Your spine or backbone is composed of 26 bone discs, known as vertebrae. The vertebra shields your spinal cord and allows you to bend forwards and backwards, and stand. However, a number of problems, such as the following can change the structure or cause the vertebrae and its surrounding tissues to become damaged –
Spinal disorders often lead to pain and discomfort when bony projections put pressure on the spinal nerves or cord. Over time, spinal disorders limit movement and reduce flexibility.
Treatment varies depending on the disease, ranging from medications and therapy to bracing and surgery.
Endoscopic Spine Surgery: what is it?
Contradictory to traditional open surgery, the new age endoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive procedure used to detect and treat a disorder. Unlike open surgery, minimally invasive endoscopic surgery does not require the patient to undergo general anaesthesia. The procedure is possible under local anaesthesia, considering the fact that it can be performed without cutting open the portion of the surgery site.
How does surgery work?
During the procedure, the surgeon first administers local anaesthesia to numb the site of the operation. You will be awake during the entire procedure but will not feel any pain. Then, he/she will make a small incision and insert a slender, tubular instrument – known as an endoscope – with a camera attached on one end through the soft tissues and skin, down to the spinal column. This allows the surgeon to get a clear view of the spinal tissues and understand where the problem exists. The endoscope holds the muscles open, allowing the surgeon to remove the damaged tissues or disk.
Endoscopic spine surgery preserves normal mobility, as the spine is not fused with rods and crews. When performed under an experienced surgeon, the procedure takes less than an hour.
Benefits of the Procedure -
The advantages of going for endoscopic surgery are the following –
• Local anaesthesia
• Surgery and discharge on the same day
• Microscopic incisions
• No removal of bone or muscles
• Zero or minimal blood loss
• Preserves spinal mobility
• Immediate recovery
• Reduced intake of pain medicines
• The high rate of success
• Improved quality of life
Minimally invasive endoscopic surgery has made it possible to rectify spinal problems and disorders without having to go under the knife. With less pain and quicker recovery, you can improve your spine health and get back to your usual activities in a day or two.
Consult a specialist and discuss the procedure in detail before opting for the same.
Laparoscopy is one of the most common procedures for diagnosing and treating endometriosis. Instead of giving a big incision, this procedure of surgery uses a lightweight instrument through a few small holes or incisions. There could be one or more incisions based on the number of instruments that require access inside the body. This procedure involves the use of a camera to ascertain endometriosis as well as treat it in the same sitting. This brings drastic improvement in infertility as well as in pain associated with the endometriosis. If a cyst is found in the ovary, the laparoscopic surgeon removes it very delicately without causing any harm to the normal ovary, as a part of the Laparoscopic Surgery for Endometriosis.
How does the procedure go?
Eating and drinking should be suspended before 8 hours of the laparoscopic surgery. The doctor takes a call on whether to give general or local anesthesia. Mostly, General anesthesia is given during such procedures. A person specialized in Gynecological Endoscopy ( Gynaec Laparoscopic Surgeon) is the best to perform such a procedure.
How is the procedure performed?
The abdomen is first inflated with gas with the help of a needle. It pushes the abdominal wall from the organs to give clear visibility to a surgeon. The laparoscopic Camera with a scope is then pushed through an incision to examine the internal organs. If endometriotic lesions are found then a doctor can use one of the several laparoscopic techniques such as electrocautery, excision, etc to destroy the same. Post-surgery, the incision is closed with stitches. The whole procedure usually takes 30-60 minutes depending upon the severity of endometriosis.
Why is laparoscopy done?
1. To diagnose endometriosis.
2. Infertility associated with Endometriosis.
3. If there is an endometriotic cyst more than 4 cm.
4. If the endometriosis interferes with other organs such as the bladder, rectum, etc.
5. If the pain during menses ( dysmenorrhoea) does not subside with medication.
Duration of hospital stay -
Operations such as these are done as daycare procedures as these are less invasive. Patient need not spent more than a day in the hospital. Rarely in severe cases of endometriosis overnight hospitalization may also be required. One can successfully return to normal work within 1 week of the surgery.
