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Epilepsy Health Feed

7 Symptoms Of Epilepsy And Its Treatment!

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Neurology
Neurologist, Thane
7 Symptoms Of Epilepsy And Its Treatment!

Epilepsy is a neurological disease which is characterised by recurring epileptic seizures. These seizures can be brief or can persist for prolonged periods. Vigorous episodes which last long can result in physical injuries such as broken bones. Mention that 6th February is International epilepsy day.

Causes of Epilepsy
The cause of this condition isn’t very evident; however, most medical practitioners attribute epileptic seizures to brain injury, tumours, infections in the brain or birth defects. Some doctors believe that epilepsy is caused due to genetic mutations and is an outcome of abnormal activity of cells in the brain. Other causes for this condition can be alcohol or narcotics withdrawal and electrolyte problems.

Symptoms

  1. Repeated seizures
  2. Impaired memory
  3. Bouts of fainting
  4. Short spans of blackout
  5. Sudden bouts of blinking and chewing
  6. Panic
  7. Inappropriate repetitive movements

Types of Seizures
A seizure, also known as fit, is usually a brief episode characterised by uncontrollable jerking movement and loss of awareness due to abnormal neuronal activity in your brain. A collective occurrence of these seizures causes epilepsy.

There are three types of seizures an epileptic person usually encounters.

  1. Idiopathic: This kind of seizure has no apparent cause
  2. Cryptogenic: The doctors believe that there is a cause for the seizure but cannot detect it
  3. Symptomatic: These seizures occur due to a reason.

Treatments

  1. Medication: Medication is the most common treatment in case of epilepsy. Drugs taken on a regular basis can stop the seizure partially. But in very severe cases, they seem to have no effect at all.
  2. Surgery: For symptomatic seizures which are caused due to abnormal brain function, surgery can be a way to get rid of seizures. In some minor cases, nerve stimulation in the brain and special diets can be prescribed to control the epileptic seizures.

Five facts about epilepsy you need to know:

  • Epilepsy is not psychosis or madness and can be treated easily 
  • Popular celebraties with epilepsy include Aristotle, Alfred Nobel, Alexander the great, Sir Isaacs Newton, Martin Luther and Julius Caesar etc. 
  • Woman with epilepsy can have a normal pregnancy 
  • Newer medicines for epilepsy are effective and very safe 
  • Surgery can cure epilepsy in some patients.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2 people found this helpful

Seizures - Common Types Of It!

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Neurology
Neurologist, Chennai
Seizures - Common Types Of It!

When particular nerve cells in the brain don't function properly, it leads to epilepsy, which is a common brain disorder. There are several variants of epilepsy, and the one that you are suffering from would play a major role in the type of seizure you are likely to have. Here are the two most common type of seizures:

Common types of Seizures

  • Generalized seizures: This type of seizures take place when nerve cells on both sides of the brain start misfiring. They may lead to black out, fall or muscle spasms.
  • Focal seizures: It starts in a particular area of the brain, and the names of the seizure are based on the affected area of the brain. They may lead to both emotional and physical effects which may affect the way a person feels or sees or hear things that have no real presence. In particular cases, the symptoms of focal seizures are regarded of some other kinds of mental or nervous disorder.

Seizures are not considered an either-or thing since some people tend to have a particular type of seizure which gradually alters its course. It is not always easy to classify certain types of seizures which are called unknown-onset seizures and may lead to both physical and sensory symptoms. Both focal and generalized seizures can be categorized into various groups. The most common are listed below:

Subcategories of focal and generalized seizures

  • Simple focal seizures: It may change how the senses read the surroundings of a person. It can make a familiar taste or smell appear strange. Some people feel dizzy or visualize flashes of light or make the affected individual feel nauseated or sweaty.
  • Complex focal seizures: It normally happens when a part of the brain which controls emotion and memory gets affected. The affected person may feel awake even when he has lost consciousness. It can take several minutes for a person to come out of the problem.

Secondary generalized seizures: It starts when a part of the brain spreads to the nerve cells. They may lead to a few physical symptoms including muscle slackness and convulsions.
On the other hand, there are six variants of generalized seizures:

  • Clinic seizure: The muscles tend to have spasms which make a face, neck, and arms jerk rhythmically. It can last for minutes together.
  • Tonic-clonic seizure: These are the most notable type of seizures and leads to stiffening of the body, jerking and shaking along with the loss of consciousness. It can last between 1 to 3 minutes, and in case they go for a longer span, it is important to seek immediate medical attention. It may lead to breathing issues and may cause the person to bite his tongue or cheek.
  • Tonic seizures: When the muscled in the legs or arms or trunk tense up for more than 20 seconds, it is called a tonic seizure. If the affected person is in standing position, he or she may end up falling.

Other types of generalized seizure include atonic seizure, absence seizure and myoclonic seizure which are commonly seen in people who have epilepsy.

Seizures - How To Get Rid of It?

