you very uncomfortable and unable to do any other form of work. This is often times accompanied by a low appetite. In such cases, Kali Bichromicum has been seen to work wonders.
  4. Lycopodium Clavatum – If you have burning pain in your stomach along with the bloating of your abdomen, then Lycopodium Clavatum is the best medication for you. Other indications for this medication are when ingestion of warm water helps relieve pain. If consuming certain vegetables such as cabbage and beans worsen the situation, then Lycopodium Clavatum could be the best medication in such a case. 
  5. Carbo-veg – An all-rounder in the field of homeopathy, Carbo-Veg is also effective when treating peptic ulcers which are accompanied by heartburn and acidity as well as sour belching. The pain from the ulcers may extend from the stomach all the way to the back. Other indications wherein Carbo-Veg may be effective is where the stomach area becomes very sensitive to touch and even small amounts of food may suddenly cause the symptoms to deteriorate.
  6. Hydrastis Canadensis – Stomach or abdominal pain accompanied by weight loss is one of the major indications where this medication may be prescribed. The patient may become emaciated and have sharp cutting pains in the stomach. In such cases, Hydrastis has been seen to be very effective.
  7. Graphites – This medication is extremely useful where along with the ulcer pain, you may end up vomiting your food immediately after a meal. A sensation which is painful and constricted may be present in your stomach. Along with these symptoms, Graphites are also very effective when you suffer from excessive belching.
  8. Phosphorus If you exhibit typical symptoms of peptic ulcer such as sour belching and a burning sensation in the stomach after eating, Phosphorus could well be the panacea. 

Prognosis

When the underlying cause of peptic ulcer disease is successfully treated, the prognosis (expected outcome) for patients with the condition is excellent. To help prevent peptic ulcers:

  • Avoid cigarette.
  • Aspirin and non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs should be avoided.
  • Spicy and rich food may aggravate. If so, it should be avoided.
  • Drink lots of water.
  • Take frequent small meals instead of two or three big meals.
  • Bland diet and hygienically prepared food.
  • Proper cleaning of utensils for food.
  • Proper cleaning of hands before preparing and eating food.
  • Avoid alcohol
  • Common sources of Helicobacter pylori bacteria (e.g., contaminated food and water, floodwater, raw sewage)
  • Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Good hygiene can help reduce the risk for peptic ulcer disease caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. Washing the hands thoroughly with warm soapy water after using the restroom and before eating and avoiding sharing eating utensils and drinking glasses also can reduce the spread of bacteria that can cause PUD.

3209 people found this helpful
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