Post-surgical treatment -
Once the laparoscopic diagnosis is made and lesions treated, treatment depend upon the symptoms and age of the patient. If the patient is desirous of pregnancy then accordingly ovulation induction and either IUI or IVF is done. If the patient does not desire for pregnancy then she can be put on hormonal therapy.
Inguinal Hernia is the most common hernia in the abdominal region. With the introduction of the laparoscopic surgery in the 1900s, inguinal hernias also came to be operated through this technique, also known as keyhole surgery.
The area to be operated is accessed through a few small incisions, and a thin tube is inserted, through which instruments are inserted into this space and the desired operation is performed. The tube also has light at the one end, and the operator works through the other end.
What to expect: In sequence, bear in mind the following when going in for a laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.
A craniofacial surgery is done deformities or abnormalities present in the head or face area of the patient. Depending on the type of deformity, a craniofacial surgery is done to repair or reconstruct it. The areas that come under a craniofacial surgeon's domain are the cranium (skull), the face, skin on the face, facial bones, and the facial nerves.
For this reason, in order to conduct craniofacial surgery, a neurosurgeon and a cosmetic surgeon may often work together. The time taken for completing a craniofacial surgery may vary between one hour to twelve hours.
Why do you need a craniofacial surgery?
There may be multiple reasons why a patient would require craniofacial surgery. These are: Tumors in the head or face region are one of the most common causes behind this type of surgery. The surgeries conducted to remove these tumors may sometimes lead to the formation of deformities in the region.
A craniofacial surgery is conducted in order to correct them. This kind of surgery can also be used to correct abnormalities formed as a result of injuries or wounds on the face, the jaw or the head. Some patients may also undergo a craniofacial surgery in order to correct defects that they were born with. Such defects include Apert Syndrome (a syndrome characterized by the premature fusion of certain bones in the skull), cleft palate or cleft lip and craniosynotosis (premature fusion of certain bones in the skull).
Risks related to Craniofacial Surgery:
Certain risks are associated with this type of surgery. These are:
1. A craniofacial surgery is conducted after putting the patient under general anesthesia. As a result of this, the patient may suffer from complications related to anesthesia.
2. After the surgery, patient may also lose their bone grafts partly or wholly.
3.The formation of permanent scars is another possible risk of a craniofacial surgery.
4.Some patients, especially children who are of growing age, may need a follow up surgery later on.
5. Certain patients can face more risks of delayed healing as compared to other patients. These include patients who are malnourished or smokers.
The terms plastic surgery and cosmetic surgery are often used interchangeably. Plastic surgery is a broad field, which has two branches - cosmetic surgery and reconstructive plastic surgery. There are marked differences between the two in terms of method of surgery and cause of requirement.
This type of surgery is used to improve the physical and aesthetic appearance of a person. The requirement for this form of surgery does not generally arise out of any pressing medical or diagnostic need and is completely elective. A cosmetic surgeon is skilled at both surgical and non-surgical procedures. Surgical procedures include breast augmentation and reduction, abdominoplasty (tummy tuck), liposuction, eyelid surgery, etc. Examples of non-surgical procedures are botox, laser treatments for skin and hair, collagen injections, microdermabrasion (removal of dead skin cells by spraying exfoliating crystals), etc.
Reconstructive plastic surgery
What care should be taken before deciding laparoscopic surgery?
Experience exposure of the endoscopic surgeon for different endoscopic surgeries. Safety monitoring during laparoscopic surgery like multipara monitoring including etco2 and glycine deficit (less than 1.5 liter)/ s. Na level (normal is 135 meq/l) during hysteroscopic surgery. Live oprative file (video/cd/dvd) of the operation must be kept with you for future reference. Selection criterias & optimum councelling before operation from the right person to understand the advantages and limitations of endoscopy surgery.
Improper suturing and knowledge related to facial anatomy can give unpleasant results.
This could be best avoided if you choose a right surgeon with expertise and updated skills in facial plastic surgery which requires years of training and experience of placing thousands of them.
Trust your face to facial plastic surgeon.