Dr. Vikas Bhardwaj 84% (10 ratings)
MS - General Surgery, MCh - Neuro Surgery, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Greater Noida
Seizures - How To Get Rid of It?

The primary aim of the treatment in patients suffering from seizure is leasing a seizure-free life without giving way to any adverse effects. This goal can be accomplished in over 60 percent people with the help of anticonvulsants. Some patients also experience adverse effects since they suffer from a seizure which is refractory to medical therapy. Here are some of the common treatment options for seizures:

  1. Monotherapy: Sometimes, monotherapy is given as it reduces the chance of all sorts of adverse effects and even avoids drug interactions. Moreover, this type of treatment approach is much less expensive than polytherapy since many older generation of the anticonvulsant agent comprises of hepatic enzyme which is responsible for reducing the serum level of the concomitant drug which leads to an increase in the dosage level of such medicines.
  2. Social And vocational rehabilitation: People suffering from problems in psychosocial adjustments after the diagnosis may also need social and vocational rehabilitation. Many physicians do not pay enough attention to the consequences that an epilepsy diagnosis may leave on the patient. For instance, people with epilepsy may have a fear of experiencing next attack of seizure and they may be unable to work at heights or drive.
  3. Consulting an expert: It is important to refer patients with intractable spells to epileptologist or neurologist for subsequent workup. A neurosurgical consultation may also be needed when the patient has to be treated surgically.

Importance of anticonvulsant therapy
Patients who have had already suffered from recurrent attacks of unprovoked seizure may need treatment with an anticonvulsant. This treatment is not recommended until the person has risk factors for suffering from the problem yet again. The primary means of treating seizure is anticonvulsant therapy where the most suitable drug is chosen based on accurate diagnosis of the syndrome as a response to specific anticonvulsants may vary from one patient to another. The difference in response may reflect the various pathophysiologic mechanisms in different types of seizures.

Types of anticonvulsant therapy
Some of the anticonvulsant therapy medication may have multiple action mechanism while some have an only single mechanism of action. Some of the most common variants of the therapy include:

  1. Neuronal potassium channel referred to as KCNQ opener
  2. Blockers of unique binding sites such as perampanel, gabapentin, and levetiracetam
  3. H-current modulators such as lamotrigine and gabapentin
  4. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as zonisamide and topiramate
  5. Alpha-amino 3-hydroxy 5-methyl 4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor blockers like topiramate and perampanel.
  6. N and L-calcium channel blockers like zonisamide, valproate, topiramate, and lamotrigine

Even though there are so many types of drugs available, all of them cannot be used for the treatment of seizures. Doctors would evaluate the condition thoroughly before prescribing a medication that can be helpful in reducing the severity of the condition.

2 people found this helpful

Hello, I'm consuming encorate 300 and 2 encorate 200 tablets daily over years. Is it good for my health? I can not stop the medicine because whenever I stop the medicine, my epilepsy returns. It even occurred when the EEG was normal. I do not have any option rather than continuing the medication.

Dr. Sajeev Kumar 92% (25360 ratings)
C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
As you get fits when you avoid the encorate tablet you can keep on taking it and not taking it is only harmful for you
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Hello, I am using garoin but it is not available in Hyderabad pharmacies.It has been banned here.What should I do? I have to take take it daily.

Dr. Sajeev Kumar 92% (25360 ratings)
C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
Garoin 50 mg/100 mg Tablet is a combination of two antiepileptic medicines: Phenobarbitone and Phenytoin. It controls seizures or fits by decreasing the abnormal and excessive activity of the nerve cells in the brain. You can take both the ingredient medicines together instead of combination tablet and you will need a prescription
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Hello, I had been suffering from severe panic attacks and feeling like I will either get a stroke or a heart attack. I am under medication which improves me a lot but still I can't take even a less tension which immediately results neck rigidness and back portion of my head and ear becomes hot. If there are no worries than it will not produce the symptoms. I am having Desstar Xr 50 mg at night and Arminol 10 three times a day for 1 year. Is there any dangerous side effect due to the medication I should aware of? Or how can I get rid of this situation? Please help.

Dr. Juhi Parashar 96% (3725 ratings)
Masters In Clinical Psychology
Psychologist, Lucknow
Hello, I had been suffering from severe panic attacks and feeling like I will either get a stroke or a heart attack. ...
Hi, I'm glad you are aware of your health and taking appropriate steps In panic and anxiety Medication has a role and really improves your well being But there are times you get panic attacks without warning or stress induced anxiety even when you are on medication I suggest you take psychotherapy along with medicine so as to learn how to manage your negative irrational thoughts that's causing you anxiety Consult with me or any psychologist for therapy and counseling Connect with me through text or audio on Lybrate app All the best More power to you.
3 people found this helpful
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Epilepsy - Understanding The Role Of Physiotherapy In It!

Dr. Hiral Asari 89% (10 ratings)
Master of Physiotherapy (MPT-Neuro), Bachelor of physiotherapy(BPT)
Physiotherapist, Ahmedabad
Epilepsy - Understanding The Role Of Physiotherapy In It!

