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Gallstones Tips

Holes In Gallbladder - Signs You Are Suffering From It!

Dr. Himanshu Yadav 83% (21 ratings)
MBBS, M.S. (Gold Medalist), MCh - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery
Gastroenterologist, Agra
Holes In Gallbladder - Signs You Are Suffering From It!

When a hole develops in the wall of the gallbladder, rectum, large bowel, small intestine, stomach or oesophagus, it is called gastrointestinal perforation. It is a medical emergency that needs urgent medical attention.

Symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation (GP) usually include
1. Serious stomach pain
2. Chills
3. Fever
4. Nausea
5. Vomiting

Peritonitis (abdominal cavity lining inflammation) can also accompany the abovementioned condition. So in addition to the above symptoms, you may also experience peritonitis symptoms such as:
1. Fatigue
2. Passing less gas, urine or stools
3. Breathing difficulties
4. Fast heartbeats
5. Dizziness

Certain diseases can cause Gastro-intestinal perforation, such as:
1. Appendicitis
2. Diverticulitis (A type of digestive disorder)
3. Stomach ulcer
4. Gallstones
5. Gallbladder infection
6. Inflammatory bowel diseases (inflammation in the small intestine and the colon)
7. Swollen Meckel’s diverticulum (abnormal bulging of the small intestine at birth)
8. Gastrointestinal tract cancer

Besides diseases, the following conditions can also lead to Gastro-intestinal perforation:
1. Blunt abdominal trauma
2. Gunshot or knife wound to the abdomen
3. Abdominal surgery
4. Stomach ulcers caused by excessive consumption of steroids, anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin
5. Ingestion of caustic substances or foreign objects
Other than these, drinking alcohol, smoking and bowel injuries (caused by colonoscopy or endoscopy) can lead to GP as well.

Treatment options available
This condition is mostly treated with surgery. The goal of the surgery is to repair the anatomical problem and cause of peritonitis, along with removal of any foreign object in the abdominal socket, such as food, faeces and bile. However, if your doctor deems surgery unnecessary (in instances where the hole closes voluntarily) you will be only given antibiotics.
In some cases, a section of the intestine might need to be removed. An ileostomy or colostomy is performed where a portion of the large or small intestine is removed, which grants intestinal contents to empty or drain into a bag implanted on the wall of your abdomen.

The complications include:
1. Bleeding
2. Sepsis (Critical and fatal bacterial infection)
3. Belly ulcers
4. Wound infection
5. Bowel infarction (impaired supply of blood to the bowels)
6. Permanent colostomy or ileostomy

1 person found this helpful

Gallstone Surgery - Complications It Can Cause!

Dr. Preetham Raj 91% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Bangalore
Gallstone Surgery - Complications It Can Cause!

This surgery involves the removal of Gallbladder, which is a pear-shaped organ that lies right beneath the right side of the liver. The main function of the gallbladder is to collect and concentrate bile, which is a digestive juice produced by liver after eating, aiding digestion. The most common disorder of the digestive system is presence of Gallstones, which are the stones made up of a mixture consisting of cholesterol, bile pigment and calcium salts.

These Gallstones don’t cause any problems in most cases. But prompt treatment is required if stones block ducts and cause infections and inflammation in the pancreas. This may lead to removal of the gallbladder through a surgery, known as cholecystectomy, which further includes techniques such as laparoscopic (keyhole) cholecystectomy or open surgery.
Although it is a less vital organ, the body can cope up even after removal.

Procedure of surgery:

  1. The surgery involves removal of gallbladder and gallstones through several incisions in the abdomen. In order to see clearly, the surgeon inflates the abdomen with air or carbon dioxide.
  2. A lighted scope attached to a video camera is inserted into one incision near the belly button. The video monitor is used as a guide for inserting other surgical instruments into the other incisions to remove the gallbladder.
  3. Intraoperative cholangiography is the X-ray procedure which shows the anatomy of bile ducts. This is done before the surgeon removes the gallbladder.
  4. Bile flows from the liver through the common bile duct after the surgery into the small intestine. As the gallbladder has been removed, the gallbladder can no longer store bile between meals but has no effect or little effect on digestion.
  5. In case of open surgery, the surgeon reaches the gallbladder through a large, single incision in the abdominal wall.

Complications after gallbladder surgery:
This surgery carries some degree of risk like any other surgery. Complications such as internal bleeding, infection, injury to nearby digestive organs, injury to the bile duct and injury to blood vessels.

