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Ewing's Sarcoma Tips

Causes and Symptoms of Ewing's Sarcoma

Dr. Prashant Mehta 91% (32 ratings)
European Society For Medical Oncology certification, DM - Oncology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS, Fellowship in Bone Marrow Transplant
Oncologist, Faridabad
Causes and Symptoms of Ewing's Sarcoma

Collectively grouped under the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors, Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common form of bone cancer, which is commonly seen in children and adolescents. Very rarely is it experienced in adults above the age of 30.

Typically forming in the bones of the chest, pelvis, head, back or trunk and in the long bones of the arms and legs, Ewing's sarcoma is believed to originate in certain kinds of primitive cells. When it begins to affect similar kind of cells found outside the bone, it is usually called an extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma.

Causes
1. Similar to all types of Ewing tumors, Ewing's sarcoma is generally caused by an alteration in a certain cell compelling a gene named EWS found on chromosome no. 22 to move over to a DNA section on any one of the surrounding chromosomes resulting in the activation of the EWS gene.
2. While it is not a hereditary condition, it usually occurs after childbirth, but no substantial evidence has been found as to why it happens so.

Symptoms
Symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma may include:
1. Swelling and pain especially in the arms, legs, back, chest or pelvis

2. Swelling accompanied by joint immobility
3. A bone breaks having no apparent cause
4. Swelling which may or may not be accompanied by a warm, tingling sensation
5. Fever resulting from unknown causes
6. Lumps or bumps which do not subside over time
7. Abnormal weight loss
8. High levels of fatigue
9. Tumors which have spread over to the lungs may cause shortness of breath
10.Tumors spread over to the spine may cause weakness or even paralysis.

Because the symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma can hardly be distinguished from symptoms caused by other infections or injuries, an early diagnosis is absolutely necessary for a successive treatment. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an oncologist and ask a free question.

1968 people found this helpful

Ewing's Sarcoma - 10 Signs You Must Not Ignore!

Dr. Chandrakanth Mv 89% (130 ratings)
MBBS, MD(General Medicine), Fellowship Hemato - Oncology (Hemat-Oncology), DM(Medical Oncology), DNB(Medical Oncology)
Oncologist, Howrah
Ewing's Sarcoma - 10 Signs You Must Not Ignore!

Collectively grouped under the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors, Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common form of bone cancer, which is commonly seen in children and adolescents. Very rarely is it experienced in adults above the age of 30.

Typically forming in the bones of the chest, pelvis, head, back or trunk and in the long bones of the arms and legs, Ewing's sarcoma is believed to originate in certain kinds of primitive cells. When it begins to affect similar kind of cells found outside the bone, it is usually called an extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma.

Causes
1. Similar to all types of Ewing tumors, Ewing's sarcoma is generally caused by an alteration in a certain cell compelling a gene named EWS found on chromosome no. 22 to move over to a DNA section on any one of the surrounding chromosomes resulting in the activation of the EWS gene.
2. While it is not a hereditary condition, it usually occurs after childbirth, but no substantial evidence has been found as to why it happens so.

Symptoms
Symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma may include:
1. Swelling and pain especially in the arms, legs, back, chest or pelvis

2. Swelling accompanied by joint immobility
3. A bone breaks having no apparent cause
4. Swelling which may or may not be accompanied by a warm, tingling sensation
5. Fever resulting from unknown causes
6. Lumps or bumps which do not subside over time
7. Abnormal weight loss
8. High levels of fatigue
9. Tumors which have spread over to the lungs may cause shortness of breath
10.Tumors spread over to the spine may cause weakness or even paralysis.

Because the symptoms of Ewing's sarcoma can hardly be distinguished from symptoms caused by other infections or injuries, an early diagnosis is absolutely necessary for a successive treatment. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3135 people found this helpful

An Overview Of Bone Cancer

Dr. Sanjaya Mishra 93% (270 ratings)
MD - Oncology
Oncologist, Hubli-Dharwad
An Overview Of Bone Cancer

Bone cancer is a cancerous tumour in the bone, destroying the normal bone tissues. Tumours on bone tissues are not always cancerous or malignant, they are mostly benign. Primary bone cancer is when the malignant tumour begins to form in the tissues of the bones, but when these cancerous cells spread to other body parts like breasts, prostate or lungs, it is called metastatic cancer. Primary bone cancer is less common than metastatic cancer.