A neurological disorder characterized by sudden recurrent episodes of sensory disturbance, loss of consciousness, and convulsions associated with abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

Role of physiotherapy in epilepsy

  • It helps improve strength, mobility, and increases the range of motion and sphere of movement.

  • It helps improve sensory awareness, response, balance, and coordination.

  • It helps to improve quality of movement and physical performance.

The goals of physiotherapy

  • To develop strength enough to support one’s head upright

  • To have balance and motor control to maintain their trunk at midline

  • To use many different muscle groups

  • To assist necessary motion in their trunk and extremities

  • The physiotherapists write short-term goals for each of the items on the problem list that need to be covered to help the patient achieve the long-term goals

  • To understand what the patient is good at and does well

  • To focus on what he or she capable of doing rather than on what they can’t do

  • To educate and provide awareness with a view to prevent injuries

    • For example, advice on special swimming equipment to prevent drowning if he/she gets seizures in the pool

    • Padding out sharp corners in the house to prevent damage if fallen on

  • Physiotherapy treatment for a healed fracture consists of strengthening muscles that have got weak from being immobilized and stretching muscles that are stiff owing to being in the cast for a long period of time.

How can physical exercise help with seizures?

Physical exercise improves fitness, energy, and mood and even relieves stress. Improving overall health and well-being in this way can help reduce seizures.

  • It can also help people feel more in control of their health.
  • It also helps release ‘feel good’ hormones into the brain, keeps muscles active, reduces fat levels in the body, and increases oxygen flow to the brain.
  • It can also increase the bone density.
  • A research showed that regular sessions of aerobic exercise (for example running, walking, swimming, cycling) for 60 minutes, twice a week, for 15 weeks can result in a significant reduction in the number of seizures they had.
  • Drink water, diluted fruit juice, or squash while exercising to help replace the fluids and body. Do not exercise straight after a meal.
  • Team sports or group activities such as walking or gardening groups can also be a good way of increasing self-confidence.
  • Making new friends may help with any feelings of isolation.
  • Most sports, including contact sports like football, hockey, basketball and rugby, have not shown to increase the chance of someone having a seizure, but contact sports come with an increased risk of head injuries, which could affect people with a history of epilepsy. Protective sports headgear helps to reduce this risk.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

 

5844 people found this helpful

Hi Sir, My friend have taken 10 Zapiz 0.25 MG Tablets with alcohol what will be the result. He is now in hospital. Please reply me soon.

Dr. Sarath S N 89% (17 ratings)
Psychiatrist, Kasaragod
He will be in lethargic state. But there isgood chance he will recover. Psychiatrist should be seen immediately and medicines should be taken. You can consult me online.
1 person found this helpful
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Severe Epilepsy - Ways Surgery Can Be Of Help!

Dr. Ravindra Srivastava 90% (17 ratings)
M.Ch, MS, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Greater Noida
Severe Epilepsy - Ways Surgery Can Be Of Help!

The word epilepsy brings to mind visions of people frothing at the mouth and rolling on the ground. However, epilepsy affects each patient in a different way. This can make it hard to recognize at times. In the more serious cases of epilepsy, an epileptic attack can make a patient injure himself or develop other life threatening conditions. In rare cases, epilepsy can even cause death. Thus it becomes imperative to understand how to deal with epilepsy.

Treatment options for epilepsy can be categorized as medication, surgical procedures and dietary changes.

Medication
Medication for epilepsy is prescribed on the basis of the symptoms presented and the type of epilepsy the patient is suffering from. In most cases, seizures can be controlled with a single type of medication, but in others, the doctor may need to prescribe a combination of medicines to control epilepsy. These forms of medication do have side effects and hence any reactions to the medication must be immediately brought to the doctor's notice. The dosage for epilepsy medication may need to be varied with time. An epileptic patient should never discontinue medication on their own.

Surgery
Depending on the type of seizures and the area of the brain affected, a doctor may advise surgery in cases of severe epilepsy. Surgery can help reduce the number of seizures experienced or completely stop them. Surgery to treat epilepsy is of many types. Some of the common procedures are:

1. Surgery to remove tumor of any such conditions that may be triggering the epileptic attacks
2. Surgery to remove a small section of the brain from where a seizure originates. This may also be referred to as a lobectomy.
3. Multiple subpial transaction or a surgery that involves making a series of cuts in the brain to prevent the seizures from spreading to other parts of the brain.
4. Surgery to sever the neural connections between the right and left hemispheres of the brain.
5. Surgery to remove half the brain's cortex or outer layer

Dietary changes
A diet rich in fats and low in carbohydrates can help reduce seizures. This is known as a ketogenic diet and aims at making the body break down fats instead of carbohydrates. It can cause a buildup of uric acid in the body and thus should be practiced only under the guidance of a dietician. In cases where epileptic attacks are triggered by malnutrition and birth defects, taking vitamin supplements can help lower the frequency of seizures.

2 people found this helpful
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