Types of gallstones:
There are three main types of gallstones. They are
1. Mixed stones: They are made up of cholesterol and salts. They tend to develop in batches.
2. Cholesterol stones: Mainly made of cholesterol, which is crucial to many metabolic processes. They can grow large enough to block the bile ducts.
3. Pigment stones: The colour of bile is greenish-brown, due to some particular pigments.

Medical factors to consider before cholecystectomy:
The most important factor is a consideration of your medical history. This is because the pre-existing conditions influence decisions on surgery and anaesthetic and information about any bad reactions or side effects from any medications would be helpful for surgery.

Self-care after the surgery:
Taking rest is the most important thing after surgery. Avoid things such as heavy lifting and physical exertion. The usual recovery period after the surgery is one week.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

Gallstone: Choose Laparoscopic Surgery Over Others

MBBS, DNB ( General Surgery )
General Surgeon, Delhi
Gallstone: Choose Laparoscopic Surgery Over Others

Gallstones are a medical condition in which the formation of stones takes place in the bile duct or the gallbladder. One of the major factors responsible for the formation of gallstones is an elevated excretion of cholesterol by the liver, most of which remains undissolved by the bile. The undissolved cholesterol may crystallize resulting in the formation of gallstones (yellow cholesterol stones, a condition termed as Cholesterol Gallstones). In some cases, increased level of bilirubin in the bile (triggered by a liver problem, liver damage or other medical conditions), which doesn't undergo a breakdown, may lead to stone formation (known as Pigment Gallstones). Here, the stones appear black or dark brown in color.

Gallstones are common among women, especially those who are 40 years and more. Obesity, diabetes, liver disorders, unhealthy diet (rich in fats and cholesterol), certain medications (those containing estrogen) can also trigger the formation of gallstones. Gallstones left untreated and unattended can give rise to serious complications such as blockage of the pancreatic duct (resulting in Pancreatitis) or the bile duct. There may also be inflammation of the gallbladder. In extreme cases, a person may even suffer from something as serious as Gallbladder Cancer.

Laparoscopy to remove the gallstones

  • While a lot of treatments and medications are available to deal with gallstones, most people opt for Laparoscopy. What makes laparoscopic surgery superior to the other open surgeries is that it is minimally invasive with a better and quick recovery. Also termed as Cholecystectomy, the laparoscopic surgery for the removal of gallstones as well as the gallbladder involves the following steps.
  • General anesthesia is given to the patients before the surgery.
  • The surgeon makes 3-4 small incisions in the abdomen.
  • The surgeon then inflates the stomach to get a better view of the internal organs (including the organs affected). Carbon dioxide gas is passed into the stomach to inflate it.
  • In the next step, the surgeon carefully inserts a laparoscope (a narrow and long tube that comes with a high-density light and a front camera with a high-resolution) through one of the incisions (usually the one close to the belly button) to aid in the surgery.
  • Nex,t the surgeon inserts the surgical instruments needed to get the gallstones and the gallbladder removed.
  • Before the surgical removal of the gallstones and the gallbladder, an important X-ray of the bile duct called the Intraoperative Cholangiography (shows the bile duct anatomy) is done.
  • With the gallbladder and the stones removed, the laparoscope and the surgical instruments are then removed and the incisions stitched carefully.
  • The gallbladder is known to store the bile pigment. With the removal of the gallbladder, there is a small rearrangement. The bile pigments now move from the liver into the small intestine via the bile duct.
  • The patients may require spending 1-2 days in the hospital. The patient is expected to be in a better shape (less discomfort) within 2-3 weeks.
  • In case complications arise during the surgery, the surgeon may have to switch onto an open surgery.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1859 people found this helpful

Bile Duct Blockage - What Can Possibly Cause It?

Dr. Himanshu Yadav 83% (21 ratings)
MBBS, M.S. (Gold Medalist), MCh - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery
Gastroenterologist, Agra
Bile Duct Blockage -  What Can Possibly Cause It?

Any kind of injury on the surface of the skin is immediately noticed by us, but when something happens to one of our internal organs, it can take a little longer to get to your notice for example, an obstruction in the bile duct. The bile duct is a tubular structure responsible for carrying bile from the liver and gall bladder through the pancreas to the small intestine. This bile helps the digestion process and the absorption of fat.

An obstruction in the bile duct can be triggered by a number of factors. 