Bone cancer can be of three different types:

  1. Osteosarcoma: In this case, the malignant tumour arises from the osteoid bone tissue. This occurs mainly in the upper arm and knee areas.

  2. Chondrosarcoma: In this case the cancerous cells form in the cartilaginous tissues, causing a lot of pain. This occurs mostly in the pelvic area.

  3. The Ewing sarcoma generally arises in the bone but it can also form in the soft tissues. Other kinds of soft tissues affecting cancerous cells are known as soft tissue sarcomas.

Causes-

There aren’t many clear defined causes; however, several factors have been identified by researchers.

  1. Osteosarcoma is seen to occur more frequently in people who have been through a high external radiation therapy dose.

  2. In people who have frequently been treated with anticancer medications, children tend to be most affected.

  3. Heredity may be an adding cause, although the percentage of hereditary transfer of cancer cells is very low.

  4. People with hereditary bone defects or implants have a higher chance of acquiring bone cancer.

Symptoms-

The most common and saddening symptom of bone cancer is painful, although not all bone cancers cause pain. Unusual or persistent swelling or pain around a bone maybe a red flag for bone cancer. In case of a situation like this, immediate doctor’s opinion is required.

Diagnosis-

Usually, diagnosis of a bone cancer can be made using X-rays; for example, a bone scan, a computed tomography scan, a magnetic imaging procedure—positron emission tomography, and an angiogram. Biopsy and blood tests are also helpful in bone cancer diagnosis.

Treatment-

The size, location and stage of cancer, age, and health of the person decide the kind of treatment that should be given to the patient. Various treatment options include chemotherapy, radiation therapy and cryosurgery.

Survival-

The combined survival rate of all sorts of bone cancers is 70%. This percentage may vary with the type of bone cancer and also its stage.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3258 people found this helpful

5 Most Common Types Of Benign Tumours!

Dr. Nitin Bansal 87% (11 ratings)
MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Bathinda
5 Most Common Types Of Benign Tumours!

Majority of bone tumours are benign, meaning they are localised and do not spread. Since benign tumours do not metastasize, they are not forms of cancer. Despite not being malignant, the severity of their presence should not be ignored as they may cause a lot of pain and lead to other problems such as damaged bones and fractures.

Benign Bone Tumours

  1. Osteochondromas: These form over 40 per cent of all benign bone tumours. They are mostly found in children and teenagers. Osteochondroma is a growth abnormality and they are found in the growing ends of long bones. An osteochondroma might grow separately or might be accompanied by other similar tumours.
  2. Osteoclastomas: They are also called giant cell tumours of the bone. They are common and are found in the epiphysis of long bones and around the knee.
  3. Osteoid Osteoma: These grow mostly in adolescents and very rarely in adults above 50. They primarily grow in the legs but they might also be found in other bones in the body.
  4. Enchondroma: It is a bone tumour that starts in the cartilage. It is mostly found in the cartilage of the inner lining of bones. Small long bones of the feet and the hands are affected the most. Teenagers get more affected than other age group.
  5. Osteoblastoma: These are slow growing tumours that take about two years to get diagnosed. An osteoblastoma makes the surrounding bones weaker as they dissolve them and make them more susceptible to fracture caused by small injuries. Men are twice as more likely to be affected by an osteoblastoma than women. Surgery is essential in all cases of osteoblastoma as they destroy healthy functional bone and grow in size with time.

In rare cases, these have also known to become malignant over time, despite their benign nature. It affects people under 30 mostly.

Malignant Bone Tumours

  1. OsteosarcomaIt affects the hip, knees and shoulders of mostly children and teenagers. It is also referred to as osteogenic sarcoma.
  2. Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumours: These generate from medullary cavities and can also grow in blood vessels and adipose tissues. It primarily affects children and teenagers.
  3. ChondrosarcomaIt usually affects the hips, pelvis and shoulders of middle aged people.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3632 people found this helpful

5 Types Of Benign Bone Tumours You Should Know

Dr. Shyam Bhairi 92% (60 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Orthopedist, Hubli-Dharwad
5 Types Of Benign Bone Tumours You Should Know

Majority of bone tumours are benign, meaning they are localised and do not spread. Since benign tumours do not metastasize, they are not forms of cancer. Despite not being malignant, the severity of their presence should not be ignored as they may cause a lot of pain and lead to other problems such as damaged bones and fractures.