  1. Gallstones
  2. Inflammation of the bile ducts
  3. Cysts
  4. Traumatic accidents
  5. Bile duct or pancreatic tumors
  6. Hepatitis infections
  7. Cirrhosis or severe liver damage
  8. Abnormal narrowing of the bile duct

This can affect anyone, but the people who have a history of gall stones or tumors in the abdomen are at a higher risk of suffering from bile duct obstruction. Chronic pancreatitis, sudden weight loss or obesity can also increase this risk. The symptoms of biliary obstruction include light coloured stool, dark urine, pain in the upper right abdomen, nausea, vomiting and fever. Your doctor will also probably need an X-ray of the bile ducts, blood tests, a hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan and ultrasonograph to confirm a diagnosis before they can start treating you for the same.

If not treated in time, bile duct blockages can lead to a dangerous buildup of bilirubin in the body and trigger a number of life threatening diseases. Treatment for biliary obstruction can be through medication or surgery with surgery being the more preferred mode of treatment. It is aimed at resolving the underlying cause of the obstruction and alleviating the blockage. Treatment for biliary obstruction can be two common forms of treatment include a cholecystectomy and ERCP. The former involves the removal of the gall bladder and is suited to obstructions caused by gallstones. The latter is a procedure to remove small stones from the bile duct or place a stent inside the duct.

There are many ways bile duct obstruction can be prevented which first and foremost includes following a healthy lifestyle. If you are overweight, exercise for at least half an hour a day to regulate your weight and reach a healthy BMI. Decrease your intake of sugar and saturated fats as both these can cause gall stones. Also, increase the amount of fibre in your diet. All the above mentioned tips will certainly help you in preventing bile duct obstruction.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2348 people found this helpful

Gallbladder Attack - Know Its Symptoms & Treatment!

Dr. Chalapathi Rao Achanta 92% (34 ratings)
MBBS, MD-General Medicine, DM-Gastroenterology, Advanced endoscopy fellowship
Gastroenterologist, Visakhapatnam
Gallbladder Attack - Know Its Symptoms & Treatment!

The gallbladder can be found under the liver and is a pear shaped organ. This four inch organ is responsible for storing bile, which is a combination of the various fluids as well as fat and cholesterol. These are essential for the body and its metabolism, as the bile helps in breaking down the food that enters the digestive system. With the help of the gallbladder, this bile divides the food into smaller parts within the intestine. This ensures that the energy released by the food is more easily absorbed into the bloodstream. There are a host of problems that can attack the gall bladder including stones, infection and more.

Let us find out the symptoms of a gallbladder attack and the various ways in which it may be successfully treated.

  1. Pain: One of the most common symptoms of a gallbladder attack includes pain. This can be felt in the section that lies in the middle and the upper right portion of the abdomen. The patient may initially experience mild pain that comes and goes intermittently. Eventually, if the pain is not treated, it can start to radiate on a constant basis and hold the patient in its grip.
  2. Nausea: Nausea and vomiting are also common symptoms of any gallbladder related problem. Chronic cases usually end up experiencing these symptoms. Nausea and vomiting in such conditions are a result of digestive problems like acid reflux which can be caused due to the gall bladder condition.
  3. Fever: If there is an infection in the gall bladder, then the patient may also experience fever and chills. This will require immediate treatment and the prescription of antibiotics. If it is not treated on time, the problem can become serious and dangerous.
  4. Loose Motions: Diarrhoea is a problem faced by many patients suffering from this condition along with jaundice and lighter coloured stools.

Treatments: Mostly, doctors will recommend surgical methods to deal with gall bladder attacks and conditions. A laparoscopic surgery may be conducted to remove the gallbladder. Also, medication will be prescribed to dissolve the gallstones that may have been caused by cholesterol. The patient will also have to undertake many lifestyle changes in order to successfully treat this condition over a period of time.

One will have to avoid greasy and oily food. Also, the fat intake of the patient will have to be reduced so that the cholesterol build up does not affect the gallbladder again. The patient will also have to add fibre to his or her daily diet, in the form of fruit and oats. This will help in improving the bowel movements as well.

Causes, Treatment And Prevention for Gallstones

Dr. Asfar Ahamed 92% (97 ratings)
MBBS, DNB (General Surgery)
General Surgeon, Chennai
Causes, Treatment And Prevention for Gallstones

Gallstones are actually hard deposits or lumps that are formed in gallbladder. Gallbladder is a pear shaped, sac-like structure that is located in the upper right part of the abdomen that stores bile. Many people have gallstones present in their bladder but they never know it. This can be an alarming situation for people who have it.

What Causes Gallstones?

There may be several reasons, including:

  1. Your genes
  2. Your weight
  3. Problems with your gallbladder
  4. Diet
  5. Bile can be part of the problem. Your body needs bile, but if it has too much cholesterol in it, that makes gallstones more likely.
  6. It can also happen if your gallbladder can’t empty properly.

Who Is at Risk for Gallstones?
While your body produces cholesterol naturally, you can also take in excess cholesterol through your diet. Many risk factors for gallstones are related to diet. These include:

  1. being overweight or obese
  2. eating a diet that’s high in fat or cholesterol
  3. rapid weight loss within a short period of time
  4. eating diet that’s low in fiber
  5. having diabetes mellitus

What are the treatments available for this?

  1. Surgery: One of the famous treatments include surgeries. The famous surgery is Cholecystectomy (Removal of gallbladder) that further includes Laparoscopic surgery and Open cholecystectomy.
  2. Medications: The patients who cannot undergo surgeries can also use drugs like ursodiol and chenodiol . But this can take months or years to remove stones from bladder.

You can reduce your risk of gallstones if you:

  1. Don't skip meals. Try to stick to your usual mealtimes each day. Skipping meals or fasting can increase the risk of gallstones.
  2. Lose weight slowly. If you need to lose weight, go slow. Rapid weight loss can increase the risk of gallstones. Aim to lose 1 or 2 pounds (about 0.5 to 1 kilogram) a week.
  3. Maintain a healthy weight. Obesity and being overweight increase the risk of gallstones. Work to achieve a healthy weight by reducing the number of calories you eat and increasing the amount of physical activity you get. Once you achieve a healthy weight, work to maintain that weight by continuing your healthy diet and continuing to exercise.
     
2 people found this helpful

Gall Stones - Why Surgery Is Your Best Option?

Dr. Hemendra Singh 83% (165 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Ghaziabad
Gall Stones - Why Surgery Is Your Best Option?

The bile in your body contains enough chemicals to dissolve cholesterol excreted by your liver. In case your liver starts excreting more cholesterol than your bile has the capability to dissolve, the excess cholesterol crystallizes and forms stones. Bile may become concentrated if the gallbladder doesn't empty in the time leading to the formation of gallstones. A number of factors can increase the risks of formation of gallstones like:

  • High cholesterol
  • Being obese/overweight
  • Being an American Indian or Mexican American
  • Being female
  • Falling in the age group of 60 or above
  • A family history of gallstones
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Diabetes
  • Consumption of cholesterol-lowering medications
  • When should you consider undergoing surgery?

In some cases gallstones that are detected during ct scan or ultrasound (without any symptoms) don't require surgery. If you do not feel aggravating pain in your upper right abdomen or other signs and symptoms, then one can postpone the surgical process according to the need. In few instances, it has been seen that small and solitary gallstones can be dissolved with oral medication like ursodiol and chenodiol. However, you need to opt for surgery to remove the gallbladder necessarily in the following cases-

  • Sudden inflammation or infection in the gallbladder
  • If you experience recurring instances of intense pain due to the gallstones
  • Certain growths known as polyps develop in your gallbladder which is larger than 1 cm in size and begin to give rise to numerous symptoms.
  • Cf you have pancreatitis, which is a condition involving inflammation of pancreas due to gallstones
  • If the wall of your gallbladder gets calcified
  • Your immune system is damaged
  • You are experiencing symptoms and your gallbladder has ceased to function

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2595 people found this helpful

Gall Bladder Problems: Which Type of Surgery Should you Choose?

Dr. S.P. Singh 83% (10 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DNB - General Surgery, Fellows of The Academy of Medicine, Singapore (FAMS)
General Surgeon, Pune
Gall Bladder Problems: Which Type of Surgery Should you Choose?

Ever heard of that phrase “I can taste bile at the back of my mouth”? It is generally used to express disgust. However, in medical parlance, ‘bile’, the English synonym for disgust, plays an important role in the digestive system. It helps in the digestion of fats (breaks the fats down to smaller particles) and contains the waste products of the blood. Bile is secreted from the gallbladder which is a small organ (sac-shaped) present below the liver.