Benign Bone Tumours

  1. Osteochondromas: These form over 40 per cent of all benign bone tumours. They are mostly found in children and teenagers. Osteochondroma is a growth abnormality and they are found in the growing ends of long bones. An osteochondroma might grow separately or might be accompanied by other similar tumours.
  2. Osteoclastomas: They are also called giant cell tumours of the bone. They are common and are found in the epiphysis of long bones and around the knee.
  3. Osteoid Osteoma: These grow mostly in adolescents and very rarely in adults above 50. They primarily grow in the legs but they might also be found in other bones in the body.
  4. Enchondroma: It is a bone tumour that starts in the cartilage. It is mostly found in the cartilage of the inner lining of bones. Small long bones of the feet and the hands are affected the most. Teenagers get more affected than other age group.
  5. Osteoblastoma: These are slow growing tumours that take about two years to get diagnosed. An osteoblastoma makes the surrounding bones weaker as they dissolve them and make them more susceptible to fracture caused by small injuries. Men are twice as more likely to be affected by an osteoblastoma than women. Surgery is essential in all cases of osteoblastoma as they destroy healthy functional bone and grow in size with time.

In rare cases, these have also known to become malignant over time, despite their benign nature. It affects people under 30 mostly.

Malignant Bone Tumours

  1. Osteosarcoma: It affects the hip, knees and shoulders of mostly children and teenagers. It is also referred to as osteogenic sarcoma.
  2. Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumours: These generate from medullary cavities and can also grow in blood vessels and adipose tissues. It primarily affects children and teenagers.
  3. Chondrosarcoma: It usually affects the hips, pelvis and shoulders of middle aged people.
3856 people found this helpful

Bone Cancer - Risk Factors Associated With It!

Dr. Sajjan Rajpurohit 85% (37 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Oncology, DNB - Super Speciality, Immuno Oncology
Oncologist, Delhi
Bone Cancer - Risk Factors Associated With It!

Bone cancer is a rare form of cancer in the cancer family. It affects one of the bones of your body and spreads to other bones. But, more often, it has the tendency to affect the long bone in the legs and the arms. There are many types of bone cancers. While some of them can affect children, the others typically affect the adults. This type of cancer is different than those cancers which get initiated from other parts of the body and spread to the bones.

What are the symptoms of bone cancer?
The typical signs and symptoms of bone cancer include acute pain in the bone, tenderness in the affected area, swelling of certain bones, a tendency of bone breakage, fatigue with little or no effort, unexplained weight loss, shortness of breath etc.

What are the causes of bone cancer?
There is no particular reason for bone cancer. Studies have shown that an error in the structure of the DNA leads to bone cancer. This error leads the bone to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner leading to non-extinction of cells. These cells keep growing and form a mass invade to other parts of the body, leading to cancer.

What are the different types of bone cancer?
The type of the bone cancer can be distinguished from where cancer originates from. Some of the common bone cancer type includes the following:

  1. Osteosarcoma: This is the form of cancer that originates from the bone cells and is often witnessed in young adults and children. They often attack the arm and the leg.
  2. Chondrosarcoma: This form of cancer begins from the cartilage cells. The exact place of damage appearance includes legs, arm, and pelvis. This is typically observed in middle-aged persons in older adults.
  3. Ewing's sarcomaThough researchers are yet to find out the location this form of bone cancer originates from, it is mostly considered to affect the legs, arms, and legs of young children.

What are the risk factors?
While doctors are yet to researching for the exact reason of bone cancer, there are certain risk factors which have been associated with the bone cancers.

  1. Inherited genetic syndromes: Certain genetic condition such as the hereditary retinoblastoma and Li-Fraumeni syndrome which are passed on from generations are a prime culprit of bone cancer.
  2. Paget's disease: This is a bone-related disorder that affects the bone and increases the chance of bone cancer.
  3. Radiation: Exposure to a huge amount of radiation increases the chances of bone cancer and other associated cancers.

How is bone cancer detected?
Imaging tests such as the bone scan, x-ray, MRI, PET scan and the CT scan can diagnose bone cancer. Apart from these, oncologists might order a biopsy that includes removing a part of the tissue and test the same in a laboratory can also help to detect bone cancer. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Oncologist.

3516 people found this helpful

Top Facts About Uterine Fibroids!