Gallbladder surgery is carried out to treat gallbladder related problems such as gallbladder stones. Presence of gallstones in the gallbladder can hamper bile production. The symptoms that you may experience include feeling unwell and fatigued, the color of the skin turning yellow and an intense tummy ache. The first method of treatment for gallstones is to dissolve them with the help of natural means. However, if this does not work, then gallbladder surgery is done.

Pre-surgery
A pre-surgery assessment is carried out by the doctor a few weeks prior to the surgery. A general health check and blood tests are carried out to determine the procedure of the surgery. Your concerns regarding the surgery are addressed by the doctor; he/she also advises you on how to prepare for your surgery.
Procedure

Gallbladder surgery can be performed in two ways; an open surgery or a laparoscopic surgery. The type of surgery you will undergo will depend on your tests.

  • Laparoscopic surgery: In this procedure, an incision is made on the belly button (naval region). Following this, two or three other incisions are made on the right side of the stomach. Carbon dioxide is then pumped into the stomach to make the abdomen inflated and a laparoscope is then inserted to see the insides of the abdomen. Through the other incisions, surgical instruments are inserted to remove the gallbladder. Once the removal procedure is completed, the carbon dioxide is pumped out and the incisions are closed.
  • Open surgery: In an open surgery, a larger incision (as compared to laparoscopic surgery) is made in the abdomen, right below the ribs. The gallbladder is removed using surgical instruments and then the incision is closed.
  • Post-surgery: In case of laparoscopic surgery, the recovery period is shorter; around two weeks. An open surgery, on the other hand, requires a longer recovery period of 6-8 weeks. You can live a normal life without the gallbladder, as the bile will then directly travel to the digestive system. Mild symptoms of diarrhea and bloating may be experienced. However, they should be temporary and subside within a few days. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
1734 people found this helpful

Bile Duct Obstruction - An Overview!

Dr. Chalapathi Rao Achanta 92% (34 ratings)
MBBS, MD-General Medicine, DM-Gastroenterology, Advanced endoscopy fellowship
Gastroenterologist, Visakhapatnam
Bile Duct Obstruction - An Overview!

Obstruction of the bile duct is characterized by the blockage of the bile duct. The function of the bile ducts is to transport bile to your small intestine. The bile is excreted in order to digest fats from the food. 

There are two types of bile ducts in the body -

  1. Intrahepatic ducts: These ducts are small tube like structures that carry the bile to extrahepatic ducts.
  2. Extrahepatic ducts: Extrahepatic ducts are two ducts that descend from the liver into the body's small intestine.

Causes
The bile comprises of waste products, bile salts and cholesterol. The liver excretes bile which flows through the bile ducts and is stored in the gallbladder. If the bile ducts are blocked then the bile accumulates in the liver and can lead to jaundice.

Certain causes of this particular condition are mentioned below -

  1. Bile duct obstruction may result from gallstones
  2. If you have inflammation in your bile ducts
  3. Narrowing of the bile ducts
  4. Enlargement of the lymph nodes
  5. Bile duct tumors
  6. Tumors in the pancreas
  7. Various infections such as hepatitis
  8. Liver complications such as cirrhosis
  9. Various parasites may lead to bile obstruction
  10. Inflammation of the pancreas
  11. If you have weak immune systems, then it may lead to infections that may result in bile duct obstructions

Symptoms
The symptoms are -

  1. You may experience yellowish skin.
  2. You may have symptoms of fever and vomiting.
  3. Abdominal pain especially in the upper part.
  4. Stools may be light colored.
  5. You may pass urine that is dark in color.

Treatment
The various treatment options for obstruction of the bile duct are surgeries that remove the blockage. Other treatment options are an ERCP (Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) and a cholecystectomy which is the process of removal of the gallbladder. ERCP is another procedure that is used to get rid of gallstones from the gallbladder. You may prevent it by consuming a lot of fiber in your diet. Make lifestyle changes such as exercising on a regular basis and eating healthy.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3128 people found this helpful

Causes of gallstones

MBBS, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Kota
Causes of gallstones

1. Genetics, ethnicity

2. Gender (more common in women)

3. Excessive cholesterol in bile (Diet, dyslipidaemia, drugs incl. oral contraceptives & fibrates, obesity)

4. Decreased contractility of gallbladder

5. Blood disorders (Haemolytic Anaemias)

6. Rapid weight loss (esp. following bariatric surgery)

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