Dr. Gitanjali 97% (2639 ratings)
MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Top Facts About Uterine Fibroids!

Also referred to as myomas or leiomyomas, uterine fibroids are the most common form of uterine tumors. In a recent study, it was found that about 70 to 80 percent of women are likely to be affected by uterine fibroids by the age of 50. And the most vulnerable age of developing uterine fibroids is between the age of 40s and early 50s.

What are uterine fibroids?
Fibroids are harmless and noncancerous tumors even though sometimes, they can give way to a rare form of cancer known as uterine sarcoma. But there is no precise way of detecting sarcoma expect when surgery is performed for removing fibroids. If you have uterine fibroids, it is important to discuss your risks for having uterine sarcoma with your doctor. Women who hail from Africa and America are more likely to have uterine fibroids. These fibroids tend to grow at a very young age and lead to more severe symptoms. You may also have increased risk of uterine fibroids in case you have never been pregnant or are severely obese.

Some women have uterine fibroids, but they don’t have any symptom or discomfort, and the number of such women is usually high. It is generally perceived that a woman with uterine fibroids who don't have any symptoms would not require much treatment other than general observation.

What are the most common symptoms of uterine fibroids?
Even though numerous symptoms are associated with having uterine fibroids, the most common of them are having heavy menstrual flow with blood clots. It can also cause bleeding when you are not supposed to have menstruation, urge to pass urine frequently, abdominal bloating, pelvic cramping, and painful sex.

Even though you can still get pregnant while having uterine fibroids, you are likely to face various difficulties since these small lumps can alter the size as well as the shape of the uterus.

What is the most common treatment option for uterine fibroids?
Scores of hysterectomies, which is the medical term given to the surgical removal of the uterus, are performed each year for uterine fibroids. It not only snatches away the power to procreate but also carries its own risks and complications.Doctors suggest this option when uterine fibroids are very painful, or other treatment options have failed to eliminate the symptoms.

But the good news is that hysterectomy is not the only option for treating uterine fibroids. Other treatment options include myomectomy which is the surgical removal of the fibroid, hormone therapy to shrink the fibroid, Uterine Fibroid Embolization that stops the blood supply to the fibroid thus shrinking it, and Ultrasound to destroy the fibroids.

When you are nearing or in menopause, you can monitor the condition as the fibroids tend to shrink due to drop in the levels of estrogen and progesterone. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3045 people found this helpful

HIV - Know Its Impact On Body

Gautam Clinic Pvt Ltd 93% (7776 ratings)
Sexologist Clinic
Sexologist, Faridabad
HIV - Know Its Impact On Body

HIV, which is short for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, penetrates your body and directly attacks your immune system. In this process, the virus weakens your body's natural defense mechanism against diseases and infections. A compromised immune system makes the body prone to minor infections, which healthy people would generally overcome. The virus itself doesn't cause any physical symptoms. It only serves to ease the entry of other bacteria and viruses into the body.

The following are some of the ways HIV affects your body:
1. Immune system - The human immunodeficiency virus destroys CD4 cells, the white blood cells that help the immune system ward off foreign substances. If left unchecked, HIV can develop into AIDS. During such time, the virus may damage the immune system to an extent that it wouldn't be able to ward off minor infections that a healthy immune system would. A person with HIV could thus suffer from fever, chills, sweats, shortness of breath, white spots in the mouth, fatigue, skin rash and weight loss from time to time.
2. Respiratory system - As HIV develops into AIDS, the body can contract infections such as pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), tuberculosis and Kaposi's sarcoma. These conditions lead to serious respiratory problems. PCP is found to be one of the most common infections among people with HIV. 85% of the people would develop the infection if the condition is left untreated.

3. Skin problems - As in healthy individuals, many skin conditions can also occur in people with HIV or AIDS. But a compromised immune system heightens the condition and causes difficulty in treatment. Dermatitis, psoriasis, and hives are common conditions. They are also prone to a rare type of skin cancer known as Kaposi's sarcoma.
4. Gastrointestinal System - Gastrointestinal disorders are the most common ailments for people diagnosed with HIV and AIDS. Problems faced include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding. 50% of the people suffering from HIV encounter gastrointestinal disorders at some point of their illness. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Sexologist.

6873 people found this helpful

Uterine Cancer - Who Is At Risk?

Dr. Dinesh Singh 86% (71 ratings)
MBBS, MD-Radio Therapy
Oncologist, Ghaziabad
Uterine Cancer - Who Is At Risk?

Cancer, be it in any part of the body, has an increased success rate of cure and survival, when it is diagnosed early. The same is true with uterine cancer, the most common form of female reproductive cancer. However, unfortunately, a limited section of the society is aware of the necessary information about this fatal disorder, which is incidentally treatable if caught at early stages. To help the cause, here is a brief note on what one should be aware of when it comes to uterine cancer.

What is uterine cancer?
Cancer which begins at the tissue lining of the uterus also referred to as the endometrium, is called uterine or endometrial cancer which occurs due to the abnormal growth of the cells that can invade the other parts of the body. Some people tend to confuse this with uterine sarcomas which start developing when there is cancer growth in the muscles and other supporting tissues in the uterus. Also, uterine sarcomas account for a small percentage of cancers in the uterus.

Who are at higher risk of being affected with uterine cancer?
It is presumed that post-menopausal women are at a higher risk of being affected by uterine cancer. The average women diagnosed with the disease is 60 years. It is very uncommon in women who are aged below 45 years, and the causes are not yet precisely known.

While menopausal and post-menopausal women are at a higher risk of developing uterine cancer, it is crucial to understand that women who don’t belong to any of the risk groups may also be diagnosed with the disease due to other factors such as obesity or hormone therapy for breast cancer.

What are the most common symptoms of uterine cancer?
Abnormal vaginal bleeding, which means bleeding after menopause or between periods, is the most common symptom of uterine cancer. Typically, the bleeding begins as a form of watery blood-streaked discharge that becomes bloodier with the passage of time.

Other signs and symptoms of uterine cancer include:

  • Difficulty or painful sensation while passing urine
  • Pain in the pelvic region
  • Prolonged and heavy episodes of vaginal bleeding
  • Thin and white vaginal discharge
  • Unusual vaginal bleeding
  • Feeling heaviness in the pelvic area

According to experts, a woman who undergoes any of these signs and symptoms should not ignore the condition and seek medical attention immediately. But it is important to note that these symptoms can indicate something more serious or less severe. You should always check with your doctor to know what’s bothering your body.

The good news is that endometrial or uterine cancer is treatable and there are several options for treatment when the diagnosis is made at an early stage. Treatment methods involve radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy or surgical removal of the uterus depending on the particular scenario. To conclude, it can be said that being aware of the condition can help you in dealing with it. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3535 people found this helpful

Does HIV Cause Skin Problems?

Dr. Praveen Bhalerao 88% (125 ratings)
MD - Alternate Medicine, M-CSEPI, BHMS
Sexologist, Pune
Does HIV Cause Skin Problems?

HIV, which is short for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, penetrates your body and directly attacks your immune system. In this process, the virus weakens your body's natural defense mechanism against diseases and infections. A compromised immune system makes the body prone to minor infections, which healthy people would generally overcome. The virus itself doesn't cause any physical symptoms. It only serves to ease the entry of other bacteria and viruses into the body.

The following are some of the ways HIV affects your body:
1. Immune system - The human immunodeficiency virus destroys CD4 cells, the white blood cells that help the immune system ward off foreign substances. If left unchecked, HIV can develop into AIDS. During such time, the virus may damage the immune system to an extent that it wouldn't be able to ward off minor infections that a healthy immune system would. A person with HIV could thus suffer from fever, chills, sweats, shortness of breath, white spots in the mouth, fatigue, skin rash and weight loss from time to time.
2. Respiratory system - As HIV develops into AIDS, the body can contract infections such as pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), tuberculosis and Kaposi's sarcoma. These conditions lead to serious respiratory problems. PCP is found to be one of the most common infections among people with HIV. 85% of the people would develop the infection if the condition is left untreated.

3. Skin problems - As in healthy individuals, many skin conditions can also occur in people with HIV or AIDS. But a compromised immune system heightens the condition and causes difficulty in treatment. Dermatitis, psoriasis, and hives are common conditions. They are also prone to a rare type of skin cancer known as Kaposi's sarcoma.
4. Gastrointestinal System - Gastrointestinal disorders are the most common ailments for people diagnosed with HIV and AIDS. Problems faced include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding. 50% of the people suffering from HIV encounter gastrointestinal disorders at some point of their illness. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a sexologist.

3420 people found this helpful
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